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Article

M.-E. Hellyer

French family of engravers. (Nicolas-Barthélemy-)François Dequevauviller (b Abbeville, 1745; d ?Paris, c. 1807) trained under Jean Daullé and is considered to have been one of his best pupils. He was a particularly good interpreter—second only to Nicolas de Launay—of Niclas Lafrensen, or Nicolas Lavreince (1737–1807). Two of his finest works are engravings after this artist: Gathering in a Salon (1783–4; and Gathering at a Concert (Paris, Bib. N. cat. no. 63), both of which represent extremely detailed interiors. His other genre scenes after Lafrensen, Awakening of the Dressmakers, Retiring of the Dressmakers, the Dancing School and Le Contretemps (Paris, Bib. N. cat. nos 64, 66, 65 and 67 repectively), all date to 1784–6. Dequevauviller was also an engraver of illustrations for some of the best-known publications of the time, including the Tableaux…de la Suisse (1780–86; Paris, Bib. N. cat. nos 15–34) of Jean-Benjamin de La Borde, the ...

Article

(b Paris, 1753; d Paris, 1820).

French printmaker. He was a pupil of Jean-François Janinet and, like him, specialized in the production of colour prints using aquatint and wash-manner. Among his earliest known works is a series of four engravings of views of Paris and Rome after paintings by Pierre Antoine de Machy, which appeared in 1784. He collaborated with Janinet on the illustrations for Vues remarquables des montagnes de la Suisse (1785; see Roux and Pognon, no. 7), which were engraved after several artists. He is best known, however, for his four colour prints after the genre scenes of Nicolas-Antoine Taunay, notably the Village Wedding (1785; rp 8) and its pendant, the Village Fair (1788; rp 10). The subtle green tones of the landscape setting, complementing the white and red of the small figures, successfully convey the gentle mood of Taunay’s rural scenes. The second pair, the Tambourine (rp 12) and the ...

Article

David Alexander

(b London, 1747; d Paris, 1823).

English engraver and print publisher. He worked first for the painter Robert Edge Pine, exhibiting mezzotints of Pine’s pictures at the Society of Artists between 1769 and 1773. He then began publishing some of his own mezzotints independently: his portrait of Joseph Banks (Chaloner Smith, no. 4), made in 1774, was the first of 22 excellent mezzotints made after Sir Joshua Reynolds, 12 of which appeared during the 1770s. His 100 or so portrait mezzotints were well drawn and finely scraped; their brilliance was often enhanced by the use of warm brown inks. From 1776 to 1781 Dickinson published prints with Thomas Watson from New Bond Street, London; they engraved and published stipples as well as mezzotints and became the principal publishers of humorous stipples after the amateur artist Henry William Bunbury. In the decade after 1783 Dickinson engraved only two mezzotint portraits, while publishing plates by other engravers, such as his pupil ...

Article

(b Weimar, Oct 30, 1712; d Dresden, April 24, 1774).

German painter and etcher. He received his first training from his father, Johann Georg Dietrich (1684–1752), a court painter at Weimar, and was sent to Dresden at the age of 13 to study under the landscape painter Johann Alexander Thiele (1685–1752). In 1728 they travelled to Arnstadt to paint landscapes for stage sets. In 1730 Thiele presented his pupil to Frederick-Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, as a prodigy; Frederick-Augustus appointed him court painter and entrusted him to his minister Heinrich, Graf von Brühl, for whom he worked on some decorative paintings. From 1732 he used the name ‘Dietricy’ to sign his paintings. He travelled in Germany from 1734 and may have visited the Netherlands, the source of his artistic inspiration. He returned from his travels in 1741 and was appointed court painter to Frederick-Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, who sent him to Italy in 1743 to study. He visited Venice and Rome but returned to Dresden in ...

Article

David Alexander

(b Dublin, c. 1740; d London, Dec 1811).

Irish engraver, active in England. After training in the Dublin Society’s schools, he worked in line and mezzotint before moving to London c. 1765. By 1770 he had engraved four fine mezzotints after Reynolds; these and other portraits and humorous prints were published by William Wynne Ryland. From 1771 Dixon himself published some of his prints, most of them after Reynolds. His major prints include Rembrandt’s Framemaker (1769; see Charrington, no. 44) and the highly praised Tygress after George Stubbs (see Lennox Boyd, no. 33). He was a man of some social as well as professional presence, becoming director of the Society of Artists in 1772. His final exhibit, Fitzgerald James, 1st Duke of Leinster (see Chaloner Smith, no. 22) after Reynolds, was described by Horace Walpole as ‘a masterpiece of Art which has never been excelled’; it appeared in 1775, the year in which Dixon married a rich widow of some social standing and had to agree to give up his profession....

Article

Pieter van der Merwe

(b 1748; d London, Feb 1815).

English painter and engraver. Having trained at the Royal Academy schools, London, he exhibited at the Society of Arts from 1780 and at the Royal Academy, from 1782 to 1809. He had gained some reputation as a landscape artist by 1771 but soon concentrated on marine scenes. He became a ship portraitist and above all a prolific recorder of naval actions in the American and French Revolutionary wars such as the Sinking of the ‘Vengeur de Peuple’ at the Battle of the Glorious First of June, 1794 (1795; London, N. Mar. Mus.). He was also praised for his handling of storm scenes, notably a series depicting the loss of the Ramillies in the West Indies hurricane of September 1782 (1783–5; London, N. Mar. Mus.). His work was engraved by others but he also executed over 100 plates himself, mostly in aquatint, including views of the naval dockyards at Chatham, Woolwich, and Deptford and also of the Thames at Blackwall and Greenwich, the last-named based on his oil painting of ...

