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William Hauptman

(b Basle, 1652; d Basle, 1727).

Swiss painter. The sparse records of his life and career show that he attended the university in Basle, and in 1679 he was painting in Berne, where he was influenced by the local landscape tradition. In 1693 he travelled to Bruges, where he was greatly impressed by Flemish and Dutch art, particularly portraiture and still-lifes. His most celebrated portrait is that of Johann Theobald Hartmann (1697; Solothurn, Zentbib.). His group portraits, such as Interior with an Armenian Family (1698; Solothurn, Kstmus.), reveal his debt to Rembrandt’s portraits. While much of Loutherburg’s career was devoted to portraiture, he was also a specialist in still-lifes, as in Still-life with Books, Cards and Flowers (1697; Basle, Kstmus.), which demonstrates his vivid use of vanitas iconography, then much in vogue in Swiss art. His most astonishing paintings are his trompe-l’oeil compositions painted late in life; the most typical example is Quolibet...


Marica Magni

(b Milan, Oct 21, 1817; d Milan, Jan 20, 1877).

Italian sculptor. He studied briefly at the Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera in Milan and subsequently attended the studio of the Neo-classical sculptor Abbondio Sangiorgio (1798–1879). In his later artistic activity he was deeply influenced by the purity of the work of the Tuscan sculptor Lorenzo Bartolini, whose Trust in God (1834–6; Milan, Mus. Poldi Pezzoli) he saw at the annual exhibition at the Brera in 1837. He made the traditional study trip to Rome, where, in 1849, during the unrest of the Risorgimento, he joined Giuseppe Garibaldi’s ranks. Later returning to Rome, he achieved public prominence with his statue of David Launching his Slingstone (Milan, Gal. A. Mod.), which won the Premio Canonica at the Brera in 1850 and was exhibited there in 1851 and at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1855. At the Brera exhibition of 1853 he received great acclaim for his sober representation of ...


Marie-Claude Chaudonneret

(b Grasse, 1759; d Paris, Aug 16, 1835).

French painter. A pupil of Simon Julien in Toulon, he was then taught by Pierre-Paul Prud’hon in Paris. He exhibited at every Salon between 1793 and 1827, obtaining a second class medal in 1812 and a first class medal in 1817. He executed very few portraits (Chénier, Carcassonne, Mus. B.-A., is an exception), preferring to paint nymphs bathing and graceful classical nudes such as the Graces Playing with Cupid (Arras, Abbaye St Vaast, Mus. B.-A.). He established his reputation with gouache genre scenes of fashionable and often libertine subjects, always elegant and refined, in the style of Louis-Philibert Debucourt and Louis-Léopold Boilly, and remarkable for the delicacy and brilliance of their brushwork: for example At the Laundry Maid’s and the Painful Letter (both Paris, Mus. Cognacq-Jay). They reveal a knowledge of 17th-century Dutch painting in the treatment of details (transparent crystal, reflections on silk or satin) as well as the choice of themes: ...


Roman Prahl


(b Litomyšl, March 21, 1832; d Prague, Oct 8, 1899).

Czech painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied at the Prague Academy of Fine Arts under Max Haushofer between 1852 and 1858, and subsequently privately at Munich under Leopold Rottmann (1812–81) and Eduard Schleich. From 1858 to 1887 he lived mainly in Vienna, where his work increasingly epitomized late-Romantic taste. The principal Czech landscape painter of his generation, he specialized in forest scenes, often choosing low viewpoints and confined compositions which show the forest at its most untouched and impenetrable. In addition to paintings he was also known for engravings and large charcoal drawings (e.g. Oak; Prague, N.G.; part of the series Austrian Forest Scenes, 1878). Mařák also produced decorative works, including views of Czech and Austrian towns, originally in Franz Josef Bahnhof, Vienna (studies; Plzeň, A.G. W. Bohemia), and depictions of places important in Czech mythology and history at the National Theatre and National Museum in Prague (e.g. ...


