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Natália Marinho Ferreira Alves

(b Santa Cristina de Serzedelo; fl 1718–37).

Portuguese sculptor and wood-carver. His family were carvers in the region of Entre Douro e Minho. In 1718 he was contracted to execute the main altarpiece of S Casa da Misericórdia, Viana do Castelo. It is one of the finest examples of wood-carving in the national style (the final phase of the Baroque) that developed in the last quarter of the 17th century and reached its height in the early 18th. The principal decorative elements include depictions of children, phoenixes, grape leaves and curling acanthus leaves, which extend over the surface of the arches of the altarpiece. In 1726 he collaborated with Luís Pereira da Costa on the carving for the chancel and the transept arch of the church of Bom Jesus, Matosinhos. In 1729 they collaborated again on the carving for the choir of the convent of S João de Tarouca. It is documented that in 1737 Coelho made designs for side altarpieces and other carvings in the church of Arvore, Azurara....


Enrica Banti

(b Gaeta, Jan 8, 1680; d Naples, Sept 1, 1764).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was one of the most successful painters working in Rome in the first half of the 18th century and was celebrated throughout Europe. He painted altarpieces and frescoes, creating an accomplished style that mediates between the grandeur of the late Baroque and the academic manner of Carlo Maratti. His smaller easel paintings were eagerly sought after by collectors throughout Europe. Conca was also an able draughtsman, working in a free and fluent style.

He was the son of Erasmo Conca and Caterina de Iorio and the eldest of ten children. According to Francesco Maria Niccolò Gabburri, when very young he was a pupil of Luca Giordano, but the only teacher who can be assigned to him with certainty is Francesco Solimena. Conca probably entered his studio in Naples c. 1693 and in 1703 assisted him in painting decorative frescoes for the abbey of Montecassino. In ...


Fernando Benito Domenech

(b Valencia, 1641; d Valencia, 1711).

Spanish painter and draughtsman. He was a pupil of Esteban March, on whose death c. 1668 he went to Madrid to work under José García Hidalgo, who subcontracted commissions to him. There he copied paintings in the royal collection. A signed Immaculate Conception (c. 1670–75; Madrid, priv. col., see D. Angulo Iñiguez, pl. 346) shows his admiration for a more Baroque and dynamic interpretation and the more glowing colours of the Madrid school. Around 1680 Conchillos was in Alicante, where he decorated the camerín in the convent of the Santa Faz (Convent of the Holy Face) with themes relating to the legend of this holy relic painted in a more vivid Baroque style. There he knew the sculptor Nicolás de Bussy, who became godfather to his two children in 1682 and 1684.

In the 1690s Conchillos returned to Valencia and formed an academy in his home, where he taught his son, ...


Vernon Hyde Minor

(b Pescia, Aug 27, 1686; d Rome, 1754).

Italian sculptor, draughtsman and painter. He moved with his family to Florence in 1697, entering the workshop of Giovanni Battista Foggini, principal sculptor to Cosimo III de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Early in his career he received some important commissions: in 1709, when the English antiquarian John Talman arrived in Florence looking for artists to illustrate Italy’s most famous monuments of art, he chose Cornacchini to do a number of the drawings (for a discussion of Cornacchini as a draughtsman, see Cannon Brookes), and in 1710 Cornacchini signed and dated a marble standing statue of Clement XI (Urbino Cathedral). He was also patronized by the influential Francesco Maria Niccolò Gabburri, who commissioned from him, probably before 1712, stucco decorations (destr. early 19th century) for his own Palazzo Giuntini. Gabburri accompanied Cornacchini when he departed for Rome in 1712, establishing him in the household of his uncle, Cardinal Carlo Agostino Fabbroni, who until ...


Camillo Semenzato

(b Este, Sept 6, 1668; d Naples, June 29, 1752).

