You are looking at  121-140 of 166 results  for:

  • Art Education x
Clear All

Article

Ingrid Severin

(b Baden, Dec 8, 1929).

Austrian painter, printmaker and photographer. He began painting as a self-taught artist in the mid-1940s, after leaving school, and first came into contact with contemporary art through a British Council exhibition in 1947 that included work by Paul Nash, Francis Bacon, Stanley Spencer, Henry Moore and Edward Burra. Around this time he produced his first portraits, such as Rainer Dying (pencil, 1949; Vienna, Helmut Weis priv. col., see 1984 exh. cat., p. 10). While attending the Staatsgewerbeschule at Villach from 1947 to 1949 he became interested in theories of Surrealism. He had almost no academic training as an artist, leaving the Hochschule für Angewandte Kunst in Vienna in 1949 after only one day because of an argument with a teacher, and lasting little longer at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna in 1950. From 1948 to 1951 he produced Surrealistic drawings representing underwater scenes and mystical forms, rendering these fantastic images in pencil as a densely worked surface. In ...

Article

Wilfried Posch

(b Klagenfurt, May 1, 1910; d Vienna, April 10, 2004).

Austrian architect, urban planner, writer and teacher. He studied architecture (1928–33) at the Technische Universität, Vienna, and then worked from 1937 at the Deutsche Akademie für Städtebau in Berlin. After World War II he began writing books that proposed solutions to urban planning and housing problems. He also established a practice as an independent architect in Vienna, working mainly in the functionalist tradition. During his career he completed more than 50 projects of the most diverse kinds and scale: office buildings, schools, kindergartens, swimming-baths, churches, multi-purpose halls, factories, a radio and television centre and numerous residential buildings including an influential estate of prefabricated detached houses (1954; with Carl Auböck), Vienna, that served as a model for much post-war reconstruction work in Austria. Other well-known examples of his work are his multi-purpose halls: the Stadthalle (1952–8), Vienna, the Friedrich-Ebert-Halle (1962–5), Ludwigshafen am Rhein, and the Stadthalle (...

Article

Nadja Rottner

French critic and philosopher Nicolas Bourriaud adopted the term ‘relational aesthetics’ in the mid-1990s to refer to the work of a selected group of artists, and what he considers their novel approach to a socially conscious art of participation: an art that takes as its content the human relations elicited by the artwork. Its key practitioners, most of them emerging in the 1990s, include Rirkrit Tiravanija , Philippe Parreno (b 1964), Liam Gillick, Pierre Huyghe, Maurizio Cattelan, Carsten Höller , and Vanessa Beecroft . For example, Carsten Höller installed Test Site (2006) at the Tate Modern in London so that visitors could enjoy the amusement park thrill of large playground slides in the museum’s Turbine Hall, and bond with fellow viewers over their experience. Bourriaud’s collected writings in Relational Aesthetics (1998, Eng. edn 2002) helped to spark a new wave of interest in participatory art.

While Bourriaud omits acknowledging the historical roots of relational art, Marxist-influenced critiques of the changing conditions of modern life, and arguments for art’s ability to improve man’s relationship with reality have a long history in 20th-century art. Critics Walter Benjamin and Siegfried Kracauer were among the first to developed new models for an art of politicized participation in the 1920s. The relational art of the 1990s and early 2000s is a continuation and an extension of traditions of participatory art throughout the 20th century (such as ...

Article

David Mannings

(b Plympton, Devon, July 16, 1723; d London, Feb 23, 1792).

English painter, collector and writer. The foremost portrait painter in England in the 18th century, he transformed early Georgian portraiture by greatly enlarging its range. His poses, frequently based on the Old Masters or antique sculpture, were intended to invoke classical values and to enhance the dignity of his sitters. His rich colour, strong lighting and free handling of paint greatly influenced the generation of Thomas Lawrence and Henry Raeburn. His history and fancy pictures explored dramatic and emotional themes that became increasingly popular with both artists and collectors in the Romantic period. As first president of the Royal Academy in London, he did more than anyone to raise the status of art and artists in Britain. His Discourses on Art, delivered to the students and members of the Academy between 1769 and 1790, are the most eloquent and widely respected body of art criticism by any English writer.

