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Lucio Franchini

(b Induno Olona, Varese, April 2, 1818; d Varese, June 10, 1899).

Italian architect. He worked as a carpenter and then a cabinetmaker, continuing in these trades for many years, even after 1838, when he went to Milan to attend courses at the Accademia di Brera. By independent study he learnt the formal repertory of Western architecture, but he soon acquired his own personal style, which combined originality, balanced composition, attention to detail and imaginative interpretation, rather than passive imitation of earlier architectural forms. Maciachini’s architectural work began when he won the competition for the Greek Orthodox church of S Spiridione in Trieste (1859–69), which he designed in a Byzantine style. He gained considerable fame with his entry for the competition (1863) for the Cimitero Monumentale, Milan. This Italian–Gothic project was his major work, and he supervised its execution until 1887. Many projects and building commissions followed, but he continued to enter competitions and maintained an interest, though only a marginal one, in applied industrial art. Through his particular interest in medieval motifs he was generally thought of as a follower of the neo-Gothic style. However, his attempt to reinterpret the architecture of the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries led to an inevitable eclecticism, though this was never exaggerated or coldly erudite. Medieval elements are found in his church of S Carlo (...


David Walker

Scottish family of architects. Alexander Mackenzie (d 1827) was an architect–builder, active in Perth; his three sons became architects. His eldest son, William MacDonald Mackenzie (b 1797; d Perth, 15 Feb 1856), was City Architect for Perth and an accomplished Neo-classical designer whose work includes St Leonard’s (1834), Perth. The second son, David Mackenzie, worked in Perth in 1830–42. The third son, Thomas Mackenzie (b Perth, Sept/Oct 1815; d Elgin, Grampian, 15 Oct 1854), the most important of this generation, practised in Aberdeen in 1835–9 in the offices of John Smith and of Archibald Simpson, and then in Elgin, in that of William Robertson, entering into partnership with Simpson’s pupil James Matthews (1820–98) in 1844. Thomas Mackenzie worked mainly from Elgin and Matthews from Aberdeen. Thomas Mackenzie’s preferred style was Italianate, as at Elgin Museum (1842), the Caledonian Bank (...


Douglass Shand-Tucci

(b Londonderry, Jan 7, 1867; d Boston, MA, Feb 15, 1955).

American architect and writer. He moved to the USA from Ireland at the age of 18. After an apprenticeship to Edmund M. Wheelwright in Boston, he established his own office, also in Boston, at about the turn of the century with Timothy Walsh (1868–1934). Among the Boston Gothicists headed by Ralph Adams Cram, Henry Vaughan (1846–1917), and Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, Maginnis quickly established himself as a leader, best known for the magnificent Gothic Revival buildings of Boston College (begun 1909), for which the firm earned an American Institute of Architects Gold Medal. Like Cram, Maginnis’s work was eclectic and included the Spanish-style Carmelite Convent (c. 1915), Santa Clara, CA, and the regal Classical Revival chapel of Trinity College (c. 1920), Washington, DC, as well as a number of churches in the Lombard style, for which he had a special affinity. The best of these is St Catherine’s (...


James Yorke

(fl London, 1760–c. 1770).

English furniture designer and cabinetmaker. He was recorded as working in the Haymarket, London, from 1760 until 1766, but no furniture documented or labelled from his workshop has been identified. In 1760 he contributed 50 designs to Houshold Furniture in Genteel Taste, sponsored by a Society of Upholsterers and Cabinetmakers, and in the same year he published the Carpenter’s Compleat Guide to the Whole System of Gothic Railing, which consisted of 14 plates. There followed the Cabinet and Chair-maker’s Real Friend and Companion in 1765, with designs for 100 chairs in Gothic, chinoiserie, Rococo and Rustic styles. A second edition, virtually unaltered, appeared in 1775. In 1766 he brought out the Chair-maker’s Guide, containing ‘upwards of Two Hundered New and Genteel Designs … for Gothic, Chinese, Ribbon and other chairs’; it includes two plates from William Ince and John Mayhew’s Universal System of Household Furniture and at least six from ...


