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John Sweetman and A. R. Gardner

[Hindoo, Indo-Saracenic]

Term used specifically in the 19th century to describe a Western style based on the architecture and decorative arts of the Muslim inhabitants (the Moors) of north-west Africa and (between 8th and 15th centuries) of southern Spain; it is often used imprecisely to include Arab and Indian influences. A similar revivalist style prevalent specifically in Spain around the same time is known as the Mudéjar revival. Although their rule in Spain finally ended in 1492, the Moors remained indispensably part of the European vision of the East. (See also Orientalism.)

In the Renaissance moreschi were bandlike patterns allied to grotesques. The Swiss Johann Heinrich Müntz, who visited Spain in 1748 and drew unspecified Moorish buildings, designed a Moorish garden building (1750; London, RIBA) that may have formed the basis for the Alhambra (destr.), one of a series of exotic buildings designed by William Chambers after 1758 for the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, near London. Further early interest was shown by the painter ...


Daniel H. Weiss

Extensively illustrated Old Testament manuscript (390×300 mm; New York, Morgan Lib., MS. M.638) produced in France. Containing more than 340 narrative episodes distributed across the recto and verso sides of 46 parchment leaves, the Old Testament cycle begins with the first chapters of Genesis and concludes with scenes from the life of King David from 2 Samuel. No longer in its original binding, three leaves are now separated from the Morgan volume; two being in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris (Ms. nouv. acq. lat. 2294, fols 2, 3) and a single leaf in the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles (83. MA.55). Distinctive for the quality of its illustrations, the richness of its narrative cycle and the fact that the original codex probably contained no text, the Morgan manuscript was produced around the middle of the 13th century, most likely in Paris for King Louis IX (reg 1226–70) or a close associate. The ascription of the manuscript to a royal context is based primarily on thematic similarities to other works associated with the King, including especially the ...



Paul L. Anderson

[Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints]

Religious sect. Mormonism was founded in 1830 in a farmhouse near Fayette, NY, by Joseph Smith jr (1805–44), who declared that he had been called by God as a modern prophet to restore Christianity in its purity. The name was taken from the Book of Mormon, a companion scripture to the Bible, narrating the religious history of an ancient American people who were visited by the resurrected Christ; this was translated from golden plates and published by Smith in 1830. A central teaching of the Church was that members should gather to the American frontier to build the City of Zion in preparation for Christ’s millennial reign. Attempts to build latter-day Zion aroused violent opposition in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois, culminating in the assassination (1844) of Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum Smith. In 1847 Brigham Young (1801–77), Smith’s successor as president and prophet, founded ...


Jonathan M. Bloom and R. Nath

Reviser Sheila S. Blair

[Moghul; Mogul]

Dynasty of Central Asian origin that ruled portions of the Indian subcontinent from 1526 to 1857.

R. Nath and Jonathan M. Bloom, revised by Sheila S. Blair

The dynasty’s name Mughal derives from the word Mongol, as the founder (1) Babur (‘tiger’) was a Chaghatay prince in Central Asia who was descended on his father’s side from the Mongol warlord Timur (see Timurid family, §II, (1)) and on his mother’s from Genghis Khan. After losing his Central Asian kingdom of Ferghana, Babur conquered Kabul in 1504 and then defeated the Lodi sultan at Panipat in 1526 and the Rajput cliefs at Kanwa near Agra the following year. With these victories he gained a foothold in northern India and established a capital at Delhi (see Delhi, §I, 6; see fig.). Babur was succeeded by his son (2) Humayun (‘auspicious’), who was dislodged within a decade by nobles of the old Lodi regime, particularly Farid Khan Sur (...


[‛Alī Muḥammad Iṣfahānī ibn Ustād Mahdī]

(fl 1870s–1888).

Persian potter and tilemaker. Trained as a mason in Isfahan, he probably followed his father’s trade and chose to specialize in making pottery and tiles. His experiments making tiles that imitated the fine work produced under the Safavids (reg 1501–1732), when Isfahan was the capital of Iran, caught the attention of Major-General Robert Murdoch Smith, director of the Persian Telegraph Department and collector of Persian art, and in 1884 Murdoch Smith ordered wall tiles from ‛Ali Muhammad. The potter soon moved to Tehran, seat of the Qajar court (reg 1779–1924), where he established a workshop at the gate of the Shahzada ‛Abd al-‛Azim. Several large tiles made for the royal music master in 1884–5 (540×427 mm; London, V&A, 511.1889, 512.1889) depicting young men reading poetry in an orchard imitate Safavid work of the 17th century. Seven smaller tiles datable 1884–7 (470×340 mm; Edinburgh, R. Harvey-Jamieson priv. col.) show a more evolved style in which black is used as an incised slip and figures are moulded in relief. The tiles depict scenes from Persian literature such as Shirin and Farhad at Mt Bisitun, and royal receptions, but the faces and dress are in typical Qajar style. ‛Ali Muhammad’s mature style is seen in 12 tiles (...



Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

[Maler Müller]

(b Kreuznach, Jan 13, 1749; d Rome, April 23, 1825).

