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Jeffrey Chipps Smith

(b ?Munich, 1564; d Weilheim, c. 1635).

German sculptor. He was one of the leading sculptors active in Weilheim. During the late 16th and early 17th centuries this small Bavarian town produced a disproportionate number of major sculptors, including Adam and Hans Krumpper, Bartholomäus Steinle (c. 1580–1628/9), Hans Spindler (c. 1597–c. 1660), Christoph Angermair, Philipp Dirr (fl 1617–25), Melchior Pendl (fl 1617–31) and Georg Petel. Degler probably trained with Adam Krumpper between c. 1576 and 1582, and he worked with him in the Hofkapelle of the Munich Residenz in 1590 and on other projects for Duke William V in 1593 and 1595. He settled in Weilheim, where in 1590 he acquired citizenship and married Krumpper’s daughter Helene. From 1607 to 1628 Degler served on councils in Weilheim. His final years were beset with financial problems, and he sold his house in 1626 to settle debts. Although he had a difficult personality, Degler enjoyed great success as a teacher. Besides his sons ...


Marianne Grivel

(b ?Paris, c. 1519; d Paris, 1583).

French goldsmith, medallist, draughtsman and engraver. He was recorded as a journeyman goldsmith in Paris in 1546 and was appointed to the royal mint in January 1552. He was, however, removed in June that year. A number of medals, including one of Henry II (Paris, Bib. N., Cab. Médailles), are attributed to him. He did not become an engraver until about 1557; his first dated prints, a series of 12 plates illustrating the Old Testament (Linzeler and Adhémar, nos 3–14) and two designs for hand mirrors (l & a 308–9), were made in 1561. He found his models in the work of such Italian artists of the Fontainebleau school as Rosso Fiorentino, Nicolò dell’Abate and especially Luca Penni, rather than in that of Francesco Primaticcio. The year 1569 seems to have marked the peak of Delaune’s Fontainebleau production, with about ten prints inspired by the Italian masters. As a Calvinist he left Paris at the time of the St Bartholomew’s Eve massacre on ...


Jeffrey Chipps Smith

German family of sculptors. Peter Dell (i) (b Würzburg, c. 1490; d Würzburg, 1552) was the leading sculptor in Würzburg during the second quarter of the 16th century and was documented as a pupil of Tilmann Riemenschneider sometime between 1505 and 1510. His style owes more, however, to the powerful monumentality of Hans Leinberger, who probably employed him as an apprentice in Landshut around 1515. Before returning to Würzburg in 1534, Dell probably worked in Regensburg (c. 1520–21), the Lower Main River area (1520s) and Freiberg, Saxony (1528–33). While in Freiberg, he carved at least four limewood reliefs, of the Crucifixion, Resurrection and Holy Teaching (all Dresden, Grünes Gewölbe) and the Fall of the Rebel Angels (untraced), for Henry, Duke of Saxony. Other religious reliefs by Dell are in Berlin, Nuremberg and Stuttgart. Dell was also an important portrait sculptor; his small wooden portrait reliefs include ...


(b Rouen; fl 1501/2–1515).

French mason and sculptor. During 1501–2 Delorme worked on the churches of St Nicolas and St Michel in Rouen. His name appears in a document of 1502 as Pierres de Lourme. He was employed in 1502–3 by Cardinal Georges I d’Amboise, Archbishop of Rouen, to carry out work on the episcopal palace, where he led a team of 22 masons and carried out work on ‘la grande galerie et du préau du jardin’. Together with Pierre Fain (fl 1501/2–22), Delorme was again employed by the Cardinal on the second phase (1506–11) of the building campaign of the château of Gaillon (Seine-Maritime), during which period Italianate decorative motifs were introduced. Delorme’s name occurs ten times in the detailed accounts for the building project, but none of the parts of Gaillon associated with him has survived. He modified the large square tower of the north wing and created a passage leading from the great courtyard to the gardens. The tower (...


Hermann Maué

(b c. 1500; d ?Vienna, after Oct 1571).

German sculptor and medallist. He is known to have married in Nuremberg in 1532 and to have become a citizen in 1537. He was recorded in 1547 as having made a two-year study journey that took him to Venice and Rome, from which he brought back numerous drawings and works of art; he was also said to be skilled in working marble. Except for this journey, Deschler mostly remained in Nuremberg; only the Imperial Diets were to him worth a journey, in order to obtain commissions, mainly for portrait medals. In 1534 he received a commission from Archduke Maximilian (later Emperor Maximilian II), and in 1548 from King Ferdinand of Bohemia and Hungary (later Emperor Ferdinand I); it was probably he who ordered the costly artefact that Deschler’s son delivered to Prague in 1553: the price paid was 1000 taler.