Italian sculptor. He was mainly active in the Veneto, but he received more commissions to work outside Venice than any other contemporary Venetian sculptor. His style, an elegant classicism modified by a Rococo interest in movement and fantasy, developed under the influence of Pietro Baratta (fl c. 1700–1750) and Arrigo Merengo (fl 1688–98), a German artist who collaborated with Josse de Corte and worked in Venice and the Veneto. Corradini is first documented in 1717, when, already well established, he completed Veiled Truth (ex-Pal. Manfrini, Venice; untraced). Sometime in 1718 or 1719 he was commissioned to execute a monument to Johann Matthias, Graf von der Schulenburg, Marshall of the Venetian forces, for the island of Corfu. He was paid in 1720 for a signed altar dedicated to the Blessed Hemma, installed in the crypt of Gurk Cathedral in Carinthia.

In 1721 Corradini was commissioned to execute the statue of ...


Maria Concepción García Sáiz

(b Mexico, c. 1646; d Mexico, 1716).

Mexican painter. He is thought to have been the teacher of such painters as Juan Rodríguez Juarez and José de Ibarra. His many works for the cathedral of Mexico City include (for the sacristy) the large-scale Assumption and the Coronation of the Virgin (both 1689) and the Entry into Jerusalem (1691). For the same cathedral he also painted the Vision of the Apocalypse, other versions of the Assumption and the Coronation of the Virgin (destr. 1967), and the groups of angels for the retables of the Angel de la Guarda and Angel Custodio. Other religious paintings by Correa are in the chapel of the Rosary in the convent of Azcapotzalco, Mexico City, and Durango Cathedral, which includes works based on models by Rubens. Some interesting works by Correa in Spain include a series of ten canvases dedicated to the Life of the Virgin (Antequera, Mus. Mun.) and the ...


D. Signe Jones

(b Bologna, 1688; d Naples, 1772).

Italian sculptor. He worked within the tradition of late Baroque classicism in Rome, moving, in his mature works, towards a Rococo style. He studied painting with Giovanni Maria Viani or Domenico Viani and sculpture perhaps with Giuseppe Mazza. Little of his early Bolognese work remains. He went to Rome in the 1730s and participated in numerous decorative schemes for major architectural projects. His contribution included several over life-size, marble statues: a St Jerome (1735), for the façade of S Giovanni in Laterano (balustrade: sixth from right); Abundance (1735), for the Trevi Fountain (attic: far left); Pope Gregory the Great (1742–3), for the façade of S Maria Maggiore (upper balustrade: second from left); and a St Luke (1744), for the façade of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (second from left).

Corsini also sculpted a number of portrait busts depicting cardinals for memorial tomb monuments by ...


Natália Marinho Ferreira Alves

(d Oporto, July 31, 1756).

Portuguese wood-carver. He was a leading member of the school in Oporto responsible technically for interpreting the designs of the Joanine style. He also worked throughout northern Portugal and was one of those whose carvings led to the wide diffusion of Joanine talha (carved and gilded wood). His first recorded work is the high altar (1731) of the chapel at Arnelas, Vila Nova da Gaia, when his guarantor was the painter and gilder Manuel Pinto Monteiro (fl 1709–36). In the same year Pinto Monteiro was again guarantor, together with the sculptor Manuel Carneiro Adão (fl 1719–47), when Costa Andrade signed a contract for carving the retable and other work (all c. 1731) in the chapel of Nossa Senhora da Conceição in the convent church at Monchique, Oporto.

In a period of intense activity that extended into the 1750s, Costa Andrade produced some magnificent works. These include the commission in ...


J.-P. Esther

(b ?Brussels, 1647; d ?Brussels, 1708).

