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Julie Lawson

(b St Cyrus, Kincardineshire [now Grampian], May 1827; d London, Oct 9, 1895).

Scottish photographer and doctor. He was active as an amateur photographer from c. 1852 to 1857, using the waxed paper process of Gustave Le Gray to make salted paper prints. Most of his known photographs were taken in Edinburgh and Iona. He treated traditional subjects, such as historic Edinburgh, with originality in response to the medium itself, stressing the abstract nature of the compositions as tonal contrasts and sequences of solids and voids, and emphasizing the geometry of buildings, for example ...


David P. Millar


(b Monaro Uplands, NSW, April 3, 1858; d Sydney, May 26, 1928).

Australian photographer. He worked as an operator in a carte-de-visite business in Sydney. When popularity for this photographic form of portraiture collapsed in the 1870s, he turned to a new and eventually lucrative business: scenic views of rural and urban Australia. Coinciding with the invention of the collodion dry plate process, which gave him more freedom of movement, he used the recently expanded railway system to reach places of photographic interest. By the 1890s his work dominated the photographic view business in Sydney; he had become more of a businessman than a photographer, employing several touring operators to meet his commitments.

The severe depression of the 1890s forced many photographers to close their businesses, and the demand for views dwindled alarmingly. Kerry, sensing that the growing postcard trade could become the basis for commercial advancement, began to produce photographic postcards. By 1910 Kerry & Co emerged as Australia’s largest publishers of postcards. Using presses in Germany to print his huge orders, and operating out of a large, four-storey building in Sydney, he had the income to indulge other interests such as horse racing, skiing and fishing. Kerry’s photographs, and those of his assistants, were avowedly commercial in subject-matter; they showed, through a misty-eyed nationalism, the heroic toil of settlers breaking in the land and the optimistic growth of Australia’s principal cities. Kerry and his company confirmed a young nation’s perception about itself, with images that have become visual icons of Victorian colonial Australia....


Julius Kaplan

(b nr Termonde, Sept 12, 1858; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1921).

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see 1979 cat. rais., p. 210), which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with ...


Michael Dunn

(b London, Sept 17, 1819; d Auckland, Sept 5, 1903).

English painter and photographer, active also in New Zealand. By profession he was an Anglican minister and school-teacher. An accomplished watercolour painter, he had studied under Aaron Penley (1807–70) at Southampton in 1835–6. His interests in architectural sketching were furthered when he was at Cambridge by his membership of the Camden Society in 1842. In 1855 he emigrated to New Zealand, settling in Auckland. Kinder is noted for his quiet but lyrical topographical views of the New Zealand landscape and settlements between 1855 and 1890, for example the watercolour On Mercury Island (1857; Auckland, A.G.) and Te Kohukohu (1858; Auckland, A. G.). He made historic photographic and painted records of Anglican missions to the Maori and of sites of battles during the Land Wars of the 1860s. He was a founder-member of the Auckland Society of Artists. There is a major collection of his work in the Auckland Art Gallery....


Daniela Mrázková


(b Hostinné [Ger. Arnau], Bohemia [now Czech Republic], May 30, 1841; d Vienna, Nov 16, 1926).

Czech printmaker, draughtsman, photographer and inventor. He studied at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague (1856–60) but, because of his anti-German and anti-Austrian views, he had to interrupt his studies several times to escape prosecution by the authorities. In 1863 he opened his own lithography workshop in Prague and one year later founded a prosperous photographic studio in Brno together with his father. Klíč was a skilled draughtsman and he gained considerable popularity as a caricaturist, first in Budapest (1868) and later in Vienna (1869). He contributed to the magazines Borszem Jankó (Budapest), Der Floh (Vienna) and Puck (London), and he founded the magazines Veselé Listy (Brno) and Humoristische Blätter (Vienna). His ironic, biting full-page drawings place him among the great representatives of European caricature of his time. However, his worldwide reputation had its source in his contribution to printing technology.

From 1876...


Elizabeth K. Valkenier


(b Novaya Sot, nr Ostrogozhsk, June 8, 1837; d St Petersburg, April 6, 1887).

