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[il Riccio]

(b ?Siena, 1505–10; d before July 12, 1571).

Italian painter, illuminator, architect, stage designer, and engineer. His earliest surviving documented works, illuminations for an Antiphonal, signed and dated 1531–2 (ex-Olivetan convent, Finalpia; Genoa, Bib. Berio), suggest training with or sympathy for Sodoma, and later he seems to have been drawn more broadly into the orbit of other influential painters in Siena, such as Domenico Beccafumi, and Baldassare Peruzzi, the latter having returned there after the Sack of Rome (1527). Although he shows an affinity with all three at one time or another, the breadth of Neroni’s activities, from painting to engineering and especially his architectural work, most closely resembles the arc of Peruzzi’s career, and Vasari describes him as a follower.

Neroni’s first independent large-scale commission, in which he reveals the strong influence of Sodoma, is the fresco depicting the Departure of SS Maurus and Placid, executed in 1534 for the cloister of the convent of Monte Oliveto Maggiore. In the same year he was also commissioned to decorate the chapel of the master masons in the cathedral, Siena. Fragments of the fresco survive, notably scenes depicting the ...


Jeffrey Chipps Smith

(b ?Nuremberg, 1497; d ?Nuremberg, 1563).

German writer, calligrapher and mathematician. He was renowned as a strict teacher of arithmetic and geometry. His calligraphic talents were recognized early. Albrecht Dürer, who lived on the same street until 1509, probably used his designs for the scripts in his woodcuts of the Map of the Eastern Hemisphere (1515) and of the portrait of Ulrich Varnbüler (1522), his painting of the Four Apostles (1526; Munich, Alte Pin.) and possibly in the woodcuts of the Triumphal Arch of Emperor Maximilian I (1515) and those illustrating his Etliche Underricht, zu Befestigung der Stett, Schloss und Flecken (Nuremberg, 1527). In 1519 Neudörfer published his Fundament … seinen Schulern zu einer Unterweysung gemacht (Nuremberg), the first writing manual printed in Germany, and in 1538 he completed his finest treatise, Eine gute Ordnung, a catalogue of styles of script, ways of holding a pen and the correct manner of forming letters. He published two other treatises on writing in Nuremberg in ...


Gordon Campbell


(b c. 1430–40; d 1512).

German printer. Neumeister may have been a pupil of Johann Gutenberg in Mainz. He worked from 1470 to 1474 in Foligno (near Assisi), where he published the first edition of Dante’s Divine Comedy (1472; see Dante Alighieri). He subsequently worked in Mainz (1479) and then moved to France, first living in Albi, north-east of Toulouse (...


M. C. Davies

(b Florence, c. 1364; d Florence, Feb 3, 1437).

Italian humanist and calligrapher. The son of a wealthy wool merchant, he abandoned trade for a scholarly pursuit of the values and artefacts of the ancient world as a touchstone of the present. He attained eminence as the catalyst for and guardian of Florentine letters, while leaving no writings of his own. With others he was responsible for the introduction in Florence of the teaching of Greek, and he stimulated such friends as Leonardo Bruni and Ambrogio Traversari to do what he could not do himself, that is, to spread Greek learning in stylish translations. He was a central figure in the organized search for Classical texts. Niccoli’s unrivalled library was enriched by the spectacular discoveries of Roman manuscripts by Poggio Bracciolini and Aurispa, and his home became a magnet for the learned of Italy and elsewhere and for the dissemination of the new finds. By the terms of his will the manuscripts went to form a public library, installed in the Dominican convent of S Marco with the aid of ...


(b Basle, Jan 25, 1507; d Basle, July 6, 1568).

Swiss humanist printer. He studied Greek in Strasbourg and then returned to Basle as a teacher of Greek and as an editor for the publisher Johann Froben. He eventually established his own press, specializing in editions of scientific works and Classical authors. His press published a Latin translation of the ...


Clare Robertson

(b Rome, Dec 11, 1529; d Rome, May 18, 1600).

Italian antiquarian and collector. He was an illegitimate son of the Orsini family. He devoted himself early to the study of manuscripts under the guidance of Gentile Delfini, Cardinal Ranuccio Farnese’s Vicario at S Giovanni in Laterano, Rome. In 1554 he became a canon of the same church, and on Delfini’s death in 1559 entered Farnese service, in which he remained for the rest of his career.