Philip Ward-Jackson

(b Turin, Jan 14, 1805; d Passy, Paris, Dec 29, 1867).

Italian sculptor. His father, Vincenzo Marochetti, was a prominent advocate and functionary. The family moved to Paris shortly after Carlo’s birth. Marochetti trained with François-Joseph Bosio and, after failing to win the Prix de Rome, travelled to Italy in 1822 at his own expense. On his return he showed Young Girl with a Dog (Turin, Castello d’Agliè) at the Salon of 1827. His exhibit at the Salon of 1831, Rebel Angel (plaster; untraced), established his allegiance to the Romantic cause. Marochetti succeeded in projecting this Romanticism in public monuments: in his marble relief of the Battle of Jemmapes (1833–4) on the Arc de Triomphe and, in a more original form, in the group of the Assumption of the Magdalene (marble, 1834–44) for the church of the Madeleine, Paris, the latter an apotheosis deriving from the Baroque, but strongly symmetrical and denuded of scenic apparatus. Marochetti’s monumental Romanticism received wider exposure in a gift he made to his native city, the equestrian statue of ...


Robin Hamlyn and Lin Barton

(b Haydon Bridge, Northumb., July 19, 1789; d Douglas, Isle of Man, Feb 17, 1854).

His career as a painter began in 1803 when he was apprenticed to a coachmaker in Newcastle upon Tyne shortly after his parents moved there. In 1804 he became a pupil of Boniface Moss or Musso, an Italian painter originally from Piemonte, who gave him lessons in drawing and painting. In 1805 he went to London to work with Musso’s son, Charles Muss [Musso] (1779–1824), a ceramics painter. Finding that Muss was unemployed, Martin began to support himself by selling drawings of views of his native Northumberland until, in 1807, he was finally taken on by Muss in a new glass- and ceramics-painting business. Muss went bankrupt in 1809, but both he and Martin were employed by William Collins, who owned a well-established glass-painting studio in the Strand, London. Here he spent the hours after work ‘sitting up at night till 2 or 3 o’clock … acquiring that knowledge of perspective which has since been so valuable to me’ (Martin, p.176). He realized that his best chance of a successful artistic career was as a painter of serious subjects. His first oils, small in scale, were classical landscapes inspired by Claude and date from about ...


Elisabeth Cederstrøm

(b Copenhagen, Feb 13, 1818; d Paris, Jan 10, 1875).

Danish painter. He had originally wanted to be a sailor, but abandoned this ambition because of bad eyesight. Similarly, he later gave up training as a shipbuilder, deciding instead to become a marine painter. In 1838 he entered the Akademi for de Skonne Kunster in Copenhagen. He received private tuition from C. W. Eckersberg, and was one of several of his pupils who devoted themselves to marine painting. He exhibited for the first time in 1840, provoking an immediate response from the public. His early pictures followed the style of Eckersberg’s marine paintings, which are characterized by a heightened calm and clear colour, but Melbye soon moved towards a more international, Romantic style.

Melbye went on several voyages in order to study the sea at close range; one of his major works, Eddystone Lighthouse (1846; Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst), resulted from a voyage to Morocco. In the painting an evocative atmosphere is created by the interplay between dramatic waves and a threatening sky. The lighthouse is a fixed point in the troubled seas. His studies of the sea, together with his thorough knowledge of shipbuilding, enabled him to produce a large number of paintings, many of them on a large scale. Melbye’s dramatic compositions and choice of colours were close to the genre style of painters of the Düsseldorf school, such as Johann Peter Hasenclever and Ludwig Knaus. From ...


Susan B. Taylor

French Picturesque garden near Etampes, Essonne. The garden was laid out for Jean-Joseph de Laborde (1724–94) between 1784 and 1794, initially by François-Joseph Bélanger but from 1786 by the landscape painter Hubert Robert. Laborde, an immensely wealthy financier and banker to the courts of Louis XV and Louis XVI, acquired Méréville in 1784. At that time its garden consisted of regularized parterres, and he spent almost 10,000 livres, an enormous sum even at that time, on transforming it into a fashionable jardin anglais. The varied terrain of the site was enhanced by the diversion of its small river, La Juine, from its natural course to traverse the park in a serpentine manner until it reached a manmade lake. Four bridges, including one deliberately built so as to appear ruinous, were carefully placed to create the best views and further emphasize the picturesque effects of the river. In addition to the standard vocabulary of ...