German painter, engraver, draughtsman, poet and Playwright. From about 1765 he was taught by Daniel Hien (1724–73), court painter to Christian IV, Duke of Zweibrücken, with 17th-century Dutch painting as his model. Müller showed a talent for realistic depiction of animals, especially horses, and landscape, including farm scenes. The Duke gave him an allowance so that, from 1769, he was able to attend the Mannheim Akademie. Müller’s friendship there with Ferdinand Kobell and Franz Kobell (1749–1822) led to a considerable mutual influence in the work of all three. Müller also established himself as a poet at this time, becoming one of the representatives of the late 18th-century German literary movement known as Sturm und Drang. In the course of the 1770s Müller wrote a celebrated series of idylls, the lyric drama Niobe and the first parts of his Fausts Leben dramatisiert, all issued in editions with his own engraved illustrations. Life drawings and etchings from this period are in Mannheim (Städt. Reiss-Mus.), Frankfurt am Main (Goethemus.) and Monaco-Ville (Archvs Pal. Princier). At this time, however, Müller’s work as a poet and dramatist was more widely known and admired than his work as an artist. His study of the famous collection of casts of antique sculptures in the Antikensaal at Mannheim, and of paintings in the picture gallery belonging to the Elector ...


Vidar Poulsson

(Peter Frantz Wilhelm)

(b Skanshagen at Elverum, July 19, 1849; d Baerum, Jan 15, 1929).

Norwegian painter and designer. He trained as a landscape painter at the art school in Christiania (after 1877 Kristiania, now Oslo) run by J. F. Eckersberg and his followers from 1870 to 1874. He travelled widely throughout his career but was most attracted to eastern Norway, where he had been born. His first ambition was to paint in a realistic style that would also accommodate impulses from fantasy and literature. During the winters of 1874–5 and 1875–6 he visited his relative the painter Ludvig Munthe at Düsseldorf and was impressed by his work. An Autumn Landscape (1876; Bergen, Meyers Saml.) was Gerhard Munthe’s first major painting. During a long stay at Munich (1877–82) he studied the Old Masters as well as contemporary art. He painted about 70 oils, mainly dark in tone but quite varied in content. They are largely based on impressions of the coastal towns or interior of Norway rather than being inspired by German motifs. ...


Christian Norberg-Schulz


(b Stange, Jan 1, 1848; d Christiania [now Oslo], May 23, 1898).

Norwegian architect. He trained first at Wilhelm von Hanno’s School of Design in Christiania and later as an architect in Hannover, Germany, from 1872 to 1877. He started his own practice in Christiania in 1878 and became a teacher at the Royal School of Design in 1885. From 1897 to his death he served as city architect for Christiania. With Henrik Nissen the elder (1845–1915), Munthe designed a number of important Renaissance Revival buildings in Oslo, such as the former Commercial High School, which has a red brick façade with granite and plaster details. He is best known, however, as the creator of the ‘Dragon style’, a fusion of the Chalet style (known in Norway as the ‘Swiss style’) and traditional Norwegian timber architectural forms, such as the characteristic two-storey front of the rural loft (Norw.: ‘store-house’). The name of the style is derived from the use of dragon heads (a motif taken from medieval stave churches) to crown the gables. Munthe’s bathing house (...


Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny



S. J. Vernoit

(b Kilmarnock, Aug 18, 1835; d Edinburgh, July 3, 1900).

Scottish soldier, archaeologist, diplomat and collector of Iranian art. He was educated at Glasgow University, and in 1855 he obtained a commission in the Royal Engineers. The following year he joined the expedition of Charles Newton to Halikarnassos, which resulted in the discovery of the Mausoleum and the acquisition of its sculptures for the British Museum. In 1860 with E. A. Porcher, Murdoch Smith formed at his own expense an expedition to Cyrene in Libya. From this expedition he returned with Greek sculptures and inscriptions (London, BM). In 1863 he was selected for service on the Iranian section of a proposed telegraph line from Britain to India, and in 1865 he became its director in Tehran, holding that post for the next 20 years. He initiated his collecting activities for the South Kensington (later Victoria and Albert) Museum in 1873 when he offered his services as an agent. From 1873 to 1885...




Hugh Maguire

(b London, Feb 21, 1801; d Edgbaston, Birmingham, Aug 11, 1890).

English cardinal and writer. He studied at Trinity College, Oxford University (1817–20), and became a Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College. Throughout his career he was keenly aware of the relationship between architecture, art and religious experience. In 1828 he became vicar of the University Church of St Mary the Virgin, Oxford, which was rebuilt (1835–6) in Gothic style by Henry Underwood (1804–52). He resigned as vicar in 1843 and was obliged to leave the University after becoming a Catholic in 1845. He was ordained a priest in Rome in 1847 and joined the Oratorians. Pope Pius IX commissioned him to introduce this Order to England, and in 1848 he returned to Birmingham, where he founded an Oratory at Maryvale; the community later moved to Edgbaston. He wished to build a grand basilican church to designs by Louis Duc, but the scheme was abandoned in favour of a simpler conception by ...


