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James Yorke

(bapt London, Jan 13, 1714; d c. 1778).

English furniture designer and carver. Nothing is known of his apprenticeship or early work, but he published Twelve Gerandoles in 1755, styling himself ‘Thomas Johnson, Carver, at the Corner of Queen Street, near the Seven Dials, Soho’. Between 1756 and 1757 he issued some 52 sheets of designs for Glass, Picture, and Table Frames; Chimney Pieces, Gerandoles, Candle-stands, Clock-cases, Brackets, and other Ornaments in the Chinese, Gothick, and Rural Taste, publishing the collection as a complete volume in 1758 from a new address in Grafton Street. His designs were marked by a bold use of Rococo, chinoiserie and Rustic motifs, incorporating rocaille and animals. In 1761 he brought out another edition entitled One Hundred and Fifty New Designs. It was dedicated to Lord Blakeney, President of the Antigallican Association, a group hostile to new-fangled French fashions and keen to better them. His slight New Book of Ornaments, published in 1760...


Simon Lee

(b Paris, 1732; d Paris, 1804).

French painter. A pupil of Jean-Baptiste Marie Pierre, he finished second in 1754 in the Prix de Rome competition with his Mattathias (untraced). He was approved (agréé) at the Académie Royale in 1765. He was a precocious and original artist, whose works range from historical, allegorical and religious pictures to decorative and genre pieces and portraits. His work frequently divided contemporary critical opinion. His Belisarius Begging Alms of 1767 (untraced), for example, was considered well composed by Louis Petit de Bachaumont, who admired the motif of the child begging with an upturned soldier’s helmet. Denis Diderot, on the other hand, dismissed the work as ‘a bad sketch’. Jollain’s particular aptitude was for religious subjects. At the Salon of 1769, for example, he exhibited The Refuge (untraced; oil sketch, British priv. col.), which depicts the founder of the Institute of Our Lady of Refuge in an attitude of devotional supplication; it was painted for the Order’s convent chapel at Besançon, and the chapel itself appears in the background. Jollain’s art was part of the mid-18th-century Baroque revival in French religious painting, and ...


José Fernandes Pereira



Gordon Campbell


(b Paris, 1689; d Paris, Oct 14, 1775).

French cabinetmaker. He was a member of a Parisian family of menuisiers and became a maître-ébéniste sometime between 1714 and 1722. After the death of Antoine-Robert Gaudreaus (1751) he became the main supplier to the Crown for 23 years and carried out commissions for 4000 pieces of furniture. Only a few, however, were masterpieces, produced either by Joubert or under his supervision. In 1758 he received the title of Ebéniste Ordinaire du Garde Meuble and in 1763, on the death of Jean-François Oeben, he became Ebéniste du Roi. Gradually, however, his position was taken over by Jean-Henri Riesener. Joubert acted to some extent as a main contractor, and when his workshop could not fulfil commissions he subcontracted to such cabinetmakers as Mathieu Criard, Marchand, Jacques Dubois, François Mondon (1694–1770), Boudin, Foullet, Louis Péridiez (1731–64), Daniel Deloose, Simon Oeben (d 1786) and particularly, during his final years of work, to ...


Michael Preston Worley

(b Saint-Paulien, Haute-Loire, June 20, 1731; d Paris, Dec 17, 1804).

French sculptor. He studied in Le Puy with the minor sculptor Gabriel Samuel (1689–1758) and in Lyon with Antoine-Michel Perrache (1726–79), who in 1758 recommended him to Guillaume Coustou (ii) in Paris. In 1765 Julien won the Prix de Rome with the relief Albinus Helping the Vestals to Flee the Gauls (untraced). After three years at the Ecole Royale des Elèves Protégés he went to the Académie de France in Rome (1768–72). Among his works from this time is a reduced copy (marble; Versailles, Château) of the antique statue Ariadne Abandoned, then known as Cleopatra. In 1773 he returned to Coustou’s studio and in 1776 suffered a humiliating check to his career when, on submission of his statue of Ganymede (marble; Paris, Louvre), he was refused admission to the Académie Royale (possibly at the instigation of his master). In 1779, however, he became a member of the Académie with the marble statue the ...


Martha Pollak

(b Messina, June 16, 1678; d Madrid, Jan 31, 1736).