Lucília Verdelho da Costa

(b Lisbon, 1825; d Funchal, Madeira, 1861).

Portuguese painter of German origin. In 1836 he entered the Academia de Belas-Artes in Lisbon and was a pupil of António Manuel da Fonseca and Joaquim Rafael. He became interested in historical subjects and first exhibited at the Academia in 1843. In 1844 he went to Rome with Luís Pereira de Meneses; there they frequented the studio of Friedrich Overbeck. Metrass was influenced by the Nazarenes, whose work inspired his early Jesus Welcoming the Children (1846; Aveiro, Mus. Reg.). After travelling in Italy he visited Paris before returning to Lisbon in 1847. There he was disillusioned by the failure of an exhibition of his work and went back to Paris, where he remained until 1851. His first history paintings in this period show the influence of French Romanticism, as in Widow Weeping by her Dead Husband (c. 1849; Lisbon, Mus. N. A. Contemp.). In 1852, after his return to Lisbon in ...


Jan K. Ostrowski

(b Kraków, July 2, 1800; d Krzyżtoporzyce, nr Kraków, June 9, 1855).

Polish painter. Born into a noble family, he studied (c. 1815–18) at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, simultaneously taking drawing and painting with several local teachers. After travelling to Vienna, then Warsaw (1817–18), he continued his studies (1821–3) at Göttingen before entering the service of the Ministry of Finances of the Kingdom of Poland in Warsaw as an unsalaried official. In January 1826 he obtained a permanent position in the ministry, and in June 1827 he was appointed head of the whole of the state’s metal industry. In 1828 and 1830 he made official journeys to Germany, France and England and, during the Polish uprising of 1830–31, organized the production of munitions for the Polish army in his factories. In February 1831 he married Julia Ostrowska and, after the failure of the uprising, resigned from his ministry post and left for Kraków, in March 1832...


Lucinda Lubbock

(b Alessandria, Oct 5, 1785; d Milan, April 18, 1837).

Italian painter and teacher. He began his career as a scene painter with Gaspare Galiari (1761–1823) in Milan, working at the Teatro Carcano in 1804 and at La Scala from 1805 to 1809. Owing to illness, after 1810 he turned to small-scale works in watercolour or oil using various supports, including silk and ivory. At this date Milanese painting was dominated by Andrea Appiani and Luigi Sabatelli, both leading Neo-classical artists. However, Migliara remained aloof from this dominant movement and instead drew on medieval and historical subjects with Romantic undertones. His precise, jewel-like technique and choice of subject-matter found favour with aristocratic patrons in Milan. His figures are generally stilted and burdened by their costumes, though the crowd in Sacking of Minister Prina’s House (1814; Milan, Gal. A. Mod.) is depicted with unusual fluency. In 1822 Migliara was appointed Professor of Perspective at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Milan, and in ...


Virginia Button

(b Cambridge, Dec 25, 1917; d London, Jan 20, 1957).

English painter and illustrator. He attended St John’s Wood School of Art from 1935 to 1938. A celebrity of London’s bohemia and a key figure of Neo-Romanticism in the 1940s, he lived and worked with most of the younger generation Neo-Romantics including Michael Ayrton (1921–76), Robert Colquhoun, Robert MacBryde and Keith Vaughan. Invalided out of the army in 1943, he devoted himself to art, producing work for seven one-man shows between 1945 and 1956.

Minton’s eclectic style combined elements of French and British Neo-Romanticism. His main theme, partly homoerotic, was the young male figure in emotionally charged settings. Five phases in his work have been identified, ranging from landscapes reminiscent of those of Samuel Palmer, for example Recollections of Wales (1944; Brit. Council; for illustration see Neo-Romanticism), to scenes of urban decay, such as Rotherhithe from Wapping (1946; Southampton, C.A.G.). In the post-war years he was attracted to exotic places in search of new subjects....