Russian painter and theorist. Born to a lower-middle-class provincial family, he first worked as a copyist clerk, then as a retoucher with an itinerant photographer. From 1857 to 1863 he attended the Imperial Academy of Arts in St Petersburg, then taught for five years at the School of Drawing run by the Society for the Promotion of Fine Arts. In November 1863, while still a student at the Academy, Kramskoy organized a protest against prescribed mythological themes in the competition for the final Gold Medal that carried a six-year stipend for study abroad. This brave gesture asserted the independence of Russian artists from the dictates of the Court and the state bureaucracy that controlled their work and livelihood. It also marked a decisive break with the Academy’s outdated form of Neo-classicism, patterned on Western models, which had lost popularity with the educated public but continued to be taught and favoured at the official level. After the break with the Academy, Kramskoy sustained a group of thirteen independent painters both organizationally and intellectually in keeping with the spirit of reform and renovation that swept Russia during the 1860s after the emancipation of the serfs. He set up a communal workshop (...


Hans Christian Adam

(b Breslau, Silesia [now Wrocław, Poland], Sept 14, 1827; d Laubegast, nr Dresden, Sept 27, 1916).

German photographer, printmaker, teacher and writer. He first learnt lithography from his father, but he also worked with daguerreotypes, taking his first calotype in 1843. From 1843 to 1848 he studied philosophy, natural sciences and astronomy at Breslau University. His daguerreotype of shooting stars (1848), the first of its kind, was admired by the scientist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt (1769–1859). He attended the Kunstakademie in Dresden in 1849–50 before opening a photographic studio in Leipzig in 1851. His photograph of a solar eclipse (1851) indicated his continuing scientific interests. In 1852 he founded a new studio in Dresden, with its own photographic school, the first in Germany, and he began working with paper negatives and the wet collodion process, as well as daguerreotypes.

Krone’s stated ambition in 1847 was ‘to make photography useful to all areas of science’. Although he continued to photograph landscapes and work on numerous photographic experiments until the 1890s, the majority of his art photography was completed before ...


Christoph Brockhaus

(Leopold Isidor)

(b Leitmeritz, northern Bohemia [now Litoměřice, Czech Republic], April 10, 1877; d Schloss Zwickledt, nr Wernstein, Aug 20, 1959).

Austrian draughtsman, illustrator, painter and writer. In 1892 he was apprenticed in Klagenfurt to the landscape photographer Alois Beer. Though learning very little, he remained there until 1896, when he attempted to commit suicide as a result of his unstable disposition. A brief period in the Austrian army in 1897 led to a nervous collapse, after which he was allowed to study art. In 1898 he moved to Munich, where he studied first at the private school run by the German painter Ludwig Schmidt-Reutte (1863–1909) and then briefly at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in the drawing class of Nikolaus Gysis in 1899. In Munich he first saw the graphic work of James Ensor, Goya, Max Klinger, Edvard Munch, Odilon Redon and Félicien Rops, finding Klinger’s work closest to his own aesthetic. He also read Arthur Schopenhauer’s pessimistic philosophy, which he found attractive, and befriended many artists, including the Elf Scharfrichter circle around Frank Wedekind. His work of the period largely consisted of ink and wash drawings modelled on Goya’s and Klinger’s aquatint technique. By their inclusion of fantastic monsters and deformed or maimed humans, these drawings revealed Kubin’s abiding interest in the macabre. Thematically they were related to Symbolism, as shown by the ink drawing ...


Hans Christian Adam

(b Dresden, Feb 25, 1866; d Birgitz, nr Innsbruck, Dec 9, 1944).