Although Reynolds’s father, a fellow of Balliol College, Oxford, and master of Plympton Grammar School, had intended that his son train as an apothecary, Joshua chose instead to seek fame as a painter. In ...

Article

Jean van Cleven

(b Nieuwpoort, Jan 3, 1786; d Ghent, April 5, 1864).

Belgian architect. He was the son of a carpenter; from 1803 he trained at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent, where he was awarded a first prize in 1808. He went to Paris, where he worked in the important studio of Charles Percier(-Bassant) and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine. Together with L. Renard, Tieleman-Frans Suys and others, he contributed to the Choix des plus célèbres maisons de plaisance de Rome et de ses environs (1809–12), with drawings by Fontaine and Percier. In 1811 he won the Prix de Rome but did not go to Italy for health reasons. The fall of the Empire brought him back to Belgium in 1815, and he was appointed City Architect and professor at the Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Antwerp. His entry for a competition in London to make a monument commemorating the Battle of Waterloo, and above all his design (1816) for the auditorium of Ghent University, instantly established his reputation. He returned to Ghent, where he held the post of City Architect from ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b Barrow-in Furness, 1935).

British historian of Islamic art. After studying philosophy, politics and economics at Oxford and teaching philosophy there, his interests gradually shifted to Islamic art, particularly the art and architecture of Seljuq Anatolia, about which he eventually wrote his Ph.D. He taught at the American University of Cairo from 1965 until 1977, when he joined the Department of Oriental Antiquities at the British Museum. From 1991 to 2000 he was the Nasser D. Khalili Professor at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London and has been Honorary Curator of the Khalili Collection of Islamic Art since 1992. His extensive and meticulous scholarship, largely found in hundreds of learned articles, chapters, and reviews, is marked by his fluency in many languages and vast knowledge of primary sources.

J. M. Rogers: The Spread of Islam (Oxford, 1976) J. M. Rogers: Islamic Art and Design 1500–1700 (exh. cat., London, BM, 1983)...

Article

Evita Arapoglou

(b Athens, 1867–8; d Athens, Aug 28, 1928).

Greek painter. He studied at the School of Fine Arts in Athens (1885–8) and at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1888–90). He travelled to Paris (1890) and England (1903–8), but lived mainly in Athens. His portraits (e.g. D. Vikelas; Athens, N.G.) show a conservative academic style influenced by French and German Realism. His participation in the Greek-Turkish war of 1897 and the Balkan Wars of 1912–13 prompted him to paint a number of war scenes, some of them based on his drawings of the events (e.g. Battle of Farsala, c. 1900; Athens, N.G.). Together with his landscapes these show a clear tendency towards Impressionism, which he sought to establish while teaching at the School of Fine Arts in Athens.

C. Christou: E ellenike zographike, 1832–1922 [Greek painting, 1832–1922] (Athens, 1981), pp. 40–43

De Chirico, Giorgio, §1(i): Vólos and Athens, 1888–1905...

Article

John Rothenstein

(b Bradford, Jan 29, 1872; d Far Oakridge, nr Stroud, Feb 14, 1945).

English painter, printmaker, teacher and writer. He was the son of a wool merchant and delighted in the grim landscape of his native Yorkshire, which was the subject of some early watercolours. At 16 he left Bradford to attend the Slade School of Art, London (1888–9), where he was a pupil of Alphonse Legros, and the Académie Julian, Paris (1889–93). His talent was recognized as early as 1891, when an exhibition of his work and that of Charles Conder at the Galerie Hadrien Thomas in Paris attracted the attention of many artists including Pissarro and Degas. The latter invited Rothenstein to visit his studio and became a major influence on his development. After an inspiring four years he left Paris for Oxford where he made a number of portrait lithographs—among others of Walter Pater and Max Beerbohm—published as Oxford Characters (London, 1893–6). It was the first of several such publications, including ...

