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Alison Luchs

(b Settignano, nr Florence, 1670; d Florence, 1736).

Italian sculptor, medallist, architect and festival designer. He was a leading figure in the generation of sculptors trained in Florence after the dissolution of the Accademia Fiorentina in Rome (1686). Taught by Carlo Marcellini and Giuseppe Piamontini, he worked under Giovanni Battista Foggini on sculpture for the Feroni Chapel in SS Annunziata, Florence (1691–3), and the nave of SS Michele e Gaetano (1694–6). His principal sculptures are marble works for the high altar of SS Annunziata (1704–6) and portraits. His statues of St Filippo Benizzi and St Giuliana Falconieri for the Annunziata altar, with their animated balance and restrained intensity, are among the best of their date in Florence. Several portrait busts and reliefs, with an unsparingly detailed realism tempered by coolly imperious expression, have been attributed to him. The basis for these attributions is the signed marble effigy of Baron Philipp Bertram Degenhard Joseph von Hochkirchen...

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Andrew Cross

(b Rochdale, Lancs, March 10, 1961).

English sculptor. He completed a BFA at Goldsmiths’ College in 1983, but did not begin showing his work until later in that decade. You Can’t Touch This (London, Hales Gal., 1993) was the title of his first one-person exhibition, which consisted of a false wall made from tightly stretched metalized polyester over a wooden frame; the illusion created was of a shiny golden lobby of an upmarket comtemporary building. A year later he constructed a ‘gold’ facsimile of a timber shed, Untitled (Shed) (1994; exh. London, Hales Gal., 1994), using the same technique. These two works had a particular resonance in the context of the site for which they were made, a confined basement gallery in a deprived area of South London, suggesting an ironic comment on the corporate façade of politics and commerce during the 1980s. When shown in Young British Artists IV (London, Saatchi Gal., ...

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F. Forter

(b Basle, April 30, 1868; d Basle, March 14, 1947).

Swiss medallist, goldsmith and sculptor. He began a three-year engraving apprenticeship at the age of 14 and first worked as an engraver and medallist in Vienna, attending the Goldschmied- und Ciseleurschule while also continuing to study goldsmithing and engraving in Germany. In 1893 he attended classes in sculpture and engraving at the Ecole des Arts Industriels and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Geneva, and in 1894–6 he studied at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, coming into contact with the medallist Oscar Roty. In 1896–7 he studied sculpture at the Académie Julian in Paris, also undertaking work for jewellery manufacturers in his Paris studio from 1896. He returned to Basle in 1898 and set up on his own, achieving an international reputation. The major part of his output consisted of over 400 medals and plaques commemorating jubilees, festivals, dedications and foundations. The most interesting examples were portrait medals, which he executed in a simple style (e.g. ...

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Philip Attwood

(b Vienna, Aug 9, 1866; d New York, Jan 13, 1929).

Austrian sculptor, medallist and painter. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, and at the Berlin Akademie. He travelled to Rome before settling in London in 1897, exhibiting at the Royal Academy the following year. His sculptural oeuvre consists of large groups, portrait busts, statuettes and memorials in marble, bronze and silver. The bronze statue La pensierosa (New York, Met.) is a good example of his contemplative style, and the marble Mother-love (exh. London, RA, 1898; untraced, see autobiography, opp. p. 28) of his liking for melodramatic allegory; his memorials include The Sisters (marble; Liverpool, Walker A.G.). His paintings are mostly portraits, in a flashy style that owes much to his friend John Singer Sargent (e.g. Sir Joseph Duveen, 1903; London, Tate). Both his painted and sculpted portraits were immensely fashionable in Britain at the turn of the century, and he was taken up by the royal family, modelling a number of medals that were struck for ...

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Donald Myers

[Romano]

(b Monte Rotondo, nr Rome, 1520; d Florence, Sept 19, 1584).

Italian medallist, goldsmith and sculptor. The son of Pietro di Francesco, he was brought to Florence at a young age by Benvenuto Cellini, who described in his Vita how he found Galeotti in Rome in 1528. Galeotti accompanied Cellini to Ferrara and Paris in 1540 and worked in his Paris workshop with Ascanio de’ Mari (d 1566) in the Château du Petit-Nesle in 1548–9. He settled in Florence around 1552 and entered into the service of the Mint. He became a Florentine citizen in 1560. A payment to him from Cellini is recorded in January 1552, for chasing done on Cellini’s Perseus. A sonnet of 1555 by the historian and critic Benedetto Varchi (I Sonetti, Venice, 1555, i, 252) describes Galeotti as an equal rival of Domenico Poggini, another medallist also employed by the Mint. Briefly in 1575, Galeotti appears to have been an assistant engraver at the Papal Mint in Rome, taking the place of ...