German photographer, writer and scientist. His first use of photography was his microphotography in medical research in histology and bacteriology at the Robert-Koch-Institut, Berlin. His asthmatic condition led him to abandon his job as a doctor and to move to Innsbruck, where he devoted himself to photography, supported by family wealth. His first influences were from the Vienna Secession and from the Linked Ring, Brotherhood of the, which he joined in 1896, encouraging him to take part in the international exhibition of art photography in Vienna in 1891. He was strongly affected too by his meeting with Hans Watzek at the Wiener Camera-Klub in 1894. Watzek, Hugo Henneberg and Kühn worked together from 1896 on the multiple-gum printing technique to attain the broadest possible range of tonal values. They exhibited frequently together from 1897 to 1903 as Das Kleeblatt (or Trifolium), publishing numerous articles on the techniques of artistic representation with which they made a case for photography as a fine art....


Luke Gartlan


(b Nagasaki, 1843/4; d Tokyo, Feb 17, 1875).

Japanese photographer. He first encountered photography through the circle of students associated with the Dutch physicians Jan Karel van den Broek and Julius L. C. Pompe van Meerdervoort, which included the Fukuoka-born Maeda Genzō (1831–1906) and the pioneer photographer Ueno Hikoma (1838–1904). By 1863 Uchida had established an import business for photographic supplies in Nagasaki. In search of new opportunities, Uchida and Morita Raizō, a nephew of Ueno, opened one of the first photographic studios in Osaka in 1865. The following year, Uchida moved to Yokohama where he established a photographic studio in the Bashamichi district of the port. After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, Uchida expanded his business into Tokyo, opening two further branches in the districts of Nihonbashi and Asakusa. He maintained a successful portraiture business in these various studios and his carte-de-visite portraits of Japanese politicians, diplomats, scholars, and entertainers testify to his popularity. Uchida also received considerable praise for his Japanese ‘views’, selections of which were exhibited at the Vienna World Exhibition in ...


James Crump

(fl Yokohama, 1880–1912).

Japanese photographer. He is considered among the foremost photographers in Japan during the late 19th century, although information about him is scarce. He was apprenticed to the Austrian photographer Baron von Stillfried-Rathenitz, Raimund, and his work is informed by the European colonial tradition of studio photography, in which Japanese ‘types’ were recorded primarily for touristic export. In 1885 he purchased von Stillfried-Rathenitz’s studio. Kusakabe’s enterprise produced thousands of genre photographs depicting local merchants, craftsmen, prostitutes, geishas, children and the Japanese working class (e.g. Vegetable Vendor, 1880s; Salem, MA, Peabody Mus., see Worswick, p. 111). As one of the Treaty ports during the Meiji period (1868–1912), Yokohama had a thriving photographic trade, and Kusakabe’s studio portraits were in great demand by tourists in search of the exotic and romanticized Asian ‘Other’. Posed before a studio backdrop and photographed frontally and in full length, his subjects were presented in a manner highly influenced by European conventions but with more pronounced individuality and psychological character. As he himself was Japanese, his work marks a subtle transition in the way Japanese ‘types’ were portrayed, the photographs being imbued with a greater sense of emotion. After ...


Shana Simone Lopes

American photographers of German birth. Trained in law, William [Wilhelm] Langenheim (b Brunswick, 23 Feb 1807; d Philadelphia, PA, 4 May 1874) practised for some years in Brunswick before immigrating to the United States in 1834. After an unsuccessful attempt at establishing a German settlement in the American South, he fought in the Texas War of Independence. By 1840 he was living in Philadelphia, apparently finding his brother there by chance. Little is known about Frederick [Friedrich] (b Brunswick, 5 May 1809; d Philadelphia, PA, 10 Jan 1879) before his arrival in America. In 1840, through their sister Louisa’s husband Johann Schneider, a friend of the Austrian optician Frederick Wilhelm von Voigtländer, the brothers obtained a camera with a top-of-the-line Petzval-designed lens. Within three years they had opened a thriving daguerreotype studio in the Philadelphia Merchant Exchange building. While portraits of the living and the deceased were the studio’s mainstay, the brothers photographed architecture (...


G. Lola Worthington

(b San Francisco, CA, Oct 5, 1937).