Gordon Campbell

English cabinetmaking firm in Leeds, prominent in the late 19th century. The company began as Messrs Kendell & Co., which was bought in 1864 by John Marsh and Edward Jones. Their furniture was executed in historical styles, often Gothic Revival, and was sold from both their Leeds workshop and a London showroom. Their distinguished succession of designers included Charles Bevan, Bruce Talbert and (in the 1880s and 1890s) W. R. Lethaby; in the early 20th century they made Art Nouveau furniture, and their designers included Edwin Lutyens in ...


Jeanne Sheehy

(b Dublin, Jan 6, 1817; d Dublin, Feb 6, 1882).

Irish architect. He was educated at the Christian Brothers’ School, Dublin, and entered the Figure and Ornament Schools of the Royal Dublin Society in 1834. In 1837 he moved to the Architecture School and in the same year began to exhibit designs at the Royal Hibernian Academy. He was articled to the architect William Farrell (d 1852). He probably spent the years 1843–6 in England, where he came under the influence of A. W. N. Pugin and the Ecclesiological movement. By 1846 he was back in Ireland and embarked on his first major commission, St Kevin’s, Glendalough, Co. Wicklow, which he described as ‘the first uncompromisingly true church of the old type erected in the archdiocese of Dublin’. It followed Ecclesiological recommendations for a small rural church, with a nave and carefully differentiated chancel, a bell cote, south porch and a sacristy, and was built of local granite with limestone dressings. He planned a richly decorated interior, with rood screen, sedilia and founder’s tomb, stained glass, encaustic tiles and stencilled walls, but little of this was achieved. St Kevin’s launched McCarthy on a successful career. His religion was no disadvantage, as the Catholic church began a vigorous building campaign. McCarthy was a skilled self-publicist, writing about the new architecture in Duffy’s ...


(b Pinerolo, nr Turin, March 11, 1792; d Turin, April 18, 1867).

Italian architect. He was one of the few architects in Italy to work in the Gothic Revival style in the early 19th century. He studied architecture at the University of Turin, graduating in 1812, and was licensed to practise in 1816. He worked first as a military engineer, mainly on the construction of bridges and roads. In 1824 Charles-Felix, King of Sardinia, appointed Melano to take responsibility for the restoration of the abbey of Hautecombe, Savoie, France; he was commissioned to build new works at Hautecombe in 1828, which continued until 1843. Also in Savoie, Melano worked on the internal decoration (1833) of the cathedral at Chambéry; on the church of St Pierre-de-Marché (consecrated 1836), in a classical style; and on the decoration of the cathedral at St Jean-de-Maurienne.

Melano was summoned to Turin in 1833 and in the same year was appointed Royal Architect, with responsibility for the Ufficio d’Arte from ...


Ye. I. Kirichenko


(b ?Edinburgh, 1753; d St Petersburg, 1831).

Russian architect of Scottish birth. He moved to Russia in 1784 at the invitation of Charles Cameron and first worked as an assistant to Nikolay L’vov on the construction of the cathedral in Mogilev (1780–98) and a monastery in Torzhok (1785–96). He was a member of the Construction Committee (formed 1812) of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. His independent works are associated with the development in Russia of large landscape parks, whether private urban estates, such as the park (1818) behind the Mikhaylovsky Palace in St Petersburg, or urban public parks, which became popular in Russia in the 1820s, for example the Peter (Petrovsky) Park (1826; destr.; now a sports stadium) on the Peterburgskoye Shosse (later Leningrad Prospect), near Moscow. Most important are his parks for the imperial residences near St Petersburg, which represent a new development in the Romantic synthesis of park and palace. On the site of the former Menagerie at ...


(b Cologne, Oct 10, 1837; d Utrecht, Feb 6, 1919).

German sculptor, painter and architect. He was the grandson of the painter Egidius Mengelberg (1770–1849) and received his training in the art school founded by the latter in Cologne, where his tutors included the architect Friedrich von Schmidt and the sculptor Christoph Stefan (1797–1864). Mengelberg then established a studio in Cologne, which from about 1860 was led in his absence by his brother Heinrich Otto Mengelberg (1841–91). From this period Mengelberg produced several altars with reliefs, statues and plaques, for example the high altar (1867) for St Paul in Aachen and the side altar (1882–3) for St Mariae Rosenkranz in Mönchengladbach. He also provided oil paintings and furniture for Cologne Cathedral, as well as designs for decorations and frescoes.