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Mark Jones

(b St Etienne, Loire, May 15, 1761; d Paris, Dec 21, 1844).

French medallist. He first worked in Lyon as an engraver of dies in a button factory, becoming its owner in 1786. In 1790 enthusiasm for the French Revolution inspired him to produce a medal for the Fédération. He followed this with a trial piece for the proposed bell-metal coinage, bearing a portrait of the Marquis de Mirabeau as the French Demosthenes, and in the following year another piece, representing French Liberty (in imitation of Augustin Dupré’s American Liberty). Galle was sent to Paris to take part in the deliberations on the new coinage; there he worked for Dupré at the Mint, while studying sculpture under Antoine-Denis Chaudet. His opportunity came when Dominique-Vivant Denon began to produce his medallic history of Napoleon’s reign. Galle’s numerous contributions included the Conquest of Upper Egypt, the Arrival of General Bonaparte at Fréjus, the Battle of Friedland and the Battle of Jena, while his coronation portrait of ...

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Angela Catello

[Nicola da Guardiagrele]

(b c. 1395; d before 1462).

Italian goldsmith and sculptor. He was active in Guardiagrele in the Abruzzi region, which was an area celebrated since ancient times for the work of its goldsmiths. It is probable that he was trained in the workshop of his father, Andrea Gallucci, who was also a goldsmith and sculptor. The earliest of Nicola’s many documented and securely attributed works is a monstrance (1413; Francavilla al Mare, S Maria Maggiore), which, like all his early works, is in the Late Gothic style. Some of his works reflect Tuscan influence, in particular that of Lorenzo Ghiberti. This is already apparent in a cross (1431; Guardiagrele, S Maria Maggiore), but is particularly marked in his altar frontal (1448; Teramo Cathedral) with scenes from the Life of Christ, some of which are based directly on those of Ghiberti’s north doors of 1403–24 (Florence, Baptistery).

The Annunciation (Florence, Bargello) attributed to Nicola and his bust of ...

Article

Hélène du Mesnil

(b Rodez, Aveyron, Oct 25, 1777; d Paris, May 4, 1858).

French sculptor and medallist. He trained in Paris as a goldsmith with Jean Baptiste Claude Odiot before turning to the engraving of medals; about 1808 he joined the workshop of the gem-engraver and medallist Romain-Vincent Jeuffroy. In 1819 he showed his first work of sculpture, a marble statue in Neo-classical style of Cupid Testing his Arrows (untraced), at the Paris Salon. In 1823 he became medal-engraver to Charles X, and he remained a prolific engraver of commemorative and portrait medallions throughout his life. He competed unsuccessfully in the competition (1829) for allegorical sculpture for the pediment of the church of the Madeleine, Paris. That same year, however, he received an official commission for two seated marble statues representing the Power of the Law and Universal Suffrage for the courtyard of the Chambre des Députés, Palais Bourbon, Paris; these ponderous and academic works were not put in place until ...

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Hermann Maué

(b c. 1500; bur Nuremberg, April 22, 1574).

German medallist. On the occasion of being granted the citizenship of Nuremberg in 1523 he was described as a wood-carver. It seems likely that Nuremberg’s adoption in 1525 of the Reformed faith obliged Gebel to look for other work, since none now came from the Church. The first medal definitely attributable to him is also one of his most famous: that of Albrecht Dürer (Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.), struck in 1527. It shows the painter with short hair and was to become for future ages the definitive portrait of him in old age. In 1528, after Dürer’s death, this medal was reissued with an altered reverse. In 1529 and 1530 Gebel travelled to the imperial diets in Speyer and Worms to obtain commissions for portrait medals.

Gebel did not belong to any guild but was among those practising the ‘freie Künste’: the fact that in 1534 he was singled out by name in Nuremberg city ordinances concerning medallists who were free craftsmen suggests that he was regarded as the most important Nuremberg medallist of his day, an assumption supported by his works, which include a silver medal of ...

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Marie-Therese Thibierge

(b Paris, Sept 29, 1816; d Valmondois, Val-d’Oise, Aug 25, 1892).