Native American (Maidu–Wintu) painter, printmaker, photographer, writer, educator, traditional dancer and poet. LaPena, also known as Tauhindauli, spent time with the Nomtipom Wintu and other regional neighboring elders to conserve and regain traditional cultural practices. He was taught traditional tribal songs, dances and ceremonial rituals of Northern California Native American culture that inspired his interest in reviving and preserving Northern California tribal culture and accompanying performance arts. His work, along with Frank Day (1902–76), a late Maidu elder and painter, aided the founding of the Maidu Dancers and Traditionalists, a group dedicated to carrying out traditional cultural forms and social practices. Earning his bachelor’s degree from California State University (CSU), Chico (1965), and an Anthropology Masters of Arts degree from CSU, Sacramento (1978), he taught for the next 30 years in the CSU, Sacramento American Indian Studies program.

For LaPena, his art was a spiritual act, which empowers the maker with an opportunity to achieve a stronger sense of understanding life. Inspired by prehistoric rock painting, some painted images are depicted in total abstraction, while others illustrate a narrative theme. His strong consciousness of his Californian Native American heritage is distinctive and many themes in his compositions provide a powerful commentary in their depiction of the struggles of Northern California Native Americans; “To let the world know what happened in California, and to the indigenous populations points out that survival issues are still of great concern.” His paintings and prints reached a popular acceptance. LaPena exhibited throughout the United States and internationally at the Wheelwright Museum, Santa Fe, NM, the Chicago Art Institute, the San Francisco Museum, the Linder Museum, Stuttgart, the American Arts Gallery, New York, the George G. Heye Center of the Smithsonian, New York, and numerous galleries. In ...


W. Iain Mackay

(de la Vega de los Ríos )

(b Yagua, Huari, Tacna, May 8, 1823; d San Mateo, Lima Province, May 14, 1869).

Peruvian painter and photographer. He commenced his studies under the Ecuadorean artist Javier Cortés (d after 1841) and then at the Academia Nacional de Dibujo y Pintura in Lima. In 1842 he went to Paris to study under Paul Delaroche at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He toured Spain and Italy, visiting Venice, where he was able to study Renaissance works. Upon his return to Peru in 1849 he travelled round the southern highlands of Puno and Cuzco, which were to influence his future work.

In 1852 he was given a scholarship and returned to Paris to study under Charles Gleyre, witnessing Gleyre’s fashionable blend of the romantic and the classical. At this time he also started to develop an interest in portraying the indigenous Peruvian world. In 1855 he exhibited Mountain Dweller (c. 1855) at the first Exposition Universelle in Paris. Eventually his financial support from Peru was exhausted, and in ...


Lee Fontanella

(b Garchizy, nr Nevers, July 23, 1816; d ?1892).

French photographer, active in Spain. He had already made daguerreotypes in France when he arrived in Madrid (c. Jan 1857). In the late 1850s he lived in the same building as Charles Clifford and was correspondent for the Madrid periodical La Crónica, where he had as assistants José Vasserot and Carlos Gontella. He worked mostly in wet-collodion glass-plate and in the mid-1860s collaborated with José Martínez Sánchez on a new paper process, leptografía, and to compile an Obras públicas album of photographs (c. 1867).

Laurent began announcing his work in catalogues as early as 1861 and produced these, in at least four languages, until his death, when his successors continued the tradition. Numerous portrait cartes-de-visite still exist, bearing his addresses in Paris and in Madrid. In the early 1870s he set up his own company, increasing the commercial aspect of his work. His greatest catalogue, the ...


Ismeth Raheem

(fl 1860–c. 1874).

English photographer active in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). He went to Ceylon in the late 1850s and was employed in the firm of H. C. Bryde from early 1860 to 1866. By 1866 he had set up his own studio in Kandy, which because of its higher altitude was considered to have a climate more conducive than the capital, Colombo, for taking photographs. Like many of the 19th-century contemporary commercial photographers in Ceylon, Lawton offered a wide range of subjects in advertisements placed in the local press, including rural landscapes, scenes of the coffee plantation industry, the newly opened railway and portraits of diverse racial types within the indigenous population.

