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[Ghaybī Tawrīzī; Ghaybī al-Shāmī; Ghaibi]

Arab potter. The name is also applied to a pottery workshop active in Syria and Egypt in the mid-15th century. All the products are underglaze-painted in blue and black. A rectangular panel composed of six tiles decorated with a lobed niche in the mosque of Ghars al-Din al-Tawrizi, Damascus (1423), is signed ‛amal ghaybī tawrīzī (‘the work of Ghaybi of Tabriz’), suggesting that he was associated with Tabriz, a noted ceramic centre in north-west Iran. As the interior of the mosque and tomb is decorated with 1362 unsigned but related tiles, Ghaybi must have been the head of a workshop in Damascus. A fragment of a bowl with a typical Egyptian fabric (New York, Met., 1973.79.9) bears the name ghaybī al-shāmī (‘Ghaybi the Syrian’), suggesting that the potter later moved from Syria to Egypt. A square tile from a restoration of the mosque of Sayyida Nafisa in Cairo (Cairo, Mus. Islam. A.) is signed by ...



R. J. A. Wilson

Site of Romanized Berber settlement on the banks of the Wadi Ghirza, 240 km south-east of Tripoli, Libya. The site consists of 38 buildings from the 4th and 5th centuries ad, some still preserved up to a height of 7 m. Half a dozen of them are in the form of impressive castle-like structures, two or three storeys high, with interior courts; this type of farm building, once thought to have had a quasi-military role, is typical of the Tripolitanian pre-desert area from the second half of the 2nd century ad onwards. Smaller houses are either single-roomed or have two or three rooms set end to end. One building is a Semitic-type temple probably dedicated to Baal, with an open court and rooms ranged around it. Cisterns, two wells and rubbish middens have also been identified, the last showing that barley, figs and many other crops were present. The settlement seems to have been occupied until the early 6th century ...



Dominic Montserrat

[anc. Egyp. Ineb hedj]

Egyptian governorate just west of Cairo, site of a major royal necropolis of the Old Kingdom capital of Memphis. The necropolis, containing the 4th Dynasty (c. 2575–c. 2465 bc) pyramid complexes of Cheops, Chephren and Mycerinus (see Pyramid, §1) and their associated satellite burials, is divided by a broad wadi into two areas: the higher plateau, with the pyramid complexes, Great Sphinx and mastaba fields, and other private tombs on an escarpment to the south-west. Although Giza’s period of greatest importance was during the Old Kingdom (c. 2575–c. 2150 bc), the site underwent revivals in the New Kingdom (c. 1540–c. 1075 bc) and the Saite period (c. 664–525 bc). Most of the tombs were robbed in antiquity, and much of the original casing of the monuments has been quarried away, considerably altering their appearance. In the late 20th century the site has come under threat from rising ground water, which is slowly destroying the monuments....


Jon Whiteley

(b Montpellier, Dec 15, 1807; d Paris, Aug 8, 1893).

French painter. He was trained by Eugène Devéria and Achille Devéria and made his first appearance at the Salon, in 1836, with Luca Signorelli da Cortona (Avignon, Mus. Calvet) and Flight into Egypt (untraced), the first of a number of religious pictures painted in the 1840s in the pleasant, sentimental manner of Eugène Devéria’s religious work. The Humility of St Elizabeth of Hungary (exh. Salon, 1843; Montpellier, St Louis), Conversion of the Magdalene (1845; Nogent-sur-Seine, parish church) and Adoration of the Shepherds (1846; Quesnoy-sur-Airaine, parish church) belong to an idea of the Rococo common in the 1840s. Glaize’s interest in 18th-century French art is also evident in Blood of Venus (exh. 1846) and Picnic (both Montpellier, Mus. Fabre). This element was less obvious in the 1850s. In 1852 he exhibited a scene of the savage heroism of the Women of Gaul: Episode from the Roman Invasion (Autun, Mus. Rolin), one of the first pictures on a theme that appealed to a new interest in the history of Gaul in the Second Empire. Increasingly, he adopted subject-matter favoured by the ...


Isabelle Gournay

(b Oran, Algeria, Jan 24, 1942).

French writer, teacher and architect. He graduated in architecture (1967) from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he was introduced to urban design practice and theory by Eugène Beaudouin. At the same time, he attended Roland Barthes’s courses in linguistics at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. During the 1970s Grumbach, who was influenced by the historian Joseph Ryckwert (b 1926), devoted most of his time to theory and criticism. He published extensively in specialized reviews in France, exhibited and sold his drawings and taught at the Unité Pédagogique d’Architecture 6 in Paris, the University of Toronto and Princeton University, NJ; he also lectured throughout the world. From his typological studies of the traditional urban fabric in Paris and his participation in Rome in the international exhibition Roma Interrota (1977), he became convinced that the integration of new architectural projects within the existing urban fabric was an essential prerequisite for high-quality urban design, and he adopted a polemical and theoretical approach to architectural competitions he entered at the time, such as those for the systematization of the Place Napoléon (...