Flemish sculptor and architect. He became a master sculptor in Brussels in 1678. Under the direction of Lucas Faydherbe he collaborated on the decoration (1678) of the right-hand choir chapel in Onze-Lieve-Vrouw van de Zavelkerk, Brussels, which was being fitted out as a funerary chapel for Graf Lamoral of Thurn and Taxis. Cosyns was responsible for the marble statues, which he executed to a design by Mattheus van Beveren. A small ivory of an Infants’ Bacchanalia (Munich, Bayer. Nmus.) in the style of Lucas Faydherbe and Peter Scheemakers is also by his hand. After the bombardment of Brussels by the French (Aug 1695) during the War of the Grand Alliance, Cosyns worked on the restoration of the guild houses on the Grand-Place under the supervision of the municipal architect, Willem de Bruyn (1649–1719). Designs possibly by Cosyns include those for the gable (1697...


Robert Neuman

(b Paris, 1656–7; d Passy, Paris, July 15, 1735).

French architect and urban planner. The most influential French Baroque architect during the Régence, he was Premier Architecte du Roi between 1708 and 1734. Financial constraints limited his work for the Crown, but he built many hôtels for the nobility, involved himself in numerous urban planning schemes and was frequently consulted by patrons abroad, particularly in Germany.

By 1676 de Cotte was working for Jules Hardouin Mansart, whose brother-in-law he later became. In 1681 Hardouin Mansart was appointed Premier Architecte du Roi to Louis XIV, and during his absence from court in 1687 de Cotte first attracted the attention of the King with his own drawings for the colonnade of the Grand Trianon at Versailles. Destined to play an important role in the Service des Bâtiments du Roi, in 1689 de Cotte embarked on a trip to Italy lasting six months in order to complete his architectural education.

Although the King’s costly wars brought a temporary halt to royal projects in the 1690s, the Treaty of Ryswick of ...


Ulrich Schneider

(b Aachen, Nov 10, 1701; d Aachen, Sept 12, 1763).

German architect. He may originally have studied engineering and was also well versed in the literature relating to Classical architecture, being influenced by Johann Conrad Schlaun, with his knowledge of Italian and south German architecture, and later by Jacques-François Blondel, especially the latter’s designs for Rococo gardens. Couven’s first public commission (1724; Aachen, Mus. Burg Frankenberg) was to draw up a plan of the city of Aachen. From 1727 to 1731 he worked on alterations to the façade of the Rathaus in Aachen, becoming Aachen’s first city architect in 1739. He carried out several commissions for merchant and patrician houses in Aachen and Eupen. Examples of his work as a church architect include the abbey church of St John (1735–54) in Burtscheid, the parish church of St Michael (1747–51), Burtscheid, the chapel of the Nispert family in Eupen and the Annakirche in Aachen (both 1748...


François Souchal

(b Lyon, Sept 29, 1640; d Paris, Oct 10, 1720).

French sculptor. He was the son of Pierre Coyzevox (fl 1636–40), a joiner, and was one of the most accomplished sculptors of the reign of Louis XIV. He went to Paris in 1657 and entered the studio of Louis Lerambert, whose niece he married in 1666. (In 1679 he married his second wife, Claude Bourdy, the sister of a Lyon sculptor.) Also in 1666 he was accorded the title Sculpteur du Roi, and from 1667 to 1671 he worked at Saverne in the service of Cardinal François-Egon de Furstemberg, Prince-Bishop of Strasbourg, on the decoration of his new palace (destr.). He returned to Paris in 1671, but in 1675–7 he was in Lyon, where he carved his first religious work, a free-standing group of the Virgin and Child (marble, 1675–6; Lyon, St Nizier); in 1677 he was appointed a professor at the Lyon Académie. He planned to settle in Lyon and to set up a school attached to the Académie, but the success of his busts of the leading figures of the court of Louis XIV, such as ...


(b Rome, Jan 16, 1675; d Rome, May 24, 1725).