Peter Walch

(b Eastbourne, Sept 17, 1740; d London, Feb 4, 1779).

English painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was closely involved with the Society of Artists of Great Britain, becoming its president in 1774, and his flamboyant personality, radical politics and romantic penchant for depictions of picturesque banditti led contemporaries to perceive him as a latter-day Salvator Rosa. Mortimer’s works include portraiture, decorative interiors and book illustration, but he was first and foremost a history painter. Unlike most fellow artists in this genre, however, he derived much of his subject-matter from Anglo-Saxon history rather than from antiquity.

Mortimer was the son of an excise officer, while his uncle, Roger Mortimer (1700–69), was a painter of portraits and altarpieces (e.g. Moses and Aaron, 1721; St Clement’s, Hastings, E. Sussex); it may have been this example that first drew his nephew to the visual arts. By 1757 Mortimer was in London, working in Thomas Hudson‘s studio; his fellow pupils included Joseph Wright (i), who became a lifelong friend. Mortimer, characteristically, moved on before the end of his three-year term with Hudson—in ...


Beth S. Wright

(b Lille, Feb 13, 1809; d Bièvres, near Paris, Jun 7, 1897).

French painter. In Lille he studied with his father Louis Mottez and with Edouard Liénard (1779–1840), the director of the art school and a former student of Jacques-Louis David. Mottez went to Paris at the end of 1828, when, according to Giard, he met the future king Louis-Philippe, then Duc d’Orléans and a student at the Collège Henri IV; their friendship is one reason for the many decorative commissions that Mottez received during the July Monarchy. In March 1829 Mottez entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where he studied with Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and François-Edouard Picot. He exhibited at the Paris Salon from 1833, gaining a first-class medal for history painting in 1838 and a second-class medal in 1845. He was awarded the Légion d’honneur in 1846.

Mottez traveled widely and frequently in order to educate himself in the techniques of fresco and mural painting. In Florence in 1833 he came to appreciate the work of Giotto and the Italian primitives. In ...


Vidar Poulsson

(Peter Frantz Wilhelm)

(b Skanshagen at Elverum, July 19, 1849; d Baerum, Jan 15, 1929).

Norwegian painter and designer. He trained as a landscape painter at the art school in Christiania (after 1877 Kristiania, now Oslo) run by J. F. Eckersberg and his followers from 1870 to 1874. He travelled widely throughout his career but was most attracted to eastern Norway, where he had been born. His first ambition was to paint in a realistic style that would also accommodate impulses from fantasy and literature. During the winters of 1874–5 and 1875–6 he visited his relative the painter Ludvig Munthe at Düsseldorf and was impressed by his work. An Autumn Landscape (1876; Bergen, Meyers Saml.) was Gerhard Munthe’s first major painting. During a long stay at Munich (1877–82) he studied the Old Masters as well as contemporary art. He painted about 70 oils, mainly dark in tone but quite varied in content. They are largely based on impressions of the coastal towns or interior of Norway rather than being inspired by German motifs. ...


Geoffrey C. Tyack

(b London, 1752; d E. Cowes, Isle of Wight, May 13, 1835).

English architect and urban planner. Immensely prolific, he enjoyed the patronage of George IV, and the architecture of the Regency period is particularly associated with his work. He followed the ideas of the Picturesque movement and produced some of its best-known and most influential architectural effects at Blaise Hamlet, near Bristol, the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, and Regents Park and Regent Street, London.

Nash was the son of a Lambeth millwright and came from a family of Welsh origins. He spent some time in the office of Robert Taylor in London before setting up practice as a speculative builder and architect in 1774 or 1775. In 1777–8 he designed and built a pair of palazzo-fronted houses in Bloomsbury Square, London (Nos 16–17: now the German Historical institute), and an adjoining row of smaller houses in Great Russell Street, into one of which he moved. These houses were notable for their precocious use of stucco, but the speculation failed, and, following the collapse of a disastrous first marriage, Nash went bankrupt in ...


