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Darryl Patrick

(b Cherryville, PA, July 23, 1863; d New York, Sept 22, 1955).

American businessman and collector. The successful development of a chain of variety stores in the southern and western states provided the wealth necessary to fund his art collecting, and his frequent business and pleasure trips to Europe gave him access to art and art dealers. He started to acquire works of the Italian Renaissance, relying initially on the advice of the Florentine collector and dealer Conte Alessandro Contini-Bonacossi and soon adding medieval and Baroque works through the assistance of Joseph Duveen and Bernard Berenson. In 1929 he established a foundation to assist purchase of European works of art by American museums and funded the cost of restoring several important buildings in Italy, including the Palazzo Ducale in Mantua and the church of S Giovanni Evangelista in Ravenna. In 1939 he donated works of art valued at more than £25 million to the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, and in ...


Myroslava M. Mudrak

[Krichevsky, Vasily]

(b Vorozhba, Kharkiv province, Jan 12, 1873; d Caracas, Venezuela, Nov 15, 1952).

Ukrainian architect, painter, illustrator and collector. He received no systematic artistic education and first became known because of his interest in Ukrainian folklore. His prizewinning design for the City Council building in Poltava (1900) formed the basis of a new style, founded on traditions of Ukrainian folk art, and initiated a movement in Ukrainian architecture. Among his other buildings are the People’s House in Lokhvitsa (1904) and the Shevchenko Memorial Museum in Kaniv (1931–4). As a painter, he was influenced by the French Impressionists. The pure, harmonious colours of his southern Ukrainian landscapes convey the lyrical atmosphere of his native land, and he took part in the annual exhibitions of the Union of Russian Watercolourists in St Petersburg (1899–1902) and in the exhibitions of Kiev painters (1910–13). Krychevsky was one of the founders of contemporary Ukrainian book design, reviving the technique of the woodcut and producing over 80 cover designs. He produced set and costume designs for 15 plays and operas in the Sadovs’ky Theatre in Kiev (...


(b Keighley, W. Yorks, March 28, 1834; d Paterson, NJ, Feb 15, 1923).

American manufacturer and collector. He came to Boston in 1851 and began his career as a bookkeeper with the firm of Tilt & Dexter, manufacturers of silk goods and dress trimmings. In 1855 he became a partner and head of the New York branch. In 1858 he bought out Dexter and became head of the company known as Dexter, Lambert & Co., moving the factory from Boston to Paterson, NJ. He built a home, Belle-Vista Castle, in Paterson, which became the showplace of the city, especially for his large and diverse art collection of more than 600 paintings. He was a patron of Ralph Albert Blakelock and owned 11 of his paintings (e.g. Sunset; Trenton, NJ State Mus.). In 1899 he sold Monet’s Chrysanthemums (1882) and Renoir’s By the Seashore (1883) to Durand-Ruel’s gallery in New York: these were acquired by Henry Osborne Havemeyer (1848–1907...


Karolina Lanckorońska

[Karl Anton Leo Ludwig]

(b Vienna, Nov 4, 1848; d Vienna, July 15, 1933).

Polish archaeologist, writer, collector and patron, active in Austria. As an archaeologist his main interest lay in the architectural ruins of the late Roman Empire in Anatolia. In 1884 he organized an expedition of which he later published an account, Stadt Pamphyliens und Pisidiens. Sketches made by Jacek Malczewski (e.g. Warsaw, Royal Castle; mainly watercolours) are also records of the expedition. Lanckoroński and Malczewski later toured Italy and travelled to Munich together. Other artists patronized by Lanckoroński included Antoni Madeyski (1862–1939), Henryk Rodakowski and Hans Makart. During 1888 and 1889 Lanckoroński made a round-the-world voyage and subsequently published a diary of this trip, entitled Rund um die Erde. He brought back to Vienna various works of art, mainly sculptures and textiles. Between 1890 and 1895 a Baroque Revival palace was built for him in Vienna to designs by Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Hellmer (1849–1919). In it Lanckoroński installed paintings, mainly Dutch and French, that he had inherited and Italian paintings he had purchased (e.g. Masaccio’s ...