Orsini was secretary and librarian to Ranuccio Farnese until the latter’s death in 1565. He was then ‘inherited’ by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (see Farnese family §(3)) as librarian and as keeper of the antiques and works of art in the Palazzo Farnese. Orsini fulfilled his duties with care, acquiring many new works for the Farnese collection and advising his patron on the choice of artists for several commissions. He also composed inscriptions for the Cardinal’s frescoes and devised iconographic programmes, including that for the Sala d’Ercole in the Villa Farnese at Caprarola....


Federica Toniolo

(fl Rome, 1483–5).

Italian illuminator. He is mentioned as an illuminator, with Bartolomeo Sanvito, in Rome, in the will (1483) of Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga. In 1485 he was in Rome in the service of the Neapolitan cardinal Giovanni d’Aragona (1456–85). He can be identified with the Gasparo Romano mentioned by Pietro Summonte in a letter of 20 March 1524 to Marcantonio Michiel as the illuminator ‘al garbo antiquo’ (in the antique manner) of a copy of Pliny (untraced) for Giovanni d’Aragona. The same source stated that Gasparo was also an architect and that his style was copied by Giovanni Todeschino (fl Naples, 1487–1500).

There are no documented works by Gasparo. His Paduan origin, his presence in Rome and his relationship with Sanvito make it likely that he was one of the illuminators who propagated in Rome the antiquarian, classicizing style that originated in Padua and the Veneto region (...


Federica Toniolo

(fl c. 1471–1508).

Italian painter and illuminator. He may be identifiable with a certain ‘Laurum de sancto Johanne de Padua’ documented in 1482 in Rome as having given a professional opinion on the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican Palace. In 1508 Bartolomeo Sanvito possessed two works executed by Lauro for the opening hours of a Book of Hours or the Office, which would seem to suggest that he was active as an illuminator. Documentary evidence indicates that Lauro was familiar with Mantegna’s Paduan works and that he worked with Giovanni Bellini at least before his visit to Rome. The main source for the reconstruction of Lauro’s oeuvre is Marcantonio Michiel, who mentioned an altarpiece (1468–71; untraced) in S Maria della Carità, Venice, by Giovanni Bellini, dedicated to St John the Evangelist, with a predella painted by Lauro Padovano. A panel representing the Legend of Drusiana (Berchtesgaden, Schlossmus.) has been identified as belonging to the Carità predella and its style was used as the basis for a catalogue of Lauro’s works until its recent attribution to Leonardo Bellini. Two panels depicting the ...


Pier Giorgio Pasini

(b Verona, c. 1420; d Rimini, after May 15, 1467).

Italian medallist, architect, painter and illuminator. He came from a good Veronese family (his father was a doctor, two of his brothers were in the church and three others were merchants). He is first documented in 1441, when he was working in Venice as painter to Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici illustrating Petrarch’s Trionfi (untraced). Subsequently (1444–6), he worked as an illuminator for the Este court, under the direction of Giorgio d’Alemagna. None of his works from this period is known.

By 1449 he was resident in Rimini, where he married Elisa di Giovanni Baldigara. There he was joined by Agostino di Duccio and other Venetian sculptors, working on the construction and decoration of two large funerary chapels (1447–c. 1452) for Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, and his mistress, Isotta degli Atti, in S Francesco (known as the Tempio Malatestiano). Initially Matteo was probably the organizer and supervisor of this project, but ...


(b Rome, c. 1585; d Rome, Nov 6, 1641).

Italian architect. Writing about the time of Peparelli’s death, Baglione said that Peparelli was so sought after that he was employed on more than 70 palace, convent and church commissions. But guidebook attributions and documents give him only about 20 commissions (all in Rome); by 1730 Lione Pascoli mentioned him as an ‘architetto non molto conosciuto’. Peparelli enlarged the Villa Mattei in 1620–22 for Giovanni Battista Mattei, son of the original patron Ciriaco. He rebuilt S Brigida in Piazza Farnese in 1614 or 1640 and in 1632–5 built the oratory behind the nearby church of S Girolamo della Carità. From 1631 to 1637 he was the architect, with Vincenzo della Greca, of S Caio, a Barberini foundation on the Via Pia (destr. 1885). He designed the sacristy, transept, cupola and choir of S Maria in Traspontina in 1635–7, rebuilt S Salvatore in Campo for Francesco Barberini in 1639 and, with ...