Italian architect, draughtsman and designer. His work reinforced a Late Baroque classical tradition while also drawing on the leavening criticism of that tradition by Francesco Borromini. His work is characterized by clarity and directness, his architectural conceptions defined by a drastically reduced structure and complex conglomerate spaces; his surfaces were adorned with elaborate decorative systems the originality of which pointed the way to a light-hearted Rococo. In 1714 he became first architect of Victor-Amadeus II of Savoy, King of Sicily. Juvarra’s mandate was to accomplish the transformation of Turin begun in the 17th century. During a 20-year residence in Turin he built sixteen palaces and eight churches, and designed numerous church ornaments. He also designed furniture, theatre scenery and urban complexes.

Between 1693 and 1701 Juvarra worked with his father and brothers as a silversmith in Messina. He also studied there for the priesthood and was ordained in 1703. In ...



(fl 1727–c. 1750).

English silversmith of German birth. He is known only by a small quantity of elaborate silver, characterized by the use of decoration in high relief and three-dimensional form that has led to the belief that he was related to the renowned German porcelain modeller, Johann Joachim Kändler. He was first mentioned in the register of the Goldsmiths’ Company in London as a ‘largeworker’ in 1727 in St Martin’s Lane, with a partner, James Murray (d c. 1730). In 1735 he was recorded as a goldsmith in Jermyn Street near St James’s church and used the initials CK or KA as his mark. Another goldsmith named Charles Frederick Kandler, possibly a cousin or nephew, was entered in the register in 1735, located at the same address. He was known as Frederick Kandler and used the initials FK and KA as his mark.

Charles Kandler’s pieces rival those of his better-known contemporaries, Paul de Lamerie and Nicholas Sprimont. All three were active in England when the French Rococo style, particularly the designs of Juste-Aurèle Meissonnier, was a major influence on English silver. Kandler’s silver tureens, salvers, coffeepots, candlesticks and other wares are enriched with elaborate ornament: naturalistic fruit, flowers, foliage and mythological figures. A silver tea kettle and stand made by Kandler (...


S. Träger

(b Tetschen, Bohemia, 1709; d Dresden, June 8, 1747).

German painter and draughtsman, active also in Italy and Bohemia. He trained first with the Saxon court painter Lorenzo Rossi (c. 1690–1731), whom he accompanied to Venice in 1723. There in 1725 he joined the workshop of Giambattista Pittoni, with whom he worked until moving to Prague in 1735, where he matriculated at the Karlsuniversität. In 1738 he was summoned to Dresden by Frederick-Augustus II. In the same year he made a study trip to Rome, returning to Dresden in 1741. After his return, he was appointed court painter and completed a series of public and private commissions in Dresden, where he worked until his death.

Kern’s early work is marked by its strong dependence on Pittoni, of whose works he made numerous copies. The resemblance is often so close that several of Kern’s drawings and paintings have been wrongly attributed to Pittoni. After his return from Venice, Pittoni’s influence on his work gradually waned. But the influence of Venetian painting on his art was decisive, even though he was subsequently affected by the works of Bohemian painters such as Petr Brandl and Václav Vavřinec Reiner. The most important paintings of his Prague period include the ...


Marie Fredericq-Lilar

(b Ghent, Jan 12, 1699; d Ghent, July 15, 1770).

Flemish architect. With Bernard de Wilde, he introduced the Rococo to Ghent, characterized by the use of large windows, an emphasis on the upper parts of the façade and a taste for sculpted decoration. In 1726 ’t Kindt entered the Carpenters’ Guild. He built the Guard House (1738), Ghent, to designs by de Wilde. It has a projecting central range with a mansard roof, and a pediment flanked by two scrolls. In 1741 the town council in Ghent commissioned ’t Kindt to design a new prison. Its double arched pediment, appropriately decorated with a sculpture on the theme of Roman Charity, exhibits greater conservatism than the Guard House. In the large theatre (1744) on the Vrijdagmarkt, built for the triumphal entry into Ghent of Maria-Theresa, Countess of Flanders, ’t Kindt was influenced by the theatre created for the triumphal entry of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, in ...


Eva B. Ottillinger

(fl Vienna, 1835–c. 1871).

Austrian furniture-maker. In 1835 he founded a metal-furniture factory in Vienna; its products extended from garden and park furniture to drawing-room furniture and ornamental figures in the Rococo Revival style. At the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, Kitschelt, along with Michael Thonet and Carl Leistler, represented the Vienna furniture industry, showing seats, tables and ornamental vases with floral decoration. At the Exposition Universelle of 1867 in Paris Kitschelt showed a four-poster bed and a suite designed by the architect Josef von Storck. In 1871 Kitschelt exhibited leather-upholstered seats in classical forms, designed by Rudolf Bernt (1844–1914), at the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie, Vienna. Thereafter Kitschelt’s successors concentrated on the production of utility furniture made of tubular steel or moulded metal, portable furniture, tubular steel beds, ladders and garden tents.