Oliver Garnett


(b Ballybrack House, Co. Cork, Nov 9, 1875; d S.S. Lusitania, off Cork, May 7, 1915).

Irish dealer, collector, museum director and benefactor. Having worked briefly for Martin Colnaghi at Marlborough Galleries, London, he began dealing on his own account in 1898 with immediate success. In 1902 he organized the Old Masters exhibition at the Royal Hibernian Academy in Dublin, and the following year an equally influential show of modern Irish art at the Guildhall Art Gallery, London. The Staats Forbes collection of Barbizon and Hague school paintings inspired him to found a municipal gallery of modern art in Dublin, which opened in Clonmell House in January 1908. Despite offering to donate his own important collection of modern pictures to the gallery and commissioning an ambitious design from Edwin Lutyens for a gallery that would span the Liffey river, he failed to persuade the authorities to finance a permanent home. In 1913 he removed 39 of the most important pictures to London, including major French Impressionist works such as ...


Julian Sheather

(b London, Feb 4, 1857; d London, May 30, 1925).

English barrister, writer and collector. He was educated at Harrow School and Trinity College, Cambridge University. Apart from law his interests were extensive and eclectic, typical of the Victorian gentleman with liberal and philanthropic tastes. He contributed to the Dictionary of National Biography (London, 1885–) and the Times Supplement of the Encyclopaedia Britannica and invented a system for the federation of private libraries. Arguably, however, his main interests lay in the arcana of book plates and engravings, which he collected. Among others, he published books on the Pre-Raphaelite illustrators of Alfred Tennyson, the engravings of Pierre Lombart and a catalogue raisonné of engraved British portraits from altered plates.

Tennyson and his Pre-Raphaelite Illustrators: A Book about a Book (London, 1894) George Cruikshank’s Portraits of Himself (London, 1897) ed.: Sir Thomas Lawrence’s Letter-bag (London, 1906) Suppressed Plates: Wood Engravings etc. together with Curiosities Germane Thereto (London, 1907) The Headless Horseman: Pierre Lombart’s Engravings...


Concha Vela

(b Beire, Navarra, March 30, 1862; d Madrid, Dec 1, 1947).

Spanish collector, publisher and patron. He studied law in Barcelona and c. 1882 settled in Madrid, where his enthusiasm for art and literature rapidly developed. In 1888 he founded a publishing enterprise, España Moderna, and a journal of the same name containing contributions by such leading writers and intellectuals as Juan Valera and Emilia Pardo Bazán. Lázaro Galdiano used the journal to publish the most significant writings on Spanish art and translations of such books as Carl Justi’s Diego Velázquez und sein Jahrhundert, 2 vols (Bonn, 1888, rev. 1903). His publishing house also issued the Revista Internacional and several collections dealing with cultural and juridical matters. Over a period of 60 years he assembled one of the finest collections of art in Spain and in Europe, notable for its size and the quality and rarity of the works. Many pieces were acquired through his extensive travels, when he was accompanied by his wife, the wealthy Argentine Paula Florido. His collection included important illuminated manuscripts and engravings, as well as numerous examples of enamel work, from 10th-century Byzantine pieces to 16th-century Limoges enamel. He collected ivory, gold and silver objects of various periods and styles: Hellenistic, Roman, Islamic, Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque. There were also many examples of fans, fabrics, pieces of lace, medals, armour and furniture in his collection. Among his paintings were examples of 15th- and 16th-century Flemish and Spanish work (e.g. ...



Valérie M. C. Bajou

(b Paris, Oct 3, 1848; d Paris, April 22, 1929).