Thomas Tolley

[Jean de Paris; Master of Charles VIII]

(b ?1450–60; d Paris, after April 5, 1530).

French painter, illuminator, sculpture designer and architect. The most celebrated and best-documented French artist of his time, Perréal was painter and valet de chambre to three kings of France, Charles VIII, Louis XII and Francis I. In the earliest reliable document to mention him, of 1485, he was a resident of Lyon and painted two escutcheons for use during the celebrations for the entry of Charles of Bourbon into the city. Throughout his career he devoted considerable time to designing props for staging such ceremonial events. Perréal visited Italy on at least four occasions and recorded that he studied ancient remains there. In 1514 he was sent to England to negotiate the marriage of Louis XII and his second wife, Mary Tudor, and to ensure that her wardrobe conformed to French taste. According to Dupont, a portrait of Louis XII in the British Royal Collection (Windsor Castle, Berks) was painted by Perréal and brought to England at this time. Considered by Sterling to be a copy, this portrait is one of few panels that can still be associated with Perréal, who during his lifetime was highly praised for his abilities as a portrait painter....


(fl 1496–1524).

Italian illuminator. He was one of the last great Renaissance illuminators active in Naples and worked in the service of Andrea Matteo III, Duca di Atri. A number of manuscripts known to have been in the Duke’s collection are attributed both to him and to his followers. Between 1496 and 1504 he decorated a copy of Seneca’s Epistulae morales (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. Phil. lat. 7). Dating to the beginning of the 16th century and the most splendid of his commissions for Andrea Matteo is the Ethics of Aristotle (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. Phil. gr. 4). The frontispiece to each of the ten books is elaborately decorated with scenes synthesizing the content of each book, as well as with mythological scenes and figures; the iconography was almost certainly directed by the Duke. On the frontispiece of the sixth book are inscribed the initials r. f., probably ‘Reginaldus fecit’, and on fol. 80 of the same book the artist signed his name in full. Piramo’s work draws on a number of diverse influences; his classicizing style owes much to the Paduan school, while Ferrarese and Netherlandish–Neapolitan influences may also be noted. Towards the end of his career Piramo returned to Monópoli, in Apulia. In ...


Rafael Moreira

(fl 1547; d Évora, 1569).

Portuguese architect. He is earliest recorded in 1547 as a frequenter of bookshops in Lisbon, defending the humanist André de Resende (1498–1573) and the royal bookseller João de Borgonha in a chance argument in the street against the grammarian Fernando Oliveira, who was suspected of Protestant leanings. The fact that the subject of the quarrel was the Tratado da esfera by Pedro Nunes (1541) shows that Pires was no stranger to cosmography and geometry. The first work attributable to Pires was in fact an exercise in mathematical proportion, the church of Bom Jesus at Valverde, 10 km south of Évora. Local tradition assigns the work to Pires’s lifelong patron, the Cardinal-Infante Henrique, Archbishop of Évora and later King Henry, suggesting a close collaboration between the two men. Work must have begun soon after the foundation of the Capuchin monastery at the site in 1544, although the name of Pires only appears in ...


Janet Backhouse

(fl 1483–97).

French illuminator and painter. He lived and worked in Tours, seat of the French court and centre of the Loire school of illumination during the latter part of the 15th century. He was presumably related to Mathelin (or Maturin) Poyet, who is listed as a court painter alongside Jean Fouquet in 1475. Jean Poyet is first mentioned in 1483, and in December 1491 he was among local artists paid for their work on the decorations provided to celebrate the ceremonial entry into Tours of Anne of Brittany as Queen of Charles VIII of France. In August 1497 the Queen’s accounts show that Poyet was paid 153 livres tournois to illuminate a ‘petites heures’ for her use. For this he provided 23 miniatures and almost 300 borders. It was thought that this identified him as the artist of the famous Hours of Anne of Brittany (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 9474), until the discovery in ...


(b Bergen-Mons, Henegouwen, c. 1465; d Bruges, Jan 1529).