French goldsmith, sculptor and museum curator. He studied in Paris, first at the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin and from 1831 at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, where he was a pupil of David d’Angers and James Pradier. He worked principally as a goldsmith until 1848 but then devoted himself to the study of medieval sculpture. Throughout his career he collaborated on the restoration of many important Gothic buildings in France, notably with Emile Boeswillwald on Laon Cathedral, with Victor-Marie-Charles Ruprich-Robert on Bayeux Cathedral and with Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus and Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc on the Sainte-Chapelle and Notre-Dame in Paris. At the Sainte-Chapelle he was responsible for the 12 stone statues of the Apostles at the base of the spire (in situ); from 1848 to 1864 he ran the sculpture studio at Notre-Dame, where among many other works in an elegant neo-Gothic style he executed 12 copper statues of the Apostles for the base of the spire (...

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Claudia Maué

In 

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Manfred Wundram and Gustina Scaglia

Italian family of artists. (1) Lorenzo Ghiberti was the leading bronze-caster in Florence in the early 15th century and the head of a highly influential workshop, which became a kind of academy of Florentine art. He was renowned both for his monumental bronze sculptures and for his development of a new type of pictorial low relief, which culminated in the panels of the Gates of Paradise for the Baptistery, Florence. About 1415 Lorenzo married Marsilia, the 16-year-old daughter of a wool-carder; their two sons, Tommaso Ghiberti (b c. 1417; d after 1455) and (2) Vittorio Ghiberti I both worked in Lorenzo’s studio, although Tommaso is not mentioned in the documents after 1447. In 1443 Tommaso collaborated with another of Lorenzo’s assistants on the execution of the tabernacle for Michelozzo’s Baptist (Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo) on the silver altar of the Baptistery. In Lorenzo’s last years Vittorio played an increasingly important role as his partner. Vittorio’s son, ...

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(b Florence, 1689; d Naples, Dec 29, 1766).

Italian gem-engraver and medallist. He may have been descended from an old Sienese family who had settled in Florence in 1340. His uncle Vincenzo Ghinghi was also a gem-engraver. By 1704 he was studying drawing under Francesco Ciaminghi (d 1736) and modelling with the sculptor Giovanni Battista Foggini. He was taught gem-engraving with the assistance of Ferdinando de’ Medici, and acquired a position in the Medici court as gem-engraver to the Grand Duke Cosimo III, establishing his reputation with a chalcedony cameo portrait of his patron (untraced). Among other portraits were those of the collector Baron Philipp von Stosch (c. 1717; Berlin, Antikenmus.) and of Cosimo’s sons Ferdinando de’ Medici and Gian Gastone de’ Medici (untraced). For the Electress Palatine Anna Maria Luisa de’ Medici he cut cameos of Hadrian and Trajan in large violet sapphires, and for Cardinal Gualtieri a copy of the Venus de’ Medici...

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Angela Catello

(b Forlì, 1646; d Rome, 1721).

Italian draughtsman, silversmith, bronze-caster and gem-carver. Between 1665 and 1668 he was apprenticed to the silversmith Marco Gamberucci (fl 1656–80) in Rome. In 1675 he qualified as a master silversmith and rapidly achieved a position of prestige in the silversmiths’ guild. He ran a productive workshop, in which he was joined in 1680 by his brother Alessandro Giardini (b 1655). In 1698 he was appointed bronze-founder for the Papacy. Only a few of his works in silver have survived, most of them church furnishings that escaped the depredations of the Napoleonic army. These show a strong sense of form and a technical mastery that earned him important commissions from the papal court, including an imposing papal mace in silver and parcel-gilt (c. 1696; London, V&A), a tabernacle in silver, gilt copper, porphyry and rock-crystal (1711; Vienna, Ksthist. Mus.) and a cross and two candlesticks in silver and malachite (...

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Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies

(b Aix-en-Provence, Aug 17, 1739; d Aix-en-Provence, Dec 23, 1813).