French painter and collector. He was initially a pupil of Louis Lamothe (1822–69) in 1864 but never went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Independent in outlook, he began working in the Louvre, where he met Albert Besnard and Jean-Louis Forain, and made copies after Nicolas Poussin, Veronese and Peter Paul Rubens. He attended the Académie Suisse and exhibited at the Salon from 1868. Having briefly been influenced by Henri Regnault, Lerolle painted works that owed much to the scenes of contemporary life by Jules Bastien-Lepage, Henri Gervex, Alfred Roll and Jean Charles Cazin, who introduced the taste for naturalistic observation, bright colouring and plein-air painting to the official Salons. At the Organ (exh. Salon 1885; New York, Met.) and At the Water’s Edge (1888; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.) disseminated in more accessible terms the still controversial innovations of Edouard Manet and the Impressionists. Lerolle’s concern for the structure of his compositions, in which the figures were sometimes off-centre, can be seen in his portraits, such as the ...


(b Bolton, Lancs, Sept 19, 1851; d Hampstead, London, May 7, 1925).

English industrialist, patron and collector. The son of a prosperous Bolton Congregational wholesale grocer, Lever entered the family firm at the age of 16; he diversified into soap-making, first at Warrington in 1885 and later at Port Sunlight (nr Liverpool) in 1889. His firm, Lever Brothers, was immediately successful; by 1897 his annual income was about £92,000 and had risen to £242,000 in 1912. He started collecting contemporary paintings seriously around 1889. Following the example of Thomas James Barratt, another soap manufacturer, he began to incorporate these works into his soap advertisements. Just as Barratt had quarrelled with John Everett Millais over the use of his Bubbles (1886; London, A. & F. Pears Ltd) in an advertisement, so Lever antagonized William Powell Frith by the similar exploitation of his New Frock (exh. RA 1889; Port Sunlight, Lady Lever A.G.).

The works that Lever collected for commercial purposes were by artists specializing in contemporary subjects and were thus relatively experimental. However, Lever was also assembling a private collection of a more conservative nature for his country house, Thornton Manor (nr Port Sunlight); for example, the classical works of ...


Bettina Brand

(b Berlin, July 20, 1847; d Berlin, Feb 8, 1935).

German painter, draughtsman, printmaker and collector. He dominated the German art world from the 1890s to the 1930s. Although at first a highly controversial figure, after the turn of the century he was showered with honours. His Naturalist and Impressionist works have been consistently admired, despite being banned during the Nazi period. Liebermann’s approach was that of a liberal cosmopolitan, and his work is distinguished by its honesty and commitment to social reform. Influenced by Dutch and French painting, he led the modernist movement in Germany away from the literary art of the 19th century.

The son of a Jewish businessman from Berlin, Liebermann initially studied philosophy, but in 1866 he became a pupil of Carl Steffeck, who had given him occasional drawing tuition. In 1868–72 he studied under Ferdinand Wilhelm Pauwels (1830–1904), Charles Verlat and Paul Thumann (1834–1908) at the Kunsthochschule in Weimar. In 1871...


Norbert W. Hasler, H. Haupt and E. Castellani Zahir

Austrian dynasty of rulers, patrons and collectors. They derived their name from their castle near Mödling, south of Vienna, and it was applied to their estates on the Upper Rhine after those estates became an imperial principality in 1719 (see Liechtenstein, Principality of, below); the hereditary rank of prince, however, dates from 1608, when (1) Charles I was given the title. Since 1921 the principality has been a constitutional monarchy. The family resided in Vienna until 1938, when they moved into Schloss Vaduz in Liechtenstein. Since 1989 the ruler has been John-Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein (b 1945).

J. von Falke: Geschichte des fürstlichen Hauses Liechtenstein, 3 vols (Vienna, 1868–82/R Vaduz, 1984) Meisterwerke aus den Sammlungen des Fürsten von Liechtenstein (exh. cat., Lucerne, Kstmus., 1948) N. Jansen: Franz Josef II., Fürst von und zu Liechtenstein: Ein Porträt, mit einer kurzgefassten Geschichte des Landes und des Hauses Liechtenstein...


Christopher Newall

(b Balcarres, Fife, Feb 2, 1824; d London, May 7, 1913).