M. Zweig: Das zweite Rokoko (Vienna, 1924) E. B. Ottillinger: Das Wiener Möbel des Historismus: Formgebungstheorie und Stiltendenzen...


(b Kuckädel, nr Crossen/Oder, Feb 17, 1699; d Berlin, Sept 16, 1753).

German architect, interior decorator, painter and draughtsman. After growing up under the guardianship of his uncle, he joined the army at 15 but left the service in 1729 as a result of poor health to devote himself entirely to painting. His friend Antoine Pesne, the leading painter in Prussia at the time, was his most important teacher. A member of the entourage of the Crown Prince (the future Frederick II; see Hohenzollern, House of family §(7)) from 1732, Knobelsdorff travelled the same year to Dresden. The only authentic portrait of him, painted by the Saxon court painter Adám Mányoki, dates from this time. In 1734 he produced his first modest architectural work, the Temple of Apollo in the Amalthea Garden at Neuruppin, then the residence of the Crown Prince.

From 1736, as ‘Chevalier Bernin’, he was a respected member of the Crown Prince’s court at Schloss Rheinsberg. He seems at first to have been valued primarily as a painter. On a journey to Italy, begun in ...


Andrzej Rottermund

(b Dresden, 1686; d Dresden, March 10, 1752).

German architect and master builder. He is first noted in 1709 as a Baukondukteur (draughtsman and surveyor) in the Saxon Office of Works. From 1719 he worked under the supervision of Mathäus Daniel Pöppelmann and Zacharias Longuelune on the estates directed by Christoph August von Wackerbarth at Gross-Seidlitz, and the influence of Longuelune’s French classicist style can be seen in Knöffel’s Wackerbarth Palais (1723–6; destr. 1945; rebuilt 1962) and Kurländer Palais (1728–9; destr. 1945), both in Dresden: restrained works articulated only by pilaster strips at piano nobile level and a little sculptural decoration in the central projection. Equal simplicity prevailed externally, but with a Rococo interior, at the palace (1734–51; destr. 1899) built in Dresden for Heinrich, Graf von Brühl, whose service Knöffel entered in 1734. Knöffel’s own house (1744–6; later the Palais Cosel; partially destr. 1945; rebuilt 1976–7) is in five main storeys, its height further exaggerated by the characteristic pilaster strips. For Elector ...


Klára Garas

(bapt Söflingen, Feb 19, 1705; d Einsiedeln, June 30, 1752).

German painter. He studied c. 1720–21 under Johann Georg Rothbletz (d c. 1751) and at the Akademie in Augsburg. In 1723 or 1724 he went to Venice, staying there about seven years, and studying in the workshop of Giovanni Battista Piazzetta. Kraus’s first recorded work, the Martyrdom of St Sebastian in the church of St Martin at Unterkirchberg near Ulm, is signed and dated 1726 and reveals the influence of Venetian painting, especially that of Piazzetta, in its forceful modelling and strong contrasts of light and shade. Kraus had hoped to acquire with this painting the right to settle in Augsburg. He was unable to do so, however, and in 1732 he went to France, first to Paris and then to Langres, where he settled for several years, marrying a French woman in 1734. In France he painted portraits, altarpieces and easel paintings for the Carthusians at Champmol near Dijon, as well as for other churches in Dijon, including seven scenes with the Legend of the Virgin, and in Lyons. From ...


Andrew John Martin

(bapt Bamberg, Aug 19, 1703; d Bamberg, June 2, 1769).

German architect. He was the son of a carpenter and trained as an architect in Mainz under Maximilian von Welsch, serving in the army as a lieutenant engineer from 1732. In 1735 Küchel was summoned to Bamberg by Prince Bishop Friedrich Carl von Schönborn, whose director of works was Balthasar Neumann. In 1737 Küchel was sent on a study tour to the German-speaking regions of eastern and central Europe. His earliest works are in a sober style closely influenced by von Welsch, his first major commission being to supervise the erection of a church (1737) at Gössweinstein to Neumann’s plans and to fit it out. This project initiated a change to a more ornate manner, but Küchel’s astylar high altar derives from the ‘altars without architecture’ he had noted in his study tour report. He later added the vicarage (1747) and the terrace in front of the church (...