Italian painter. According to contemporary and later sources, he was a pupil of the Roman painter Giovanni Battista Lenardi (1656–1704), of Lazzaro Baldi and, following Lenardi’s death, of Benedetto Luti. As well as reflecting the dominant classicism of the Late Baroque exemplified by Carlo Maratti, his style was particularly strongly influenced by the early teachings of Lenardi, to whom he owed the rhetorical gestural quality of some of his paintings. His subsequent period as a pupil of Luti succeeded only partly in making his work more ‘pleasing’ by influencing his portrayal of faces and lightening the tones of his paintings. By 1694 he was already taking part in the competitions announced by the Accademia di S Luca (now the Accademia Nazionale di S Luca), the archives of which contain some of his drawings. He was active mainly in Rome: among his most important works are the two canvases on the side walls of the baptismal chapel in S Lorenzo in Lucina and the decoration of the third right-hand chapel in S Francesco di Paola. He obtained his most prestigious commission in ...


Wilhelmina Halsema-Kubes

(b ?Abbeville, Somme; fl 1714–56).

French sculptor, active in the northern Netherlands. His earliest known works are two signed and very elegant Louis XIV garden vases decorated with allegories of the seasons (1714; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.); they were commissioned by David van Mollem (1670–1746), a silk merchant, who was laying out a fine garden for the country house on his estate of Zijdebalen, near Utrecht. Cressant’s name is first mentioned in Utrecht c. 1730–31 in connection with his statue of Justice for the Stadhuis; it is now in the Paleis van Justitie in Utrecht. The many commissions for garden sculpture that Cressant received from van Mollem probably account for his settling in Utrecht: other artists who made sculptures and vases for these gardens are Jan-Baptiste Xavery, Jan van der Mast (fl c. 1736) and J. Matthijsen. Cressant made for van Mollem, among other things, vases, putti and a wooden Neptune: very little of this work survives....


Thomas Nichols

(b ?Lyon, ?1645; d Paris, 1721).

French painter. He is recorded in Rome between 1672 and 1679, in Modena in 1677, and he probably also worked in Florence. On his return to France most of his career was spent in Lyon, where he was renowned as a history painter in the 1680s. He produced altarpieces such as the Road to Emmaus (Lyon, Ste Blandine) and became the principal collaborator of Thomas Blanchet on a number of decorative schemes, including work at the Palais de Roanne (now Palais de Justice). The most important of these, however, was a series of paintings (now Lyon, Mus. B.-A.) for the refectory of the Benedictine abbey of St Pierre. Here he executed a Last Supper, a Multiplication of the Loaves, an Assumption of the Virgin, an Ascension of Christ and an Elias between 1684 and 1686. The style of these powerful canvases, with figure groups brilliantly but irregularly lit against dark and brooding backgrounds, is suggestive both of 16th-century Venetian prototypes and of the sharp chiaroscuro of Simon Vouet’s early Italian works....


Dwight C. Miller

(b Cremona, Feb 24, 1671; d Bologna, Jan 29, 1749).

Italian painter and draughtsman. His individual and poetic art represents, with that of Marcantonio Franceschini, the last significant expression of the classical–idealist strain in Bolognese painting. His activity was almost wholly confined to Bologna, where he painted decorative frescoes, altarpieces and easel pictures for private collectors. Two qualities are paramount: a perfected finesse of handling and poetic suggestiveness of situation and mood. He sought the ideal beauty of the individual figure and was thus at his best in meditative pictures with few figures; his subjects combine grace of form and precision of contour with flesh that attains the surface delicacy of porcelain and colours that have a mineral-like refulgence. He was a prolific draughtsman with a distinct personal manner, who drew for pleasure as well as to prepare his compositions, usually using a quill-pen and producing shadowing by hatching.

Creti’s father, Gioseffo (1634–1714), was a painter ‘di mediocre fama’ (Zanotti) who specialized in architectural painting. The family moved to Bologna when Donato was two. He trained with the minor painter ...


Susan Harrison Kaufman


(b c. 1685–6; d Venice, July 15, 1758).