From 1869 onwards Mengelberg worked mainly for the Dutch bishopric of Utrecht. He was a leading member of the Guild of St Barnulphus, which took a great interest in medieval art, and, with the help of a large workshop, he created the archiepiscopal throne, the ciborium altars and the rood screen for the cathedral of St Catharina (now Utrecht, Catharijneconvent). He also provided the decoration for St Willibrordus (...


Pavel Zatloukal

(b Brünn [now Brno], June 26, 1832; d Olmütz [now Olomouc], Aug 4, 1888).

Moravian architect. He studied (1847–52) at the Polytechnic in Brünn under E. Ringhoffer and was subsequently employed (until 1857) on the Lobkowitz estate in Bohemia. He completed his education (1857–8) in Vienna. From 1858 until his death he worked in the projects section of the office of works of the archdiocese of Olmütz, becoming director of the department in 1882. In this post he became one of the leading contemporary architects of ecclesiastical buildings in Moravia, most of them designed in the Gothic Revival style, although he also produced designs that reflected an appreciation of Early Christian basilica architecture. His first period of creative activity in the 1860s and 1870s was marked by a free interpretation of the past. His work in Silesia, now part of Moravia, included the churches of the Assumption (1865–70) at Liebenthal (now Liptaň), St Andrew (1869–71) at Deutsch-Pauwlowitz (now Slezské Pavlovice), in the Gothic Revival style, and the church of St Catherine (...


Alberto Villar Movellán

(b Barcelona, 1815; d Barcelona, 1895).

Spanish architect, urban planner and writer. He studied at the Escuela de Arquitectura, Barcelona, as a pupil of its founder, the Neo-classical architect Antonio Cellés y Azcona (1775–1835). Later he studied in Madrid, obtaining his degree in the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in 1841. Despite his Neo-classical training, he distinguished himself as an exponent of Gothic Revival designs, influenced by elements of Romanticism. His best-known work in this style is his design (1864) for the principal façade of Barcelona Cathedral, which was commissioned by the Girona family. After 1882 the design was altered to accommodate that of Augusto Font y Carreras, resulting in a more generalized medieval style. Mestres Esplugas’ other decisive work was the Gran Teatro del Liceo (from 1861), Barcelona, which was reconstructed by him from the original building (1844–8; by Miguel Garriga y Roca), which had burnt down. Here he succeeded in building one of the leading opera houses in Spain, with a construction that combines classical splendour with an eclectic use of Baroque decoration. He was the municipal architect of Barcelona, where he won the competition for the Plaza Real, but this was not executed because it contained a proposal to use iron columns. He was also responsible for the restoration of various medieval buildings and wrote numerous articles on monuments and architectural criticism. Among the latter his essay entitled ‘¿Tenemos en España algun tipo de arquitectura que podamos calificar de arquitectura nacional?’ (...


H. W. Hawkes

(b Radway, Warwicks, bapt Aug 9, 1716; d London, April 23, 1780).

English architect and landscape designer. He was an amateur architect who fostered his career with the aim of turning professional should the financial need arise. Miller’s architectural work was very much part of a busy social life and the day-to-day demands of running his own estate at Radway Grange, Edgehill (Warwicks). His earliest work was the construction of Radway’s terrace (1739) to give a view of the neighbouring Civil War battlefield, where newly planted clumps represented the combatants’ positions. The thatched cottage (1743–4) that he built on the brow of Edgehill was calculated to give the appearance of a blasted stone fortress appropriated to domestic use. It was followed by the widely celebrated Edgehill Castle Tower (1745–7), modelled on one at Warwick Castle, the highest room of which was resplendently embellished with heraldic decoration, stained glass and Gothick plasterwork. A ruined arch was added (...


