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Adrienne Lezzi-Hafter

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Mark D. Fullerton

Name of at least three Greek sculptors, apparently members of a single family. They were active in Athens during the Late Classical (375–323 bc) and Hellenistic (323–27 bc) periods.

The first Euboulides is known only from an inscribed base at Tanagra (late 4th or early 3rd century bc; Inscr. Gr./2, vii, no. 552) that once held a portrait of a certain Klines, victor in the festival of the Basileia, which was established in 371 bc.

The second Euboulides is named by Pliny (Natural History XXXIV.xix.88) as the sculptor of a statue of a man counting on his fingers (‘digitis computans’), perhaps a seated portrait of the Stoic philosopher Chrysippos (c. 280–204 bc), who was usually represented in this pose (Sidonius Apollinaris: Letters IX.ix.14). A statue of Chrysippos was erected in the Athenian Kerameikos (Pausanias: Description of Greece I.xvii.2), presumably soon after his death, so that this sculptor is probably the Euboulides mentioned as an Athenian representative (...

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Eumaros  

C. Hobey-Hamsher

(fl ?late 6th century bc).

Greek painter. He is the earliest Athenian painter named in ancient literature, known from a single reference in Pliny (Natural History XXXV.56), who listed him among painters in monochrome. None of his work survives. It is unlikely, however, that early artists used only one colour, later artists many, and that a fuller palette always indicates a later date. In any case, Eumaros was not a strictly monochrome painter, because he was given credit for first distinguishing between men and women and that distinction would have been in the colour of flesh, men being darker than women. He was also said to have depicted every sort of figure, perhaps a reference to experiments in pose. Kimon further developed the advances of Eumaros, who was perhaps his master. A statue base from the Athenian Acropolis is signed Antenor son of Eumares. This may be the same man as Pliny’s Eumaros.

F. Studniczka...

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Olga Palagia

(b Isthmia, c. 390 bc; d ?Athens, c. 325 bc).

Greek painter and sculptor. An exact contemporary of Praxiteles, he seems to have been state artist at Athens in the mid-4th century bc, perhaps playing a role comparable to that of Pheidias a century earlier. Along with Nikias, who trained in his workshop, Euphranor was among the foremost members of the 4th-century bc Attic school of painting and was exceptional also in producing marble and bronze statues as well as marble reliefs. Pupil of the painter Aristeides the elder and teacher not only of the painters Leonidas, Antidotos and Charmantides but also of his own son, the sculptor Sostratos, Euphranor also wrote treatises on his painting (On Colours and On Proportions), which were quoted by ancient writers; none of his own paintings survive. His preoccupation with proportions was criticized, and he was considered not quite on a level with Lysippos and Apelles, since the heads of his figures were allegedly rather large for their bodies....

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D. C. Kurtz, Elizabeth Moignard, John H. Oakley, Jody Maxmin, Heide Mommsen, Lucilla Burn, Mary B. Moore, Nicolas Coldstream, Beth Cohen, Johannes Burow, Maria Pipili, Bettina Jeske, Margot Schmidt, Diana Buitron-Oliver, H. A. G. Brijder, Ian McPhee, Reinhard Stupperich, Adrienne Lezzi-Hafter, Irma Wehgartner, M. A. Tiverios, Thomas Mannack, A. Lebel, L. Berge, Mathias Prange, Susan B. Matheson and Warren G. Moon

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D. C. Kurtz, Elizabeth Moignard, John H. Oakley, Jody Maxmin, Heide Mommsen, Lucilla Burn, Mary B. Moore, Nicolas Coldstream, Beth Cohen, Johannes Burow, Maria Pipili, Bettina Jeske, Margot Schmidt, Diana Buitron-Oliver, H. A. G. Brijder, Ian McPhee, Reinhard Stupperich, Adrienne Lezzi-Hafter, Irma Wehgartner, M. A. Tiverios, Thomas Mannack, A. Lebel, L. Berge, Mathias Prange, Susan B. Matheson and Warren G. Moon

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O. T. P. K. Dickinson

Site south-west of Thebes, in central Greece, where Hetty Goldman’s major excavation campaign (1924–7) revealed a long and informative prehistoric sequence, running from the later Neolithic period through almost the entire Bronze Age. Indications of later occupation are present but sparse. Early Helladic (eh; c. 3600/3000–c. 2050 bc) strata make up the bulk of deposit, while Middle Helladic (mh; c. 2050–c. 1600 bc) is poorly represented until near its end. There are important building levels covering the mh to Late Helladic (lh; c. 1600–c. 1050 bc) transition (the abundance of Mainland Polychrome in the third ‘mh’ level demonstrates its equivalence to lh i) and, although few lh buildings were uncovered, a fortification wall, enclosing much unoccupied territory as well as the settlement, was identified, dating to lh iiib (c. 1335–c. 1180 bc). The rather small quantity of ...