South Netherlandish painter. He probably came into contact with Simon Marmion, the renowned painter and book illuminator from Valenciennes, via Jacquemart Pilavaine, a publisher and illuminator in his native Bergen. Provoost married Marmion’s widow, Jeanne de Quaroube, before 1491, and it is thus assumed that Marmion was his teacher. In 1493 Provoost moved to Antwerp, a promising town for artists, where he registered as a master in the Guild of St Luke, but in 1494 he travelled to Bruges. He became a citizen there and soon played an important part in the painters’ guild. In 1506 Maximiliaen Frans (1490–1547) was his pupil. Provoost received commissions for decorative work from the town council and church authorities in 1509, 1513 and 1520, the year of the Triumphal Entry of Charles V into Bruges, for which he worked on the decorations. He returned to Antwerp the same year to meet Albrecht Dürer, who may have drawn his portrait. Dürer visited Bruges in ...


Gordon Campbell

(b Normandy c. 1449; d London 1529/30).

Anglo-Norman printer. Pynson became a printer in London, initially as an assistant to William Caxton. In the early 1490s he succeeded William de Machlinia as the principal printer of law books in London; his press also printed an illustrated edition of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. On the accession of King Henry VIII in ...



(b Amantea, Calabria; fl 1451; d Naples, 1488).

Italian illuminator. He is cited in the records of the Aragonese treasury as the official illuminator to the court of Aragon in Naples from 1451 to 1488. From 1455 he received a regular stipend, but the books illuminated by him are not specifically identified in the documents until 1471, although there are general references to Graduals, Missals etc, most of which are untraced. Numerous manuscripts have been attributed to Rapicano on the basis of style. His earliest documented works include a copy of Aesop’s Fables (30 Oct 1473; Berlin, Dt. Staatsbib., MS. Hamilton 6), a copy of Strabo’s Geography (1473–4; Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. Ottob. 14448) and a copy of Andrea Contario’s Obiurgatio in Platonis calumniatorum (1471; Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 12947), in which Angiolillo Arcuccio (fl 1464–92) also collaborated. Attributed works for the years c. 1474–81 include the statutes of the Ordine del Toson d’oro (Naples, Bib. N., MS. ii D 20) and the ...


Gordon Campbell

(b Augsburg, 1447; d Augsburg, 1527–8).

German printer. While still a child he moved to Mainz, where he trained as a printer, probably in the workshop of Johann Gutenberg . In the 1470s and early 1480s he worked as a printer in Venice, and in 1486 he accepted an invitation to return to his native Augsburg, where his workshop became the most important producer of colour printing in Germany. Ratdolt’s many innovations include the first title-page, the first type-face catalogue, the first texts of geometry and astronomy to be illustrated with diagrams and the first books with illustrations in three colours. He first printed music in ...


[Raimondi, Vincenzo; Raimondo, Vincenzo]

(b ?Lodève; fl 1535; d Rome, Feb 10, 1557).

French illuminator, active in Italy. He is thought to have come from Lodève in Languedoc and worked on the decoration of liturgical manuscripts for the Sistine Chapel during the pontificates of Leo X, Clement VII and Paul III. He is the only illuminator mentioned between 1535 and 1549 in the Vatican registers of the Tesoreria secreta. Although his output must have been large, by the late 20th century little had been firmly attributed to him. One of the most important works agreed to be his is the Psalter (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 8880) illuminated for Pope Paul III and dated 1542. The miniatures are minutely worked but lacking in inventiveness; he evidently borrowed freely from the work of such contemporary painters as Raphael and Michelangelo. The only full-page miniature in the Psalter, God Creating the Stars, is strikingly similar to Michelangelo’s representation of the same subject on the Sistine chapel ceiling. Most of the border motifs are taken from the decorative schemes of ...


Patrizia Ferretti

(fl 1449–80).

Italian illuminator. He was trained between 1449 and 1452 by Battista di Niccolò da Padova (fl from 1425; d 1452) and after Battista’s death collaborated occasionally with Filippo di Matteo Torelli. Ricciardo was one of the first Florentine artists to be concerned with archaeological discoveries, and this is consistently reflected in his painting. A copy of Plautus’s Comedies (Florence, Bib. Medicea–Laurenziana, MS. Plut. 36.41), datable before 1450, and belonging to Piero de’ Medici, is thought to be his first autograph work. In early commissions from the Medici, Ricciardo shows a strong interest in a wide range of Classical ideas, partly derived from gems and cameos in the Medici collections. He was also sensitive to Florentine painting, from the work of Domenico Veneziano to that of the Master of Pratovecchio, and to the narrative style typical of paintings on cassoni. His illustrations are full of biblical symbolism, providing a rich pictorial commentary on the text. This tendency characterizes the works of his early period (...