Scottish painter and gallery owner. He was a grandson of the banker Sir Coutts Trotter and the son of James and Anne Lindsay of Balcarres. In 1838 he visited Italy for the first time, with his cousin Alexander, Lord Lindsay (who, in 1847, dedicated his Sketches of the History of Christian Art to him). As a young man Lindsay had a passionate interest in the arts. He experimented with fresco painting and took drawing lessons. In 1854, in Rome, Lindsay met Mrs Adelaide Sartoris, who introduced him to a circle of English painters, probably including Frederic Leighton, George Heming Mason and Edward John Poynter. In London he joined the Little Holland House circle and numbered many painters among his friends.

Lindsay’s most important early work was a fresco (1875) for Dorchester House, London (destr.), the mansion of his brother-in-law Robert Staynor Holford. Between 1862 and 1875 he occasionally submitted portraits and figurative subjects to the Royal Academy, but his works were often rejected. His dissatisfaction with the organization of the Academy and low opinion of much of the work shown there caused him in ...


(b Brooklyn, 1864; d New York, March 18, 1928).

American art historian, critic, and collector. The son of Frederick Loeser, a department store owner and early donor of 19th-century European paintings to the Metropolitan Museum, New York, he studied at Harvard, earning a master’s degree in philosophy in 1887. He continued his study of philosophy in Berlin the following winter and in 1890 moved to Florence, where he lived in the Villa Gattaia, furnished with old and modern furniture and works of art. Influenced by the Italian collector Giovanni Morelli (1819–91), he was a pioneer connoisseur of drawings and built a major private collection, primarily Italian and representing the history of draughtsmanship, with a new emphasis on Baroque and Mannerist works. He contributed two volumes (Titian and Tintoretto, and Filippino Lippi) to the annotated facsimile publication of drawings from the Uffizi and wrote critical essays on Old Master drawings in various collections. He was an adviser to the Fogg Museum at Harvard University and to the Brooklyn Museum. He bequeathed 262 Old Master drawings (including works by ...


Mikhail Guerman


(b Poltava, Nov 24, 1875; d Menton, France, Dec 26, 1933).

Russian statesman, critic and theorist. The son of a leading civil servant, he studied at Zurich University. He was attracted at an early age by Marxist ideas and became involved in the revolutionary movement; in 1895 he joined the Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party (RSDRP; later the Communist Party). He was not a committed follower of Lenin and his policies and was often at loggerheads with the Bolshevik ideologists and with Lenin himself.

From 1917 to 1928 Lunacharsky was People’s Commissar (Minister) for Education (see Narkompros) and a central figure in the cultural life of the Soviet Union. Well-educated, tolerant and broad-minded, he did what he could to preserve the old intelligentsia and to prevent the destruction of cultural monuments. His views were, however, informed by the Marxist approach to history and culture and he perpetually asserted the value of the new, ‘socialist’ culture, elaborating its theoretical tenets and helping artists to orientate themselves within the new, ‘proletarian’ system of values. His key essay, ‘Lenin and the study of literature’, is not only a tribute to semi-official aesthetics, but also a well-argued and convincing manifesto for Soviet culture, utilizing a class-based theory and Marxist postulates and striving to retain links with the classical heritage....


Oxana Cleminson


(b Yalutorovsk, Tyumen’ Province, Oct 15, 1841; d Moscow, April 6, 1918).

Russian industrialist and patron. He was educated at the Mining Institute in St Petersburg and the Law Faculty of Moscow University. He made his fortune in the building of the railways. During the 1870s he spent a few years in Italy studying painting and art history and taking singing lessons. In Rome and Paris Mamontov met and became friends with the painters Vasily Polenov and Il’ya Repin, the sculptor Mark Antokol’sky and the art historian Adrian Prakhov (1846–1916). This group formed the foundation of the circle at the estate of Abramtsevo, which Mamontov purchased in 1870.

Mamontov invited numerous artists to Abramtsevo, and they were inspired by the creative atmosphere and the picturesque surroundings. Some of them lived and worked there for a large part of the summer, and among the works painted there were Valentin Serov’s Girl with Peaches (1887), Mikhail Nesterov’s Vision of the Boy Bartholomew...