Article

Christian Klemm

(b Frankfurt am Main, May 12, 1606; d Nuremberg, Oct 14, 1688).

German painter and writer. A leading figure in 17th-century German painting, he is chiefly famed for his biographical writings in the Teutsche Academie. His great-nephew, an engraver who died young in London, also bore the name Joachim von Sandrart (1668–91).

Sandrart came from a family of Calvinist refugees from Wallonia. After initial lessons in drawing with Georg Keller and Sebastian Stoskopff (1597–1657), he began an apprenticeship in engraving in 1620 with Peter Isselburg in Nuremberg. In 1622 he went to Prague for more advanced tuition with Aegidius Sadeler II, who advised him to turn to painting. He accordingly apprenticed himself to Gerrit van Honthorst in Utrecht. Here, in 1627, he met Peter Paul Rubens, whom he accompanied on a journey through Holland. In 1628 he went with Honthorst to the English court. In 1629 Sandrart travelled via Venice and Florence to Rome. Here he initially became friendly with Domenichino; his acquaintance included both northerners—Claude Lorrain, Nicolas Poussin, François Du Quesnoy, Pieter van Laer—and Italians—Pietro da Cortona, Andrea Sacchi and Pietro Testa. From ...

Article

Elisheva Revel-Neher

(b Budapest, 1927; d Paris, 2008).

Art historian and scholar of Jewish and Christian art, active in France. Known as the ‘grande dame’ of Jewish art, Sed-Rajna came to Paris in 1948. She became Director of the Hebraic Section of the Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) and then taught at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes and at the Institut d’Etudes Juives of the Université Libre in Brussels. In 1976 she founded with Bezalel Narkiss the Jerusalem Index of Jewish Art and became President of the European Association for Jewish Studies. She published six pioneering books and numerous articles, scrutinizing the role played by the artistic heritage of the Jewish people.

In all her works the visual expression of the Jewish tradition was envisioned in the larger framework of the history of arts. Her immense knowledge of both texts and images led her to publish in ...

Article

Roberto Pontual

(Ferreira )

(b Rio de Janeiro, 1923; d Rio de Janeiro, 1973).

Brazilian painter, draughtsman and teacher. While studying engraving in 1946 with the Austrian Axel Leskoschek (b 1889) in Rio de Janeiro he worked in a figurative style but soon became one of the pioneers of concrete art in Brazil. In 1951 he was named best young national painter at the first São Paulo Biennale for his geometric constructions such as Formas (1951; U. São Paulo, Mus. A. Contemp.). He was the founder and prime mover of the Frente group of geometric artists in Rio de Janeiro. A trip to Italy and Spain awarded to him by the Salão Nacional de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro, in 1957 led him first to a freer abstraction and subsequently to a type of Art informel that developed on his return to Brazil into an expressive and referential style similar to Cobra. His Animals and Darkness series of paintings and drawings (...

Article

John Turpin

(b Cookstown, Co. Tyrone, April 10, 1865; d Dublin, Sept 14, 1941).

Irish sculptor. He attended the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art (1884–8) and worked at the Royal Hibernian Academy Life Drawing School (1885–6), Dublin. At the National Art Training School (1888–90), South Kensington, London, he absorbed the techniques of French modelling from Edouard Lantéri and later studied in Paris at the Académie Julian and the Académie Colarossi. He taught at the Leicester School of Art (1892–3), the Nottingham School of Art (1894–1902) and the Dublin Metropolitan School of Art (1903–37). He exhibited at the Royal Hibernian Academy from 1891, becoming an Associate in 1899 and a Member in 1901. He was also professor of sculpture there and a founder-member of the Royal Society of British Sculptors.

His work was influenced by the romanticism of the Celtic Revival and by French Symbolism, reflected in subjects such as Innis fáil (...

Article

Ilaria Bignamini

(b London, 1715; d Maidstone, Dec 28, 1803).