Michael Eissenhauer

(b Oels, Silesia, June 18, 1831; d Hannover, Sept 6, 1880).

German architect. He enrolled at the Polytechnische Schule in Hannover in 1849. His career was furthered especially by Conrad Wilhelm Hase; after completing his studies in 1853 he worked in Hase’s practice where he was able to design and supervise his first independent architectural projects. He was influenced by Hase in his preference for medieval styles of building, especially Gothic. In 1856 he went to Paris where he spent some time working for Viollet-le-Duc’s office. Oppler returned to Hannover c. 1859 and started his own architectural practice there. In his short working life he produced a substantial body of work comprising c. 100 individual design projects, most of which were realized, innumerable interiors including furniture and household equipment, and finally seven annual issues of the periodical Kunst im Gewerbe, which was virtually based on his own designs and articles. His clients were businessmen, representatives of the upper-middle classes and members of the nobility. He built large-scale houses, villas and business premises for them, as well as imposing blocks of flats in Hannover, Bonn, Baden-Baden, Nuremberg and elsewhere. Oppler carried out extensive exterior and interior alterations at the Marienburg (...


Kenneth Bendiner

Art-historical term applied to a category of subject-matter referring to the depiction of the Near East by Western artists, particularly in the 19th century.

Images of the life, history and topography of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, the Arabian Peninsula, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and sometimes modern Greece, the Crimea, Albania and the Sudan constitute the field of Orientalism. Although almost any biblical subject in Western art would rank as an Orientalist image by this definition, most such works dating before the 19th century fail to present any specifically Near Eastern details or atmosphere and are not Orientalist. Artists need not have journeyed to the Near East to be labelled Orientalist, but their works must have some suggestion of topographic or ethnographic accuracy.

Orientalism was essentially a 19th-century phenomenon, a facet of Romanticism. However, before Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798, Gentile Bellini painted Ottoman subjects, Veronese represented some figures in Turkish costume, ...


Çigdem Kafesçioglu and Walter B. Denny


Islamic dynasty that began to rule in Anatolia in 1281; at its greatest extent in the 16th century the Ottoman empire also included the Balkans, the Crimea, Iraq, Syria, the Hijaz, Egypt and North Africa. It lasted until the promulgation of the Constitution of the Turkish Republic in 1924.

Çigdem Kafesçioglu

The Ottomans claimed descent from the eponymous Osman (‛Uthman), a Turkish ruler active in north-west Anatolia at the end of the 13th century and beginning of the 14th. His small emirate grew at the expense of the declining state of the Saljuqs of Anatolia ( see Saljuq family, §2 ). Ideologically based on the concept of religious warfare (Turk. gaza, from Arab. ghazw), the state expanded rapidly to the west over Byzantine territory in Thrace and the Balkans, and to the east over the Turkish principalities of Anatolia ( see Beylik ). The first major expansion took place under Osman’s son Orhan (...


Thomas A. Kane

[Congregation of St Paul]

Religious order of Catholic priests. The congregation was founded in 1858 by Isaac Thomas Hecker (1819–88) as a community of Catholic priests in mission to North America, with a focus on interpreting the world to the Church and the Church to the world. Its work in ecumenism, reconciliation and evangelism brings its members in touch with a variety of American artists. Some members are associated with communications, including publishing, television and the theatre. Its primary symbols are based on St Paul’s apostleship: the sword and the open book.

The Gothic Revival church of St Paul the Apostle (begun 1876), New York, the mother church of the Paulist Fathers, was designed by Jeremiah O’Rourke (1833–1915). Its basilican plan (86×37 m) has a nave 19.5 m wide spanned by a vault designed by George Deshon (1823–1903), painted with a representation of the midnight sky on ...


Gordon Campbell

German glass manufactory. In 1866 the German glassmaker Fritz Eckert (c. 1840–c. 1905) founded a factory in Petersdorf, Silesia (now Pieszków, Poland). At first the factory specialized in historical styles ranging from Islamic designs to enamelled 17th- and 18th-century German Humpen. In 1890 a group of original designs in opaque glass known as ‘Cyprus glass’ was introduced, and from ...



(b Christiania [now Oslo], Sept 4, 1852; d Bærum, Dec 29, 1928).

Norwegian painter. He attended Johan Fredrik Eckersberg’s School of Drawing in Christiania (1869–70) and then briefly studied painting with Knud Bergslien (1827–1908). In the spring of 1871 Peterssen moved on to the academies of Karlsruhe (1871–3) and Munich (1873–5). He then stayed in Munich until the autumn of 1878 but made many study trips abroad: he returned to Norway but also visited London and Paris and made several journeys to Italian cities. He thus acquired a more profound knowledge of both earlier and contemporary European art than that available to most Norwegians studying in Munich.

In Munich’s galleries he studied and copied the Old Masters but was also deeply impressed by history painting of the Munich school led by Karl Theodor von Piloty. Peterssen turned to themes from Scandinavian history of the 16th and 17th centuries: he painted the Death of Corfitz Ulfedt...