Adam M. Thomas

[Osvaldo Luigi]

(b Cairo, Egypt, April 9, 1906; d Amagansett, NY, Sept 3, 1956).

American painter of Italian origin. After residing in Europe, his family relocated to New York in 1914. Guglielmi studied at the National Academy of Design from 1920 to 1925 and became a naturalized citizen in 1927. He arrived at his first mature painting style in the early 1930s. Guglielmi was among the principal practitioners of Social Surrealism, an American variant of European Surrealist art that adapted some of its imagery and techniques but eschewed its sexual symbolism and psychic automatism. Guglielmi rooted his pictures in the physical world in order to address social and political issues but, unlike Social Realism, did so through the use of unexpected or irrational juxtapositions and disorienting variations in scale. Although Guglielmi was not actively engaged in politics, many of his paintings contain expressly political, if sometimes ambiguous, content, such as Phoenix (The Portrait in the Desert) (1935; Lincoln, U. NE, Sheldon Mem. A.G.), in which a foreground portrait of Vladimir Lenin presides over a deserted landscape of factories and rubble....


(b Stockholm, Nov 11, 1882; reg 1950–73; d Hälsingborg, Sept 15, 1973).

Swedish ruler, collector and archaeologist. He was educated at Uppsala University, where he studied history, Nordic archaeology and Egyptology, and in his youth assisted in archaeological expeditions in Sweden, Greece, Italy and Cyprus. In 1907 he began to collect Chinese art and was soon attracted to the early periods, the area in which his collection eventually became pre-eminent. In 1908 he met the foremost scholars and collectors of Chinese art in London and then helped to plan a large exhibition of Chinese art at the Kungliga Akademien för de Fria Konsterna (Royal Academy of Fine Arts), Stockholm, in 1914. The following year he met Erik Nyström, Professor of natural history at Taiyuan University, who purchased items for him in China. His collection was also enriched from 1916 with the help of Orvar Karlbeck, the Swedish railway engineer active in China. Other Chinese pieces were purchased or presented to his collection during his journey to East Asia in ...


Allan M. Craven

(b Liverpool, March 3, 1942).

English architect. Having studied at the University of Manchester School of Architecture (1961–7), he worked briefly in Montreal, in connection with Expo ’67, and in Tripoli, where he was a housing architect for the Libyan government. From 1968 to 1971 he was an assistant to Arne Jacobsen in Copenhagen, for whom he worked on the design of the Kuwait Central Bank (built 1973–6), Kuwait City. His doctoral dissertation (1979) has Jacobsen’s work as its subject-matter. In 1972 he formed the practice of Rod Hackney & Associates at Macclesfield, Ches, and soon became known for the refurbishment of several brick-built terrace houses (1972–5) around Black Road in the town. Although intended for demolition, the houses were saved and then improved and altered in accordance with the wishes of the inhabitants. The significant contribution of the residents in determining what alterations were made and assisting in the execution of the work meant that the scheme was subsequently seen as one of the pioneering examples of ...


Marianne Barrucand

Dynasty that ruled in Tunisia and eastern Algeria from 1228 to 1574. Descended from Abu Hafs ‛Umar (d 1176), a disciple of the founder of the Almohad movement, Abu Zakariya Yahya I (reg 1228–49) was governor of the region for the Almohads. He declared his independence in 1237 and expanded his territory as far as Constantine, Annaba, Algiers and Tlemcen, obliging the Marinid dynasty of Morocco to acknowledge his supremacy and engaging in trade and diplomatic relations with Christian governments. His son Abu ‛Abdallah (reg 1249–77) assumed caliphal titles, and his court was equally celebrated for its culture and international relations. Violent family rivalries, Christian intervention and independence movements, particularly in the cities of the interior, led to a period of decline at the end of the 13th century. Abu’l-‛Abbas (reg 1370–94) reunified the country, and during the 15th century the Hafsid empire enjoyed its last period of prosperity and expansion. Spain and the Ottoman empire threatened North Africa in the 16th century, and in ...


S. J. Vernoit


(b Cairo, Oct 28, 1892; d London, May 26, 1969).