From the end of the 1550s Deschler lived in Vienna, where, as Maximilian’s court sculptor, he received a fixed salary until his death, the last payment being made in ...


Charles R. Morscheck jr

(fl Milan, 1465; d Aug 1504).

Italian sculptor and architect. In 1465 he witnessed a document at the offices of the Fabbrica (Cathedral Works) of Milan Cathedral together with Francesco Solari and Giovanni Antonio Amadeo, Dolcebuono’s lifelong associate. All three were living in the parish of S Martini in Compedo, the neighbourhood of the Solari family of sculptors and architects, which suggests that Amadeo and Dolcebuono may have been trained by them. Dolcebuono’s association with the Solari is confirmed by a document of 1467, in which Guiniforte Solari, then architect to the Fabbrica, and Giovanni Solari, Guiniforte’s father and formerly an architect to the Fabbrica, hired Dolcebuono as a journeyman labourer for two years. By 1479 he was a member of the Scuola dei Quattro Coronati, the society of stonecutters at the Fabbrica. In 1472 he was paid for measuring for and designing the altar of St Joseph at the respectable rate of ten soldi per day. Documents of ...


Hanno-Walter Kruft



Antonio Manno


(b San Gimignano, 1533; d Naples, 1609).

Italian sculptor, architect, draughtsman, antiquarian, engineer and decorator. He began his career as a goldsmith and engraver. He arrived in Rome in 1548 and the next year entered the workshop of the sculptor and architect Raffaele da Montelupo, where he worked mostly on wall decorations for mausoleums. Around this time he carved a statue of Hope for the tomb of Giulio del Vecchio in SS Apostoli, Rome. Between 1552 and 1564 he was in close contact with Michelangelo, and he may have participated with Guglielmo della Porta in the reconstruction of S Silvestro al Quirinale, Rome. Della Porta and Dosio associated with the artistic circle around the Carafa family, for whom they may have planned a chapel. In 1561 Dosio was working as a sculptor and stuccoist for the patrician Torquato de’ Conti. Other sculptural work in Rome includes a funerary monument with posthumous portrait bust for the poet Annibal Caro...


Lydie Hadermann-Misguich

(b ?Mons, c. 1505; d Mons, Sept 30, 1584).

Flemish sculptor and architect. He is believed to have returned from a visit to Italy c. 1535 in order to draw up plans for the rood screen and stalls in the collegiate church of St Waudru in Mons, although the surviving design for the screen and the contract with the stone-cutter (1535) do not mention Du Broeucq’s name. He worked on the funerary monument of Bishop Eustache de Croy (d 1538; Saint-Omer, Notre-Dame); only the alabaster recumbent and praying figures of the deceased remain, but they suffice to indicate Du Broeucq’s nervous sensibility and his taste for tactile values and mobile forms. The lectern in front of the praying effigy bears his signature and reveals his lifelong attraction to the grotesque ornamentation of the Renaissance. The monument is similar to that of Louis de Brézé (d 1531), which was then being built in Rouen Cathedral, with designs attributed to Jean Goujon....


J. J. Martín González

(b Toro, 1568; d Toro, 1619).

Spanish sculptor. He was the son of the sculptor Pedro Ducete Díez and trained in Palencia, moving to Valladolid and later back to Toro, where he had a workshop. He collaborated with Esteban de Rueda in a partnership whose abundant production justifies the description of the Toro workshop. In 1592 Ducete carved a Crucifixion and a statue of the Virgin for S Martin, Pinilla de Toro. He executed large retablos (1602) in S Sepulcro, Toro, where the poignancy in his work is apparent in the St Andrew and derives from the influence of Juan de Juni; in S Sofia, Toro; and in S Pedro, Villalpando, with the fine relief of the Granting of the Chasuble to St Ildefonso (1607), also influenced by Juni. The ample folds in the garments of all these figures were executed by Rueda and show the influence of Gregorio Fernández. In 1618...


Geneviève Bresc-Bautier

(b Sissonne, Aisne, c. 1574; d Paris, between 19 and Feb 24, 1642).