French painter, draughtsman, sculptor, medallist and writer. He first trained under Claude Arnulphy at Aix, leaving for Rome c. 1761. He remained in Italy for ten years, studying the works of Raphael and other Old Masters (see fig.) as well as Polidoro da Caravaggio, whose monochrome frescoes Gibelin later imitated in France. In 1768 he won a prize at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Parma, with his Achilles Fighting the River Scamander (in situ; preparatory drawing in Stockholm, Nmus.). On his return to Paris in 1771 he was commissioned to execute a large number of monochrome frescoes as well as two paintings, The Blood-letting (1777; preparatory drawing at Poitiers, Mus. B.-A.) and Childbirth, for the new Ecole de Chirurgie, now the Faculté de Médecine (in situ). His works made over the next few years include the Genius of War and Mars for the pediments of the two south wings of the ...

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Philip Attwood

(b Munich, Sept 3, 1887; d Cologne, Jan 27, 1966).

German medallist and sculptor. He trained as a sculptor and architectural draughtsman in Munich, attending the Kunstgewerbeschule and the Akademie (1910–13). He exhibited sculpture with the Munich Secession and was one of the foremost exponents of the German Expressionist medal of World War I, along with Karl Goetz, Hans Lindl, Erzsebert von Esseö (b 1883) and others. His medals, cast in iron and bronze, eschew the smooth elegance of Art Nouveau in favour of simple, primitive forms and rough castings more in keeping with their subjects. Some are propaganda pieces in praise of German military strength, but many deal with the suffering caused by war: men are rendered as small, stick-like figures in The Bomb (iron) and The Lusitania (bronze), both of 1916; his Refugees plaquette (iron, 1915) is a tragic symbol of universal suffering, while the Dance of Death medal (iron, 1917), showing a skeleton leading a group of soldiers, is perhaps his most enduring image. In his later medals Gies adopted a simpler, more linear style and found his subjects in religious themes, scenes from daily life and portraits. He also executed designs for porcelain, such as the ...

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Kelly Donahue-Wallace

[Gil y Pérez, Gerónimo Antonio]

(b Zamora, Spain, Nov 3, 1731; d Mexico City, April 18, 1798).

Spanish printmaker, medallist, and type designer, active in Spain and Mexico. He was one of the first students at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Fernando in Madrid (founded 1752), which awarded him a pension to train as a medallist from 1754 to 1758 under Spain’s Engraver General, Tomás Francisco Prieto (1726–82). In 1760 the academy named Gil Académico de Mérito for his medal-engraving skills.

Upon completing his studies, Gil briefly served as drawing instructor at the S Fernando academy but worked principally making copperplate engravings, letter press type, and medals. He was a frequent contributor to luxury books sponsored by the Real Academia de Historia and the S Fernando academy, including the so-called prince’s edition of Don Quixote (1780) and Antigüedades árabes de España (1787). He spent more than 15 years designing type for the Real Biblioteca, and was credited by his peers with rescuing the Spanish type-making industry. The finest works he carried out in Spain included the engraved illustrations for ...

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Mark Stocker

(b London, Aug 12, 1854; d London, Nov 4, 1934).

English sculptor, medallist, goldsmith and draughtsman. He was the most famous and, briefly, the most successful English sculptor of the late 19th century and a leading figure in the New Sculpture movement. His three major monumental works, the Jubilee Monument to Queen Victoria, the Shaftesbury Memorial in London, with its widely known figure of Eros (see fig.), and the tomb of Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence (see fig. below), though stylistically and technically adventurous, were more successful in their individual parts than in their total composition. Gilbert incurred heavy debts, culminating in bankruptcy in 1901, which together with his slow working methods and his disregard for the feelings of his patrons, led to 25 years of relatively unproductive self-exile in Belgium. He returned to London in 1926 to execute his last important commission, the monument to Queen Alexandra.

The son of musicians, he originally intended to become a surgeon but, after failing his entrance examination to Middlesex Hospital, London, he enrolled in ...

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Philip Attwood

English sculptors and medallists. Ernest George Gillick (b Bradford, 19 Nov 1874; d London, 25 Sept 1951) studied at the Nottingham School of Art. He exhibited at the Royal Academy in London from 1904 and was elected an ARA in 1935. Much of his work is in the form of busts, statuettes, reliefs and decorative objects, but he also produced pieces on a grander scale, for example his work on the exterior decoration of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (commissioned 1904). He designed the reverses of a number of British service medals and executed the model for the Mayoralty seal of the City of London. The Royal Academy prize medal of 1936 (bronze) is also by him. His wife, Mary Gillick [née Tutin] (b Nottingham, 1881; d London, 27 Jan 1965), trained at the Nottingham School of Art from 1899 to 1902 and at the Royal College of Art, London, from ...

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