(b ?Prague, 1667; d Nuremberg, July 16, 1740).

Bohemian painter. He was born into a weaver’s family, who, as Moravian Brethren, were forced to emigrate from Bohemia to Pezinok, Slovakia. Having met the artist Benedikt Claus (1632/3–1707), he left home at 15 to join him in Vienna, and three years later accompanied him to Italy. He worked in Venice and other north Italian towns before settling in Rome, where he made a meagre living by copying portraits. Although he attempted genre and historical paintings, portraiture became his main work. His influences ranged from prominent Venetian painters such as Bernardo Strozzi, Johann Carl Loth and Giuseppe Ghislandi to Anthony van Dyck and Hyacinthe Rigaud. Through perseverance he established his own studio in Rome, c. 1700, and found his own distinctive portrait style—clear, rather cool, yet with all its restraint profoundly felt and monumentally executed (e.g. Self-portrait, 1707; Florence, Uffizi).

Having gained recognition as an eminent portrait painter Kupecký moved, ...


(b Saint-Quentin, Sept 5, 1704; d Saint-Quentin, Feb 17, 1788).

French pastellist. He was one of the greatest pastellists of the 18th century, an equal of Jean-Siméon Chardin and Jean-Baptiste Perronneau. Unlike them, however, he painted no works in oils. Reacting against the stately portraits of preceding generations and against the mythological portraits of many of his contemporaries, La Tour returned to a more realistic and sober style of work. The fundamental quality of his art lies in his ability to suggest the temperament and psychology of his subjects by means of their facial expression, and thereby to translate their fugitive emotions on to paper: ‘I penetrate into the depths of my subjects without their knowing it, and capture them whole’, as he himself put it. His considerable success led to commissions from the royal family, the court, the rich bourgeoisie and from literary, artistic and theatrical circles. While La Tour’s extensive oeuvre (Besnard and Wildenstein recorded over 1200 pastels and drawings) contains many outstanding pictures and was the result of a remarkable technical mastery, a certain degree of repetitiveness may be discerned occasionally....


Guilhem Scherf

[Ladetti, Francesco]

(b Turin, Dec 9, 1706; d Turin, Jan 18, 1787).

Italian sculptor. His family was associated with Victor Amadeus, Prince of Carignano, and they accompanied him to Paris in 1718. Ladatte won the Prix de Rome in 1729 but spent only a short time in Rome. By 1732 he had returned to Turin and he was modelling bronze mounts for furniture, especially for the cabinetmaker Pietro Piffetti. From 1734 he was back in Paris. In 1736 he was approved (agréé) at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture with a bronze group (untraced) of Rinaldo and Armida. From 1737 to 1743 he exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon. His morceau de réception at the Académie, a statuette of Judith (terracotta, 1739; Chambéry, Mus. B.-A.; marble, 1741; Paris, Louvre), demonstrates the personal characteristics of his Rococo sculptural style: an elongated body, delicate and stylized face and heavy draperies. These features are also present in two plaster statues of the same period: a ...


(b Stockholm, Oct 30, 1737; d Stockholm, Dec 6, 1807).

Swedish miniature painter. He received his first training in miniature painting and gouache technique from his father, Niclas Lafrensen the elder (1698–1756), a self-taught miniature painter who had gained some popularity at the Swedish court. From 1762 to 1769 Lafrensen the younger studied in Paris, where French Rococo painting suited his temperament and was to be most important for his future development. His choice of realistic themes rather than those from the antique world led to his becoming a favourite of the public, though not of the academicians. On his return to Stockholm he obtained a commission from Crown Prince Gustav (later Gustav III) to paint 12 miniature portraits (1770; Stockholm, Nmus.), in connection with which he was appointed Royal Court Miniature Painter. He was accepted into the Kungliga Akademi för die Fria Konsterna in Stockholm but was passed over for a professorial appointment.

In 1774 Lafrensen left Sweden and settled in Paris, where he further developed the ‘cabinet-piece’, a type of painting popular at the time, piquant and elegantly descriptive of manners. He worked entirely on miniatures, first on ivory and later on paper or parchment. He used watercolour or gouache, and there are also sketches in ink and watercolour wash. His miniatures were widely circulated as copperplate engravings and coloured engravings. He was not an innovator; rather, his piquant anecdotes and racy insinuations were inspired by Watteau’s ...