Merchant banker and collector. He was the elder son of Sir Victor Harari Pasha, a leading member of the Anglo-Jewish community in Egypt, and was educated at Lausanne and Pembroke College, Cambridge. On returning to Egypt, he became a junior officer in the Palestine campaign of Edmund Allenby and then finance officer to Ronalds Storrs, the military governor of Jerusalem. In 1920 he served under Herbert Samuel as director of the Department of Commerce and Trade in the British Mandate, but returned to Egypt in 1925 to help in the family business. With the outbreak of World War II, he became economic adviser to GHQ Middle East, and then served under Peter Ritchie-Calder, the director of plans in the Department of Political Warfare in London. After the war, he stayed in London as managing director of the merchant bank S. Japhet & Co., and when it was taken over he joined the board of the Charterhouse group. From the 1920s he was interested in Islamic metalwork, becoming an authority on the subject and contributing a chapter to the ...



Oleg Grabar

(b Cairo, July 1908; d Baghdad, March 1957).

Egyptian historian. He was educated at the University of Cairo and in Paris, where he obtained his doctorate in 1934 with a thesis on the history and culture of Egypt in the 9th century ad. In Cairo he moved between the university—where he taught history—the Department of Antiquities and the Museum of Arab (later Islamic) Art, where he became director in 1951. After the 1952 revolution in Egypt, he went to Iraq, where he chaired the Department of Antiquities and Civilization at Baghdad University. His publications illustrate the multiple concerns of his generation, born in the ‘Third World’ and trained in the West to educate youth in the values of their cultural past through the medium of Western techniques and institutions. His scholarly work is exemplified by his study on the treasures of the Fatimid dynasty of Egypt (reg 969–1171). He also tried to meet the traditional opposition to the visual arts by writing on the specific theological issues involved and showing how the Islamic tradition never gave up representation. His third concern was pedagogical, and he wrote mostly in Arabic to reach a mass of people untouched by Western scholarship. His last major work was an atlas of Islamic painting and decorative arts, designed to make Islamic art known to those whose cultural heritage it is....


Peter F. Dorman


(reg c. 1479–c. 1458 bc). Ancient Egyptian ruler of Egypt and patron. Daughter of Tuthmosis I and princess of the royal blood, Hatshepsut married her half-brother Tuthmosis II and, at the death of her father, became queen consort. Her considerable influence as queen and ‘god’s wife’ of Amun continued unabated when her father died, and she acted for several years as regent for the young Tuthmosis III, her nephew and stepson. For reasons that remain conjectural, Hatshepsut assumed pharaonic titles, probably in year seven of Tuthmosis’s reign, and insinuated herself as the senior partner of a co-regency.

Unlike previous women who had ruled Egypt, she was consistently portrayed in sculpture and relief as a male, creating a polite fiction that enabled her to legitimize her claim to the throne. Her sculpture generally conforms to the royal style of Tuthmosis III, although in certain instances the sculptor has attempted to soften the masculine conception of the vigorous and athletic youth that embodies the Tuthmosid ideal. Hatshepsut is occasionally depicted with slender elongated limbs that may well be an attempt to imbue the royal figure with a sense of femininity (...


Ingeborg Kuhn-Régnier

(b Vienna, Dec 4, 1914; d Mödling, Feb 25, 1995).

Austrian painter. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna from 1931 until 1936. During this period he also travelled to England, France, Italy, Greece, Turkey and Egypt. After he was designated a ‘degenerate’ artist in 1938 (see Entartete Kunst), exhibition of his work was forbidden in Germany. From 1941 until 1945 he was a soldier. Before allying himself with the style of Phantastischer Realismus, based in Vienna, his works were mainly Expressionist-influenced images of suburbs, still-lifes and female models, most of which he destroyed.

In 1946 Hausner joined the Art-Club and had his first one-man exhibition in the Konzerthaus, Vienna. A key work of this period, It’s me! (1948; Vienna, Hist. Mus.), shows his awareness of Pittura Metafisica and Surrealism in a psychoanalytical painting where the elongated being in the foreground penetrates what was apparently a real landscape, until it tears like a backdrop; another painting, ...



R. J. Leprohon

Egyptian site in the Faiyum, an oasis 80 km south-west of Cairo. Located at the site is the pyramid of Ammenemes III (reg c. 1818–c. 1770 bc), a ruler of Egypt in the 12th Dynasty. Dieter Arnold’s excavations (from 1976) have shown that Ammenemes III’s first pyramid at Dahshur had become unsuitable for burial and that another pyramid was therefore erected in the Faiyum, an area in which the King took particular interest. Only the inner mud-brick structure of the pyramid remains, the outer stone casing having been removed over the centuries. Adjacent to the pyramid was a mortuary temple, the plan of which was so elaborate that the Classical writers referred to it as the Labyrinth. So little of this has survived that the building can be understood only through Classical descriptions. When the archaeologist Flinders Petrie discovered the entrance to the pyramid in 1889...