Italian painter and stage designer. His earliest known work, the Flagellation of Christ (c. 1706; Venice, Mus. Diocesano S Apollinia), for the Scuola del Cristo of S Marcuola, is a dark, shadowy painting that reveals the strong influence of tenebrist trends of the 17th century. Crosato, however, belonged to the generation of Venetian painters such as Jacopo Amigoni, Sebastiano Ricci and Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, who were developing a lighter, more colourful style. His tonality changed from the darkened shadows of the Flagellation to the light-filled frescoes for Stupinigi, the hunting palace of the Duke of Savoy, near Turin, which constitute his next known work. The most successful of these, the Sacrifice of Iphigenia (begun 1733), on the vault of the antechamber of the queen’s apartment, is a highly dramatic work full of bright bold colours accentuated against the blue sky and white clouds. The gold, blue and red tones are effectively placed so as to lead the eye around the room and guide it through the narrative, which is related through the specific gestures or glances of a few figures, at the same time suggesting the idea of greater numbers. Equally direct is Crosato’s use of sharply defined, highly saturated colours, which remain constant in their intensity and effective in providing visual unity; his linear style defines solidly modelled forms. Other rooms at Stupinigi decorated by him included the antechapel of S Umberto, with figures of hunters and lady companions, and the Sala degli Scudiere, with the story of ...


(b c. 1660; d 1725).

English sculptor. He was apprenticed to William King, a mason in London, from 1674 to 1680, when he transferred to serve under the sculptor Edward Pierce (ii), becoming free of the Masons’ Company in 1681. He held a variety of offices in the Masons’ Company, becoming steward in 1691 and master in 1713. Between 1716 and 1719 he was the mason responsible for the rebuilding of Bakers’ Hall, London. His only surviving signed work is the marble tomb (1705) of Sir Robert Clayton, Lord Mayor of London, and Lady Clayton at the church of St Mary the Virgin, Bletchingley, Surrey. This fine Baroque monument portrays the two standing figures in contemporary dress; behind them is a Corinthian aedicula with a broken segmental pediment decorated with flaming urns, cherubs and angels. The influence of Pierce is evident in the lively style of cutting and the expressive quality of the portraiture. Crutcher’s son ...


Natália Marinho Ferreira Alves

(b Lisbon, c. 1680; fl c. 1725–50).

Portuguese sculptor and wood-carver. He was best known for his Italianate interpretation of the Joanine style. His most important works include the carving of the pulpit and chancel of the church of the convent of Nossa Senhora de Jesus, Lisbon (1725), and in the 1740s the sacristy of the church of the Madre de Deus, Lisbon. The nave and the elegant, gilded pulpit of the latter are also attributed to Cunha. The design was based on an engraving by Filippo Passarini that was published in Rome (1698). The carved volutes and the mass of foliage offer a foretaste of the rich Rococo style. Also attributed to Cunha are the organ cases and two pulpits in the church of the convent of Nossa Senhora de Jesus, Lisbon, which were produced in partnership with his son João Cipriano Cunha and gilded by the painter José Gonçalves Soares in ...


(b Carrara, Feb 3, 1706; d Carrara, Sept 7, 1784).

Italian sculptor. His father died when Cybei was young and it was his uncle, the sculptor Giovanni di Isidoro Baratta (see Baratta family §(3)), who suggested that the talented boy pursue a career in art. In about 1721 Cybei travelled to Rome to study with Agostino Cornacchini, whom he assisted in the carving of the marble equestrian statue of Charlemagne (c. 1720–25; Rome, St Peter’s, portico). Cybei also studied painting. After a stay in Rome of about seven years, he returned to Carrara and worked with Baratta for nearly a decade. He assisted his uncle on several projects, including the Four Doctors of the Church (1728) for the chapel of S Uberto at Venaria Reale, a royal hunting-lodge near Turin, but he also created works of his own design when not working for Baratta. Among these is the marble figure of St Augustine for the altar niche of the Caraffa Chapel in Sarzana Cathedral. In ...