Dominique Colmont

(b Paris, May 21, 1819; d Cannes, Feb 24, 1879).

French architect and restorer. He entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in 1837 and studied under Henri Labrouste. In 1847 he was appointed assistant architect to Viollet-le-Duc in the Commission des Monuments Historiques, and the following year he became architect for diocesan buildings in Troyes (Aube) and Châlons-sur-Marne (Marne). In 1849 he was promoted within the Commission des Monuments Historiques, and thereafter he carried out major restoration work on numerous medieval churches, including St Pierre, Souvigny (Allier), the former abbey church at St Benoît-sur-Loire (Loiret) and Notre-Dame at Paray-le-Monial (Saône-Loire). In 1855 Millet was appointed architect in charge of the château of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris. On the death of Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus in 1857 he took over the rebuilding of the cathedral at Moulins (Allier), where a Gothic Revival nave was grafted on to a 15th-century choir. In 1863 Millet was appointed Professor of Building at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, but he resigned two years later. In ...


Jean van Cleven

(b Ghent, June 7, 1801; d Ghent, Aug 5, 1875).

Belgian architect and collector. The son of a French immigrant, he trained in architecture at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent under the direction of Louis Joseph Adrien Roelandt and between 1817 and 1835 obtained several prizes but competed without success for the Prix de Rome at Amsterdam in 1827. Appointed a professor at the academy of The Hague in 1829, he returned to Ghent after the Belgian Revolution (1830) and there became a most successful and wealthy architect–builder and was elected a town councillor. Minard’s architectural works, mostly in eastern Flanders, include the building or restoration of churches, for example at Melle (1837–9), Adegem (1842–4), Burst (1852–5), Ertvelde (1854) and Wetteren (1865), private houses in Ghent, country houses and châteaux (Olsene (1854), Deurle (destr.), Vosselare (destr.), Nazareth-Scheldevelde, Lovendegem, Melle, Lochristi, Wetteren (destr.), Wondelgem, Drongen, Erpe), school and industrial buildings and funeral monuments. His first works, such as the Hôtel Godefroy (...


Yvonne Janková

(b Citoliby, nr Louny, Nov 22, 1835; d Prague, Jan 15, 1899).

Bohemian architect and conservator. After graduating from the Czech Technical University, Prague, he went to Vienna, where he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste with Eduard Van der Nüll and August Siccard von Siccardsburg. Later he became a pupil of Friedrich von Schmidt and devoted himself to the study of Gothic art. Schmidt employed Mocker from 1864 to 1869 as a supervisor of his projects, and the two also collaborated from 1863 on the reconstruction and completion of the Stephansdom in Vienna. In 1869 Schmidt sent Mocker to Děčín in northern Bohemia, where he worked for the aristocratic Thun family until 1872. He also designed schools in the area, for example at Litoměřice and Mladá Boleslav, and a railway station in Lovosice.

A turning-point in Mocker’s life came in 1873 with his appointment as master builder for the completion of the cathedral of St Vitus, Prague. This campaign, of great national significance, had been taken up from ...


Gavin Stamp


(b Tullamore, Ireland, June 7, 1856; d London, June 30, 1920).

English architect. He was articled to George Gilbert Scott II (see Scott family, §2) from 1875 to 1878. He then set up in independent practice but continued to assist his former master and completed several of Scott’s buildings after his mental breakdown. His early churches, such as All Saints (1885–1903), Peterborough, show the strong influence of Scott’s work, but by the time he designed St Peter’s (1893–1911), Barnsley, S Yorks, Moore had transcended the work of his master and shown great resourcefulness in planning to produce highly picturesque but thoroughly practical internal effects. His genius at fitting large churches on to awkward and confined urban sites was well demonstrated at St Columba’s (1902–8), Middlesbrough, Cleveland, while in his late work, such as St James’s (1911–14), Clacton, Essex, Moore combined round with pointed arches and eliminated internal mouldings. His other notable churches include St Wilfrid’s (...