French sculptor and medallist. He was trained in Paris by his co-religionist, the Protestant sculptor Barthélemy Prieur, whose daughter he married in 1600. In 1597 he executed a portrait medal of Henri IV with a profile portrait of the royal mistress Gabrielle d’Estrée on the reverse (see Mazerolle, no. 623), and it was perhaps this work that launched his official career. In 1603 he was named Sculpteur Ordinaire du Roi and was authorized to cast medals in gold and silver; in 1604 he was made joint Contrôleur Général des Poinçons et Effigies des Monnaies with his rival Jean Pilon (1578–1617). From 1608 he was in charge of the founding of cannon for the French artillery, and in 1611 Prieur obtained for him the reversion of his title as Premier Sculpteur du Roi.

Dupré’s reputation rests principally on his work as a medallist. He executed numerous portrait medals of Henri IV, representing him as Hercules (...


Elisabeth Gurock

(b Granheim; fl Biberach an der Riss, 1583; d Ellwangen, nr Biberach, June 7, 1613).

German wood-carver. His only securely attributed work is the richly carved ceiling (c. 1590) of the chapel of Schloss Heiligenberg, ornamented with figures and heads of angels. He is also attributed with an altarpiece of a Trinity group with male saints and angels (?1613; Ellwangen, St Vitus). Its carved ornamentation is identified with that of a high altar mentioned in a document of 1613, which states that Dürner was prevented from finishing it by his death. Carvings from the region of Biberach (of which he became a citizen on 12 November 1583), in particular depictions of female saints and the Virgin, are linked with Dürner through their stylistic resemblance to the Ellwangen figures. The rather conventional idiom shown in all these works identifies him as a prime exponent of the traditional tendency of Upper Swabian wood-carving that only hesitantly assimilated contemporary Italian elements.

A. Schahl: ‘Beiträge zur Plastik des Manierismus in Oberschwaben’, ...


S. Träger

German family of artists. Hieronymus Eckhardt the elder (d 1572) was master of the Freiberg masons’ and sculptors’ guild. His son Hieronymus Eckhardt the younger (d 5 April 1624) was the municipal mason of Freiberg. The sons of Hieronymus the younger included Uriel Eckhardt (1582–1612), who carved the tomb of Caspar von Schönberg the younger (d 1605) at St Mary’s, Sayda; Gabriel Eckhardt, who carved the font in the town church at Penig; Georg Eckhardt (c. 1590–1637), also a sculptor; and Ezechiel Eckhardt (bapt Freiberg, Saxony, 24 Feb 1595; traceable until 1664). Ezechiel trained in his father’s workshop in Freiberg, where he worked until 1623, when he moved to Dresden, acquiring civic rights in the same year.

Under Elector John-George I of Saxony (reg 1611–56) Eckhardt undertook alterations and improvements to various palaces and fortifications in Saxony. In ...



Alice T. Friedman

Term used to describe British art and architecture produced during the reign (1558–1603) of Elizabeth I. The dominant characteristics in all media are flatness and linearity; in representational art, surface decoration, high colour and complex silhouettes are preferred over plastic form or naturalistic three-dimensional depiction. There is evidence that Nicholas Hilliard, Elizabeth I’s favoured portrait miniaturist, and such other court painters as George Gower, Marcus Gheerhaerts (ii) and Isaac Oliver consciously suppressed their knowledge of contemporary Italian and Flemish naturalism to produce their own distinctive iconic portraits. As for sculpture, the Dutch and Flemish masons who visited or settled in England, such as Garat Johnson (i) and Richard Stevens, tended to dominate. Their recumbent effigies carved for alabaster funerary monuments (often richly coloured) were conventional in design and modelling, while ornamental motifs owed much to the influence of Mannerist Flemish pattern books, such as those by Hans Vredeman de Vries. Among the decorative arts, embroidery in particular was highly prized and widely practised to an exemplary standard in later 16th-century England: the realistic portrayal of fruits and flowers, boldly coloured and within complex formed designs, epitomizes the Elizabethan style in textiles....



Roger Bowdler

[Gr.: ‘on a tomb’.]