English drawing-master. The son of a stationer, he began his career as a painter and drawing-master at Northampton. He developed his ideas for art premiums in part from similar awards introduced at the time at local horse fairs and races; eventually this led to Shipley’s publication of two pamphlets, the Proposal for Raising by Subscription a Fund to be Distributed in Premiums for the Promoting of Improvements in the Liberal Arts and Sciences, Manufactures, etc and the Scheme for Putting the Proposals in Execution (1753). These provided the foundation stones of the new Society of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. The Society was established in London in 1754, shortly after Shipley had moved there and set up (1753) a private drawing school—Shipley’s Academy—in the Strand. This school played an influential role in art instruction during the later 1750s and 1760s; its students included the landscape watercolour painter ...

Article

Andrzej Ryszkiewicz

(b Warsaw, Oct 6, 1745; d Wilno [Vilnius], Sept 18, 1807).

Polish painter. The son of the Warsaw craft painter Łukasz Smuglewicz (1709–80), he was apprenticed to Szymon Czechowicz. Living from 1763 to 1784 in Rome, he initially studied under Anton von Maron and then from 1766 at the Accademia di S Luca on a bursary given by King Stanislas V. Here he became influenced by classicizing academicism, a style to which he remained faithful. He became proficient in fresco painting (e.g. c. 1768 at Rome, St Stanislao dei Polacchi) and at oil portraits (e.g. The Byres Family in Rome, c. 1770–76; London, Brinsley Ford priv. col.). He also did watercolour copies (c. 1770–76) of antique frescoes, being at this time conversant with international antiquarian and collecting circles.

From 1784 to 1797 Smuglewicz lived in Warsaw, where he had his own private school of painting and himself painted many pictures for churches, including, just after his return, one for the Basilian brotherhood in Warsaw (...

Article

John Turpin

(b Co. Meath, 1749; d Dublin, Aug 2, 1812).

Irish sculptor. He was apprenticed to Simon Vierpyl (1725–1810), a sculptor from London who had been brought to Ireland by James Caulfield, 1st Earl of Charlemont. Smyth began his career in 1799 by winning a competition for a marble statue of Charles Lucas MP (Dublin, City Hall). Later he provided decorative architectural carving for the Dublin builder Henry Darley. Through him, Smyth was employed in the 1780s by James Gandon on the new Custom House in Dublin, for which he carved his best-known works: the keystones representing the rivers of Ireland, the Royal Arms and Portland stone statues for the portico. For Gandon, Smyth also carved the stone figures (1787) on the pediment of the Irish House of Lords (now Bank of Ireland); and after 1804, when the building was being converted to a bank, he carved three further figures, after John Flaxman’s designs, on the main portico. The sculpture for Gandon’s Four Courts and King’s Inns was also by Smyth. In addition, he made funerary monuments, busts and portrait statues such as ...

Article

Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen

(Marius)

(b Germany, 1893; d 1979).

Danish landscape architect, teacher and writer. After training as a horticulturist he worked in Copenhagen from 1914 to 1922 as a draughtsman for the landscape architect, Erik Erstad-Jørgensen (1872–1945). From 1922 he ran his own practice, and from 1924 to 1929 he collaborated with another Danish landscape architect, G. N. Brandt (1878–1945). He became a lecturer in landscape gardening at the Kunstakademi, Copenhagen, in 1940, and as the first professor of landscape and garden architecture from 1954 to 1963 he devised training courses for the modern landscape architect. He evolved his theories in discussion and collaboration with Povl Baumann, Ivar Bentsen, Kaare Klint, Kay Fisker, Aage Rafn and Steen Eiler Rasmussen. Carl Petersen’s concepts of ‘Contrasts’ and ‘Textural Effects’ were the basis of their aesthetic views.

Sørensen aimed to avoid monotony, to create harmony and unity, and to give significance to landscape through spatial experience and sculptural forms. His materials were earth and plants. He learnt his art by visiting European gardens and saw the new ideas put into practice in Frankfurt am Main and Berlin. Through his prolific writings, his teaching and close collaboration with leading architects he had a profound influence on the cultivation of physical surroundings, on parks and woods, roads and motorways, architecture and environment in housing developments, residential suburbs and country-house gardens. The circle and the oval were Sørensen’s favoured forms. He saw in the Greek amphitheatre the divine idea projected down upon earth, citing as an example the Viking settlement at Trelleborg in Scandinavia. His own garden, created in ...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Rochefort-sur-Mer, Nov 15, 1923).