Daniel H. Weiss

Extensively illustrated Old Testament manuscript (390×300 mm; New York, Morgan Lib., MS. M.638) produced in France. Containing more than 340 narrative episodes distributed across the recto and verso sides of 46 parchment leaves, the Old Testament cycle begins with the first chapters of Genesis and concludes with scenes from the life of King David from 2 Samuel. No longer in its original binding, three leaves are now separated from the Morgan volume; two being in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris (Ms. nouv. acq. lat. 2294, fols 2, 3) and a single leaf in the J. Paul Getty Museum in Los Angeles (83. MA.55). Distinctive for the quality of its illustrations, the richness of its narrative cycle and the fact that the original codex probably contained no text, the Morgan manuscript was produced around the middle of the 13th century, most likely in Paris for King Louis IX (reg 1226–70) or a close associate. The ascription of the manuscript to a royal context is based primarily on thematic similarities to other works associated with the King, including especially the ...


Ian J. Lochhead

(b Wolverhampton, March 13, 1825; d Christchurch, March 15, 1898).

New Zealand architect of English birth. The pre-eminent Gothic Revival architect of 19th-century New Zealand, he was articled to R. C. Carpenter in 1844. From Carpenter he gained a sound knowledge of Gothic design and an understanding of ecclesiological principles, to which he adhered throughout his career. By 1848 he was practising in London. A devout Anglo-Catholic, Mountfort emigrated in 1850 to Canterbury, South Island, New Zealand, a colony promoted by the Church of England. He practised in Christchurch for the rest of his career. Mountfort’s first major commission, Holy Trinity (1852; destr. 1857), Lyttelton, was an over-ambitious, timber-framed church, which quickly deteriorated through the shrinkage of unseasoned timber. Despite this setback, he continued to design churches for the predominantly Anglican colonists, including St Bartholomew’s (1855), Kaiapoi, and St Mary’s (1863), Halswell. St Mary’s, a small, ecclesiologically correct parish church, Early English in style, picturesque in composition, with a timber frame and vertical board-and-batten sidings, became the model for Mountfort’s subsequent wooden churches. Although derived from Carpenter’s design for a timber church in the Ecclesiological Society’s ...


Mark Stocker

(b Inverness, Scotland, Oct 26, 1825; d Cannes, Jan 1, 1871).

Scottish sculptor, active in England. With the help of Harriet Egerton, Duchess of Sutherland, he obtained work in London, where in 1844 he assisted with carving in the Houses of Parliament, then being rebuilt following destruction by fire. After working under Edward Hodges Baily, he enrolled in 1847 at the Royal Academy Schools, where he met members of the Pre-Raphaelite circle; he befriended Dante Gabriel Rossetti and shared his studio with Arthur Hughes. Munro’s most obviously Pre-Raphaelite work is Paolo and Francesca (marble, 1851–2; Birmingham, Mus. & A.G.). Although it is traditionally seen as following Rossetti, it preceded the latter’s Paolo and Francesca da Rimini (1855; London, Tate) and reflected Munro’s admiration of John Flaxman. Pre-Raphaelitism is evident in Paolo’s gauche pose and the work’s emotional intensity; the unrealistically smooth modelling emphasizes its visionary and poetic qualities. Munro’s stone tympanum relief King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table...


Teresa S. Watts

(b Mulhouse, Sept 28, 1727; d Kassel, bur May 1798).

Swiss architect, painter, draughtsman and writer. He served as an engineer in the French army (1748–54) and drew Gothic monuments in Spain (1748) and copied ancient vases and painted idyllic landscapes in Rome (1749–54). He then stayed from 1755 to 1759 with Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill, where he worked as a topographical artist, portrait painter and architectural draughtsman. Having left Walpole after a domestic dispute, Müntz attempted to support himself through commissions, producing drawings of a Gothic cathedral and possibly the Alhambra for Kew Gardens, a dining room and cloister (New Haven, CT, Yale U., Lewis Walpole Lib.) for Richard Bateman, and an oval room for Lord Charlemont, to complement his vase collection. All were in the Gothic style, as were a number of architectural drawings later used in a guide by Robert Manwaring (1760). Müntz left England in 1762 and spent a year recording monuments in Greece and Jerusalem before settling in Holland, where he worked until ...