Term commonly applied in France, Germany, the Low Countries and Central Europe to a church funerary monument of modest dimensions bearing a memorial inscription. (In English usage, ‘epitaph’ signifies the inscription alone.) From the mid-16th century increasing numbers of clerics, scholars and members of the middle classes came to be commemorated by monuments in churches; accordingly, a variety of forms of memorial arose. The rise of the epitaph was largely owing to the demand for cheaper monuments that reflected the social hierarchy of burial and remembrance: small tablets took up less space than the effigial tombs of the gentry and nobility, and their modesty reflected an attitude of social deference. Continental epitaphs tended to portray the commemorated persons, sometimes with their family, generally kneeling in supplication before representations of sacred themes; they thus continued the medieval tradition of sepulchral portraiture and thereby provided an important place for religious iconography in Protestant—above all Lutheran—churches. Like Catholic ex-votos, epitaphs combined secular portraiture with sacred representations. They succeeded in surviving the iconoclasm of the Reformation by emphasizing the piety of the deceased rather than the worship of holy images. Protestant epitaphs fostered remembrance rather than veneration; with the abolition of the concept of purgatory they, as well as other types of monument, ceased to request prayers of intercession....


Anja Schneckenburger-Broschek

German family of sculptors. (1) Michel Erhart, whose rise to the position of leading sculptor of Ulm was rapid, was married to Margarethe, the daughter of the architect Vincenz Ensinger. Two of their sons, (2) Gregor Erhart and Bernhard Erhart (documented 1515–17), followed Michel’s craft. Gregor must have trained in his father’s workshop. The extent of collaboration and the division of the two sculptors’ work in the years before 1494 are matters of dispute; although clear preferences have been expressed, no generally accepted solution has been found. Gregor soon rose to be the leading sculptor of Augsburg. After his marriage in 1496 to Anna Mair, who was from a rich family of linen-weavers, he was able to establish his workshop, which he led until 1531, when he handed it over to his son, Paulus Mair.

(b ?1440–45; d Ulm, after Dec 8, 1522).

He is recorded in Ulm from ...


Hannelore Hägele

(b Lübeck, 1550–52; d Lübeck, 1613).

German wood-carver. He trained in the workshop of his father, Tönnies [Antonius] Evers I (d 1584), who belonged to the guild of master builders and joiners in Lübeck from 1556 to 1580, using (from 1559) an escutcheon showing a lily and a boar’s head. From 1567 the younger Evers travelled widely and in 1576 was as far south as Konstanz; his later work showed the influence of his contact with South German craftsmen and with Netherlandish works of art. In 1580 he returned to Lübeck and took over his father’s workshop; a year later his first apprentice, Hans Weydmann, joined him. Tönnies Evers II was an active member of his guild but was brought to trial by fellow members for having defied its rules by employing more journeymen and apprentices on contracted work than was permitted. Although there was animosity towards him within the guild, he was widely accepted by his contemporaries as the leading wood-carver. His surviving works are well documented and bear the lily-and-boar’s head emblem; they include the rood loft (...


Adam White

(b ?1570 or earlier; fl c. 1589–1623).

English sculptor and painter. He was born (probably at Epiphany) into a family of Herefordshire gentry, the fourteenth and youngest child of William Evesham of Wellington. He is said to have been a pupil of the Southwark sculptor Richard Stevens, but the source of this information is unreliable. His earliest recorded work is an engraved sun-dial (1589; Hereford, City Mus. & A.G.); during the 1590s he made at least two minor memorial tablets. In 1591 he was apparently in London, and by 1600 he had moved to Paris, where he remained until at least 1615. The extensive documentation of his time abroad indicates that he was an artist of considerable versatility (see Jurgens, 1960). In 1601 he subcontracted the metal-casting of a model of Neptune on three seahorses. Five years later he undertook to make the black marble tomb slab of the Archbishop of Sens (untraced), to be installed in the cathedral of Notre-Dame, Paris, and in ...


Margarita Estella


(b Settignano, 1469; d Saragossa, April 21, 1519).

Italian sculptor, active in Spain. He came from a family of artists and trained as a sculptor in marble under an unidentified Florentine master. In 1508 he is recorded in Carrara buying marble, possibly for the tomb of the Cardinal of Spain, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, Archbishop of Seville, who died in 1502, a commission from the deceased’s brother, Iñigo López de Mendoza, Conde de Tendilla. The latter was influential in introducing the Renaissance to Spain and was Spain’s ambassador to the Holy See. The tomb was made in Genoa in 1509, and Fancelli went to Spain to supervise its installation in the Capilla de la Antigua, in the south transept of Seville Cathedral. It is designed in the form of an arch set against the wall and decorated with niches housing small statues, the front with garlands and the base with shallow low reliefs, all reminiscent of the 15th century. From Seville, where the cathedral chapter tried to retain him, Fancelli went to Granada and contracted again with ...