Patricia G. Berman

Term that suggests the merging of national boundaries and the indigenous ‘ethnic essence’ of a nation rather than a particular school or style. National Romanticism was a mid- and late 19th-century coalescence of two potent ideologies and was linked to the struggle for political legitimacy for a circumscribed geographic region. Its tenet was that the indigenous arts, history, music and folk traditions of a nation contributed to the spiritual and political survival of its people. It was manifest in the arts of those countries or regions of northern and central Europe, such as Scandinavia and Germany, that were once subject to foreign domination or had experienced recent unification. Thus, National Romanticism arose in response to a sense of intrusive internationalism that was perceived to weaken a sense of unity within a single geographic group. With its sources in German Romantic philosophy, this theoretical movement was introduced in the mid-19th century to Denmark through the writings of ...


Ton Geerts

Dutch family of artists. They were originally from Zaltbommel and later were active in Nijmegen, Leiden, Delft and Rotterdam. Herbert van Nijmegen (d 1679) was a house painter in Nijmegen. He had four sons, three of whom—Gideon van Nijmegen (?1660–1711), Tobias van Nijmegen (b ?c. 1665) and Elias van Nijmegen (1667–1755)—became painters. Elias was a decorative painter who also executed narrative works. He was first trained by his father and was later taught by his brothers Gideon and Tobias; his work also shows the influence of Daniel Marot I. Together with Tobias, Elias worked in and around Nijmegen and joined the Guild of St Luke in Leiden in 1689. Together they decorated a room in the court of the Stadholder at Leeuwarden in 1694. Tobias subsequently settled in Düsseldorf, and Elias, after a period of drifting, started a workshop in Rotterdam. His students included his own son, ...


Göran Söderlund


(b Tjörn, July 11, 1855; d Drottningholm, Aug 16, 1923).

Swedish painter. In 1875 he went to Stockholm, where he studied at the Konstakademi and at the art school of Edvard Perséus (1841–90). At the former, he met the painters Richard Bergh and Nils Kreuger, who became his lifelong friends. He spent his formative years in France (1880–86) as a member of the Scandinavian artists’ colonies in Paris and Grèz-sur-Loing. Having been attracted to Paris by the ideals of French Naturalism, he visited the Seventh Impressionist Exhibition (1882), which had an effect on his painting of this period (e.g. the Old Bridge at Grèz, 1882; Stockholm, Prins Eugens Waldemarsudde). He spent most of his time in Grèz, dedicating himself to plein-air painting.

Nordström shared the radical views of his colleagues in exile and together they formed the protest movement Opponenterna. Led by the Swedish painter Ernst Josephson, they revolted against the conservatism of the Konstakademi in Stockholm and demanded its reorganization. In ...


Constance M. Greiff

(b Edinburgh, July 22, 1810; d Philadelphia, PA, March 3, 1865).

American architect of Scottish birth. He was prominent among the emigré architects of the first half of the 19th century who introduced into America new styles, a greater professionalism, and more sophisticated approaches to design.

According to an anonymous manuscript biography (ex-Hist. Soc., Philadelphia, PA, now lost), Notman served an apprenticeship as a carpenter in Edinburgh. He then worked for the architect William Henry Playfair (see Playfair family §(2)), whose early essays in the Italianate style Notman later introduced in the USA. In 1831, following a period of economic depression in Edinburgh and the consequent collapse of its construction industry, Notman immigrated to the USA, settling in Philadelphia, where he supported himself as a carpenter. His first major design commission was for the Laurel Hill Cemetery (1836–9), Philadelphia, PA. Derived from Kensal Green Cemetery, London, Laurel Hill was the earliest architect-designed Picturesque rural cemetery in the USA. Rural cemeteries and other landscape designs continued to be an important aspect of his work. Later cemeteries included Hollywood Cemetery (...