French scholar of Islamic art. After earning degrees in classical Arabic (1946) and Islamic art (1948) in Paris, she was associated with the French institute in Damascus from 1949 to 1954, and traveled to Turkey, Egypt and Afghanistan. She returned to Paris, where she wrote her thesis at the Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes (1957) and taught there and at the Sorbonne, where she became vice-president (1982–9). She married to Dominique Sourdel, the eminent French historian of Islam, with whom she often collaborated on synthetic studies of Islamic civilization. Her own specialty is the study of Arabic epigraphy, a field that she studied with Jean Sauvaget , and she meticulously analyzed the inscriptions on many major monuments from Syria to Afghanistan.

J. Sourdel-Thomine: Epitaphe coufiques de Bab Saghir, iv of Les monuments Ayyoubides de Damas (Paris, 1950) J. Sourdel-Thomine: “Deux minarets d’époque seljoukide en Afghanistan,” ...

Article

Thomas Tolley

(b Padua, c. 1395; d Padua, after May 1468).

Italian painter, teacher, draughtsman and printmaker. He is a controversial figure. His mediocre qualities as a painter are less contentious than his role as the head of a school for painters, possibly the earliest private establishment devoted to teaching painting and distinct from the workshop system of instruction through apprenticeships.

Having been recorded as a tailor and embroiderer, Squarcione is first referred to as a painter in 1426, when he executed an altarpiece (untraced) for the Olivetan monastery at Venda, south of Padua. He was then living near the Santo in Padua, where he later established his school. Soon after completing this altarpiece, Squarcione left Padua. According to Scardeone, who knew Squarcione’s lost autobiography, he travelled throughout Italy and Greece (i.e. the Byzantine empire). After returning to Padua, Squarcione took on his first pupil, Michele di Bartolommeo, in 1431. Apart from a Crucifixion (untraced), completed in 1439 for a Venetian patron, he undertook few commissions at this time. His purchase in ...

Article

Simone Rümmele

(b Purmerend, Aug 5, 1899; d Goldach, Switzerland, Feb 23, 1986).

Dutch architect, urban planner, designer, theorist and teacher. He was a leading figure in the Modern Movement, and his experiments in minimum expenditure of material and effort for the maximum social benefit were highly influential in the 1920s and 1930s. After serving an apprenticeship as a joiner, he attended a seminar for drawing teachers at the Rijksnormaalschool voor Tekenonderwijs in Amsterdam from 1917 to 1919, obtaining a diploma. He trained during the vacations in the office of J. M. van der Meij, gaining his first experience in architecture, and from 1919 to 1922 in the office of Marinus Jan Granpré Molière in Rotterdam. During this period he met the Swiss architects Hans Schmidt and Werner Moser, and in 1920 he joined the avant-garde architects’ association Opbouw, De. In 1922 he moved to Berlin, where he worked as a draughtsman with Werner von Walthausen (1887–1958), Max Taut and Hans Poelzig. There he also produced his project (...

Article

Jane Munro

(b Birkenhead, Dec 28, 1860; d London, March 18, 1942).

English painter. The son of a painter, Philip Steer (d 1871), he joined the Department of Coins and Medals at the British Museum in 1875 but found the demands of the Civil Service examination too rigorous and turned to painting in 1878. He studied first at the Gloucester School of Art under John Kemp and from 1880 to 1881 at the South Kensington Drawing Schools. He was rejected by the Royal Academy Schools and went to Paris in October 1882, where he enrolled first at the Académie Julian under William-Adolphe Bouguereau. In January 1883 he transferred to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and studied under Alexandre Cabanel.

Steer exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1883 and 1885 and at the Paris Salon in 1884. These early paintings were constrained student works, but after his return to England in the summer of 1884 he assimilated contemporary French painting. The popular rural naturalism of Jules Bastien-Lepage was particularly influential and evident in ...