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(fl late 4th century bc–early 3rd).

Greek sculptor. He was a pupil of Lysippos and, like him, worked in bronze. He was particularly noted for his large statuary group representing the Tyche (Fortune) of Antioch with the River Orontes at her feet. The Tyche is represented wearing a crown of the city walls on her head, seated with legs crossed and one elbow resting on her knee. The complex pose is resolved into a pyramidal composition, which is admirable from many points of view. As Antioch was founded in 300 bc the statue was probably made around this time. It was a distinctive and impressive image of which numerous copies were made in a variety of reduced scales (e.g. marble copies in Rome, Vatican, Gal. Candelabri and Budapest, Mus. F.A.; bronze copies in Paris, Louvre and Florence, Uffizi; and a silver copy in London, BM). Eutychides was also said to have made a statue of Timosthenes...

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V. Ya. Petrukhin

(Vladimirovich)

(b Vyatka, Feb 12, 1870; d Pargolovo, Leningrad [now St Petersburg] province, July 29, 1928).

Russian archaeologist and art historian. He graduated from the historical philology department at Novorossiysk University in 1892 and then visited museums and studied the results of excavations in Greece, Italy, France and Turkey (1894–7). From 1896 to 1900 he was academic secretary of the Russian Archaeological Institute in Istanbul. From 1901 to 1918 he was a member of the Archaeological Commission in St Petersburg (Petrograd from 1914) and academic secretary of the Russian Archaeological Society (1906–19). He became a corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1914 and a professor at Petrograd University in 1919. In 1921 he was appointed academic secretary of the State Academy for the History of Material Culture and curator of the State Hermitage Museum in 1924. He began independent excavations of the necropolis at Ol’viya and on Berezan’ Island in 1896 and followed this with a systematic study of Ol’viya in ...

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(Michael)

(b Freiburg im Breisgau, June 30, 1854; d Athens, Oct 10, 1907).

German archaeologist. His pioneering work transformed the study of Greek art from dependence on literary sources into a discipline based on a comprehensive knowledge of artefacts. Furtwängler was descended from a Black Forest family of peasants, wood-carvers and clockmakers; he attended Freiburg school, where his father was headmaster, studied Classics at Freiburg and Leipzig, and Classical archaeology under Heinrich Brunn (1822–94), the first professor of the subject at Munich. At the newly established Deutsches Archäologisches Institut at Rome (1877–8), he acquired mastery of the vast quantity of Greco-Roman sculpture in Italian collections. In Greece (1878–9) he studied original Greek artefacts, plentifully unearthed in recent excavations. He and Georg Loeschke (1852–1915) classified and published the pottery excavated by Heinrich Schliemann at Mycenae. Furtwängler’s work on 14,150 small bronzes from Olympia culminated in his authoritative fourth volume of the German excavation reports (1890...

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E. Clay

(b Hopton, Derbys, April 1, 1777; d Naples, Feb 4, 1836).

English Classical scholar, archaeologist and topographer. Educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, he studied at the Royal Academy Schools, was elected Fellow of learned societies in London and, later, honoured by academic institutions abroad. Gell began his travels in Greece and the Troad in 1801, followed rapidly by exemplary publications. His travels continued until 1806, broken only in 1803 when he was sent on a diplomatic mission to the Ionian islands. The Society of Dilettanti appointed him to lead its third Ionian mission (1811–13), instructing him to make architectural measurements of Classical sites in Attica and Asia Minor, the results subsequently being published by the Society in The Unedited Antiquities of Attica (1817) and revised editions of Ionian Antiquities (1821 and 1840; see Chandler, Richard).

Gell was knighted in 1814, and accompanied Caroline, Princess of Wales, as one of her chamberlains when she set out on her foreign travels. He left her entourage after its arrival in Italy and resumed his archaeological studies, in particular at the site of Pompeii, which was his main interest throughout his life. His ...

Article

Geraki  

G. Dimitrokallis and N. Moutsopoulos

Site of ancient Geronthrai in Laconia, Greece, 40 km south-east of Sparta and occupied by a large modern village. The ancient acropolis is surrounded by Cyclopean walls of the Mycenaean period (c. 1300 bc), well-preserved to the north and east. The medieval castle of Geraki, which was built by Jehan de Nivelet in 1254 on the rocky ridge of Parnon 5 km to the south-east, was the headquarters of one of the original twelve Frankish baronies in the Peloponnese. The village, the castle and the surrounding region contain a number of churches of various periods.