(b Paris, Aug 27, 1856; d Paris, 1932).

French writer and collector. Destined by his father for a career in law, he completed his studies in Paris in 1880 and in 1882 became councillor at the Prefecture in Evreux, a post he resigned on the death of his father in 1883. From his father Jules Marmottan (1829–83), he inherited a large fortune and his collection of Northern paintings, sculptures and tapestries from the Middle Ages and Renaissance. He then devoted himself to historical studies and collecting art. He was most interested in the period of the First Empire and travelled all over Europe to see Napoleonic sites, visiting Waterloo five times. His book L’Ecole française de peinture 1789–1830 (1886) surveyed the work of numerous painters of the period and revealed his dislike for 18th-century art. In the introduction, he criticized the way art appreciation was led by fashion rather than understanding. He had a special interest in the history of Italy under the Empire which led to books such as ...


S. J. Vernoit


(b Stockholm, May 8, 1868; d Cairo, April 13, 1933).

Swedish diplomat, scholar, collector and dealer. In 1884 he became assistant at the ethnographical museum in Stockholm, and by 1890 he was assistant at the archaeological museum. He combined his interests in ethnography and archaeology on a visit to Siberia (1891–2), publishing his findings in L’Age du bronze au Musée de Minoussinsk. He then turned to Islamic art, travelling widely and collecting in Russia, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Egypt and Turkey. He began to acquire Islamic book paintings at Bukhara in 1894 and in the following year sold 387 oriental manuscripts to the University Library at Uppsala. In the winter of 1896 he excavated at Fustat (Old Cairo), returning with several thousand ceramic fragments. In 1897 he exhibited his collection at Stockholm. About this time he formed the opinion that manuscripts had been the chief disseminators of ornamental motifs in the Islamic world. From 1903, when he was attached to the Swedish Embassy in Istanbul as dragoman, he acquired a number of precious manuscripts and albums, and he also probably formed in these years a collection of etchings of views of Istanbul, portraits of sultans and political pictures that went to Lund University. He published ...


(b Nancy, 1859; d Paris, 1913).

French civil servant, writer and collector. He began his career as a journalist in Nancy, writing on the arts for the Progrès de l’Est from 1878, and in 1882 he published a series of studies of local painters, Etudes d’art lorrain. In the same year he was appointed Secrétaire des Beaux-Arts in Paris and five years later succeeded Jules Castagnary as Directeur de l’Administration des Beaux-Arts; in 1889 he became Inspecteur des Musées de Province. He organized the great Exposition Universelle in 1889; among other reforms, he instituted a new section for the decorative arts at the Salon from 1891. He was in charge of the paintings at the Exposition Universelle in 1900 and persuaded the reluctant Impressionists Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir and Camille Pissarro to exhibit there. In addition, Marx was a prolific writer, often coming to the defence of the avant-garde. He was a friend of many artists, among them Paul Cézanne, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Auguste Rodin and particularly Eugène Carrière, whom he met in ...


Christina Lodder


(b Nizhny Novgorod, 1861; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Oct 14, 1934).

Russian painter, patron, musician, writer and publisher. He pursued a highly original line of artistic thought and practice and developed an organic perception of the world, deriving his inspiration from nature rather than machines, unlike many of his Russian Constructivist contemporaries.

Matyushin trained initially as a musician at the Moscow Conservatory (1878–81) and played the violin in the Court orchestra in St Petersburg from 1881 to 1913. In 1889 he began to attend the School of the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts in St Petersburg, where he studied painting with Yan Tsionglinsky (d 1914). In Tsionglinsky’s studio he met the artist and writer Yelena Guro, whom he married. Later (1906–8) he studied with the World of Art (Mir Iskusstva) painters Léon Bakst and Mstislav Dobuzhinsky at the Zvantseva School of Art in St Petersburg.

In 1909 Matyushin briefly joined the circle around Nikolay Kul’bin and the following year he founded the ...