Lawton’s chief contribution to photography lay in the documentation of archaeological monuments, which he carried out under the instructions of the Committee on Ancient Architecture in Ceylon formed and funded by the government in 1868. His photographs of the ancient sites, some of which were published in ...


Eugenia Parry Janis

(b Villiers-le-Bel, Seine-et-Oise, Aug 30, 1820; d Cairo, July 30, 1884).

French photographer, painter, and teacher. He studied painting with Delaroche family until 1843. A study trip to Switzerland and Italy, financed by his parents, followed, but it was cut short by an untimely marriage in 1844, his sudden return to his family’s home, and the subsequent birth of two children in 1845 and 1846. Skilled in painting as an experimenter with pigments, he was attracted to the experimental side of the new paper negative processes available in France after 1847 and plunged into photography, probably to finance the burdens of the family life newly thrust upon him. His treatise, Traité pratique de photographie sur papier et sur verre (1850), outlined his own variant of the dry waxed paper negative process using thinner paper, as well as a recipe for collodion on glass negatives rivalling that of the English inventor Frederick Scott Archer (1813–57; see Photography, §I). A further modification to the waxed paper negative process was announced in ...


Eugenia Parry Janis

(b Paris, Aug 18, 1818; d Paris, Dec 26, 1882).

French photographer, painter, printmaker, and collector. After studying with the sculptor James Pradier and the painters Jean-Pierre Granger (1779–1840) and Paul Delaroche, he made his début at the Salon of 1842, winning a third-class medal there in 1845. He turned to photography in the wave of self-enrichment preceding the 1848 Revolution. With Charles Nègre he experimented with the waxed paper negative process of (Jean-Baptiste-)Gustave Le Gray, from whom he probably received personal instruction before 1850. Unlike other photographers, who later adopted glass negatives, Le Secq continued to use paper, at first employing photographs as studies for his genre paintings.

By 1851 Le Secq excelled at rendering ancient and medieval monuments in a pictorial style that exploited the effects of light and shadow, turning architecture into symbolic fragments evoking a rapidly disappearing historical past, which Le Secq sought to save photographically. After helping found the Société Héliographique in 1851...


Reena Jana

(b Saigon, Vietnam, 1960).

Vietnamese-American photographer. In 1975, as the Vietnam War was ending, Lê came to the United States as a teenage refugee. She had lived through the war, which was photographed and filmed by the mainstream American news media and seen in all of its frank brutality by everyday citizens in magazines and on television. Lê’s work deals with the depiction and public perception of battle, but her images feature views of reenactments or training exercises, rather than actual combat violence. In these images, there is no bloodshed. Yet because they are captured on film, the photographs provoke the viewer to first read them as documentary images of war.

Her series Small Wars (1999–2002) features images of male volunteers who gather on weekends in Virginia to re-create battles from the Vietnam War. Some are Vietnam veterans, others civilians. They wear soldiers’ uniforms and use props—military tents, planes—that look authentic, but close observation reveals that the pine trees and other landscape details suggest the backdrop is in the United States—far removed from the jungles and rice paddies of Southeast Asia....


Reena Jana

[Lee Seung-Hee]

(b Kye-Chang, Korea, 1970).

Korean photographer and filmmaker. Lee is known for her self-portraits, in which she presents herself in various ethnic and societal roles, from a middle-aged, low-income Hispanic party hostess to a young, wealthy Asian businesswoman. Lee received her BFA from the Chung-Ang University in South Korea in 1993, an AAS from the Fashion Institute of Technology in New York in 1996, and an MA in Photography, New York University, 1999. For her Projects series (1997–2001), Lee immersed herself in various American communities for extended time, from a clique of teenage skateboarders to executives who work in midtown Manhattan, informing group members of her status as an artist while assuming the wardrobe, hairstyle and mannerisms of a fictional character she sought to portray. She then asked members of these social groups to photograph her using everyday cameras and no enhanced lighting or backgrounds. The result is a series of snapshot-like images depicting the artist taking on a multitude of temporary personalities. When seen together, the photographs suggest a mosaic of American experiences....