In the village there are two 6th-century basilical churches, only one of which has been excavated, and six later churches. Of the latter, the Evangelistria, St Sozon (built above the unexcavated basilica) and St Athanasius are built in the cross-in-square plan and date from the 12th century, while the two-aisled church of St Nicholas dates from the 13th century. St John Chrysostomos, a single-aisled church, and St Theodore, with its barrel-vaulted nave and pointed transverse barrel vault, were founded ...

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Gla  

Site in the east Kopais in central Greece north-north-west of Thebes. A low flat-topped rock near the converging point of the Late Bronze Age drainage dikes, it was first settled in Neolithic times. It was occupied again c. 1300 bc after the construction of the dikes and fortified with a 5.5 m thick serrate Cyclopean wall. This was pierced by four gates (west, north, south-east and south), flanked by thickenings of the wall that project at the South Gate to form bastions. Guardrooms were built inside the gates. Within the enceinte there is a central enclosure, bisected by an east–west cross-wall. The north part contains an L-shaped double residential building consisting of two identical wings divided into apartments connected by corridors and having megaron-like units at both ends. The building had monolithic thresholds and low stone walls with a mud-brick superstructure, covered—as were the floors—with plain or painted lime plaster. Roofs were sloped, covered with terracotta tiles. Similar in construction but simpler (fewer plaster floors, no monolithic thresholds) are two duplicate building complexes along the east and west sides of the south enclosure, both ...

Article

Virginia C. Goodlett

(fl first quarter of the 5th century bc).

Greek sculptor. According to Pausanias, Glaukias executed four bronze statues commemorating athletic victories at Olympia: none survives. The first was a chariot and portrait of Gelon of Syracuse erected following his victory in Olympiad 73 (488 bc; Pausanias: VI.ix.4–5); a portion of this statue’s inscription has been recovered (see Dittenberger and Purgold, no. 143). The second depicted Theagenes, son of Timosthenes of Thasos, who won the pankration at Olympia, probably in Olympiad 76 (476 bc; Pausanias: VI.xi.2–9); Glaukias’ statue was only one of many erected throughout Greece in honour of Theagenes’ 1400 athletic victories. The Olympia statue was heavy enough to kill a man when it fell on him. The third was a statue of Philon of Korkyra, who won two boxing victories in Olympiads 72 and 73 (492, 488 bc; Pausanias: VI.ix.9). The fourth was a statue of the boxer Glaukos of Karystos, which was commissioned by his son (date disputed; Pausanias: VI.x.1–3 and Suidas on Glaukos). The style of Glaukias’ statues cannot be determined, and no one has attempted to attribute any known types to him....

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Gnosis  

Martin Robertson

(fl c. 350–300 bc).

Greek mosaicist. gnosisepoesen (‘Gnosis made’) is set, in one line without word division, in white pebbles on the dark ground of a pebble floor (now Pella, Archaeol. Mus.) in the andron (dining-room) of a large house at Pella, capital of ancient Macedon in northern Greece (see Pella, §2). It can be dated to the last quarter of the 4th century bc. Within a complex floral border the mosaic shows two over life-size young men attacking a stag with the help of a dog. The figures stand on irregular terrain against the traditional dark ground; one is almost in profile, while the other is full-face and set back beyond the stag, one foot hidden by a rock. The four standard pebble colours—black, white, yellow and red—are here used to pictorial effect, and the figures are lightly modelled with shading. It is the most painterly of pebble mosaics known from the Greek world and among the most technically accomplished. The youths are in heroic nudity, apart from cloaks and a travelling-hat, but the scene is not from legend; rather, as in a lion hunt in a neighbouring house (now Pella, Archaeol. Mus.), it depicts aristocratic Macedonian life. Gnosis is the only artist’s name surviving on a pebble floor, although a fragmentary signature exists on a contemporary but inferior one from Athens (Fethiye Mosque). It is most probable that the name is that of a designer who supervised and took part in the execution. Gnosis’ subtle use of graded pebbles, often tiny, looks forward to the ideals of ...

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D. C. Kurtz, Elizabeth Moignard, John H. Oakley, Jody Maxmin, Heide Mommsen, Lucilla Burn, Mary B. Moore, Nicolas Coldstream, Beth Cohen, Johannes Burow, Maria Pipili, Bettina Jeske, Margot Schmidt, Diana Buitron-Oliver, H. A. G. Brijder, Ian McPhee, Reinhard Stupperich, Adrienne Lezzi-Hafter, Irma Wehgartner, M. A. Tiverios, Thomas Mannack, A. Lebel, L. Berge, Mathias Prange, Susan B. Matheson and Warren G. Moon

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