Nabil Swelim

[anc. Egyp. Iunu; Bibl. On; now Tell Hisn]. Site near Cairo, Egypt. It was the capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome (administrative province) and a cult centre of the sun-god in its various guises (Re, Atum, Khephri). The symbol of Heliopolis was the benben, the precursor of the pyramid and obelisk, which represented the primeval hill on which the sun first rose. The oldest monolithic benben found at Heliopolis dates to the 6th Dynasty (c. 2325–c. 2150 bc). An obelisk of Sesostris I (reg c. 1918–c. 1875 bc) still stands on the site; two other obelisks of Heliopolitan origin—‘Cleopatra’s needles’—are now in London and New York. Remains of a temenos wall and chapel reliefs testify to the city’s importance as a religious centre as early as the Early Dynastic period (c. 2925–c. 2575 bc). Imhotep, who bore the title ‘Greatest of seers’ and served in Heliopolis under the 3rd Dynasty (...


Egyptian site c. 15 km west of Beni Suef. The city of Henen-nesut was known in the Greco-Roman period (332 bcad 395) as Herakleopolis Magna because of the identification of the local ram-headed god Harsaphes with the Greek Herakles. However, it first rose to prominence as the national capital during the First Intermediate Period (c. 2150–c. 2008 bc), when the Herakleopolitan 9th and 10th dynasties ruled Egypt. The city also flourished during the Third Intermediate Period (c. 1075–c. 750 bc), when it became an independent princedom. The site was excavated by Edouard Naville (1890–91), Flinders Petrie (1904) and the Spanish Archaeological Mission under the direction of J. López from 1966.

The earliest remains, in a necropolis of the First Intermediate Period, consist of an important group of tombs belonging to prominent officials. These are decorated with polychrome reliefs depicting offering-bearers and scenes of rural life, as well as stelae of the false-door type (...


Ancient Egyptian site on the east bank of the Nile, c. 30 km south of el-Minya. A Greco-Roman redevelopment of the pharaonic town of Khmun, it is now marked by a mound of ruins c. 1.5 km in diameter, adjacent to the modern settlement of el-Ashmunein. The town was occupied from the Old Kingdom (c. 2575–c. 2150 bc) to the Coptic period (4th–7th century ad). In pharaonic times it was a nome capital and the chief cult centre of Thoth, god of writing and wisdom. Thoth was later identified with Hermes, hence the Greco-Roman name of the city; its earlier name of Khmun means ‘City of the Eight’ and refers to the eight gods who figured in the local creation myths.

In the centre of the town was a large Temple of Thoth, constructed in the New Kingdom (c. 1540–c. 1075 bc), principally in the reigns of ...


Ancient Egyptian burial site at Saqqara. Hesyre (fl c. 2620 bc) lived at the time of Djoser, holding the offices of Overseer of Royal Scribes and ‘greatest of physicians and dentists’. His tomb, to the north of Djoser’s pyramid, was excavated by James Quibell (1911–12); it was an imposing structure of mud brick, the superstructure of which was 43 m long. The substructure was immensely deep, descending 21 m, with rooms on three levels, including storerooms in which pottery, stone vases and a clay sealing of Djoser were found. The offering chamber, a long interior passage, stretched across the whole eastern face of the mastaba, according to the custom of the time. The inside of the chamber was decorated with wall paintings, including matting designs, scenes of cattle, human figures (in situ) and a crocodile (Cairo, Egyp. Mus.). This inner corridor also contained paintings of stone vases and of storerooms stocked with oils, weights and measures, furniture and cult-stands of pottery and alabaster. The unique representations of furniture, such as beds, parallel actual objects found in tombs of the 1st Dynasty (...


Dominic Montserrat

Tomb at Giza (see Giza §1) lying south of the causeway of the Great Pyramid and containing the secondary burial of Queen Hetepheres I, the wife of Sneferu (reg c. 2575–c. 2551 bc) and mother of Cheops (reg c. 2551–c. 2528 bc). Her original burial, probably in the funerary complex of Sneferu at Dahshur, had been plundered, and the remainder of her funerary furniture was moved to this well-concealed tomb comprising a small, undecorated chamber at the bottom of a shaft over 30 m deep. When the tomb was excavated by George Reisner in 1925, the Queen’s alabaster sarcophagus was empty—presumably her body had been destroyed by tomb robbers searching for jewellery—although the quartzite canopic box containing her mummified viscera was found. The tomb contents were in chaos, with objects piled upon each other in the narrow chamber, and the numerous wooden artefacts had decayed and shrunk; it was only through Reisner’s painstaking excavation that the deposit was saved....