Article

Fausta Franchini Guelfi

In 

Article

David M. Sokol

(b Cheshire, CT, 1754; d New Haven, CT, Jan 31, 1832).

American engraver. Doolittle learnt to engrave in metal through his apprenticeship to a silversmith. His career as an independent craftsman was interrupted by army service during the American Revolution, during which time he met Ralph Earl, whose drawings of battle scenes, including the battles of Lexington and Concord, Doolittle was later to engrave on copper. The success of these historical scenes, for example A View of the Town of Concord, published in New Haven in 1775, enabled Doolittle to abandon his trade as a silversmith. Responding to patriotic demand for images of the new American leaders, Doolittle engraved likenesses of successive American presidents, including George Washington, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson. The tribute to Washington he first issued in 1788, A Display of the United States of America (1794; New Haven, CT, Yale U. A.G.), was reworked five times. He also engraved book illustrations, scenic views, and bookplates. Although not the first engraver in America, as he was later to claim, Doolittle was the only one of his generation to attempt to expand beyond service work to original compositions on a regular basis....

Article

David Mannings

(b York, Aug 1, 1757; d Lisbon, 1780 or 1782).

English painter and engraver. His earliest known works are three etchings dated 1772–3, after portrait drawings by such painters as Thomas Barrow (fl 1770–1819) and Lewis Vaslet (d 1808). In 1775 William Mason, poet and Precentor of York Minster, wrote to Joshua Reynolds recommending Doughty as a pupil. Reynolds agreed, and Doughty was enrolled at the Royal Academy Schools, London, on 8 April 1775, remaining in Reynolds’s house until 1778. During this time he sent five portraits to the Academy, including perhaps his finest work, an oval bust-length portrait of William Mason (exh. RA 1778; York, C.A.G.). His oval bust of William Whitehead, Poet Laureate (?exh. RA 1778; London, V&A), was engraved in 1787 for Mason’s edition of Whitehead’s Works (pubd 1788), and Mason’s patronage can also be detected in the commission, probably of 1777, to paint a posthumous likeness of the poet Thomas Gray (untraced). In ...

Article

Madeleine Barbin

French family of engravers. Pierre Drevet (b Loire-sur-Rhône, 20 July 1663; d Paris, 9 Aug 1738) studied engraving with Germain Audran (1631–1710) in Lyon and then with Girard Audran in Paris. He undertook the engraving of portraits by his friend Hyacinthe Rigaud and in this type of work was able to display his technical virtuosity. In 1692 he set up as an engraver and publisher, and in 1696 he was appointed Graveur du Roi. Although he was accepted (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1703 and admitted (reçu) in 1707, he did not complete his morceau de réception until 1722, with an engraving (Roux, no. 36) after Rigaud’s portrait of Robert de Cotte (Paris, Louvre). Drevet’s engraving (1712; r 81) after Rigaud’s full-length portrait of Louis XIV (1701; Paris, Louvre) was executed by royal command. In 1726 Drevet was granted lodgings in the Palais du Louvre. He engraved 125 plates after ...

Article

Véronique Meyer

(b Paris, April 1662; d Paris, Jan 6, 1757).

French printmaker, print-seller and print publisher. He was a pupil of Guillaume Vallet (1632–1704). He was appointed Graveur du Roi and accepted (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1704; he was received (reçu) in 1707 with his portraits, both after Hyacinthe Rigaud, of Charles de La Fosse (Roux, no. 10) and François Girardon (r 9). He enjoyed a considerable reputation: according to Claude-Henri Watelet he was one of the printmakers who were able to produce the softest effects in engraving and who knew how best to suggest the velvety texture of a woman’s skin; in this domain he was often imitated but never equalled. His reproductions of Corregio’s Io (r 8), Leda (r 16) and Danaë (r 33) are among the most celebrated of his works, which are not numerous; only 58 have been identified, probably owing to his activities as a print publisher. He distributed works by Laurent Cars and his family, by Jacques-Philippe Lebas and by the Audran family. He also collaborated with ...

Article

Madeleine Barbin

(b Paris, 1742; d Paris, Oct 30, 1795).

French engraver and etcher. He was a pupil of Augustin de Saint-Aubin, whose drawings he often reproduced. Duclos was a typical practitioner of the small-scale engraving that was in vogue in France in the second half of the 18th century. His dry, precise style was particularly suited to the execution of vignettes, and so most of his work was devoted to illustration. He was a skilled etcher who prepared numerous plates, to be finished by other engravers, after drawings by Charles-Nicolas Cochin, II, Jean-Michel Moreau, Charles Eisen, Gravelot and Clément-Pierre Marillier. He also executed some larger-scale engravings, the best known of which are the Concert (Roux, no. 90) and the Dress Ball (r 100) after Saint-Aubin; both were made in 1774. His book illustrations include those for the Almanach iconologique (Paris, 1774–81; r 13–28), the works of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Paris, 1774–83; r 116–19) and the Monument du costume (Paris, ...

Article

Cathrin Klingsöhr-Leroy

(b Nancy, June 26, 1735; d Paris, July 24, 1802).

French painter, pastellist and engraver. He lived in Paris from 1760 and from 1762 kept a list of his works. Among the portraits he completed in his early years were those in pastel of the well-known connoisseurs Pierre-Jean Mariette, the Comte de Caylus and Ange-Laurent de la Live de July (all untraced), which apparently were copies after Maurice-Quentin de La Tour. Ducreux has traditionally been seen as de La Tour’s favourite pupil, while Jean-Baptiste Greuze is supposed to have initiated him into oil painting. From his age, it can be assumed that by the time Ducreux reached Paris he had already acquired a grounding in his art.

In 1769 Ducreux was selected to paint Louis XVI’s future wife, Marie-Antoinette, in Vienna. The official portrait he made (untraced) survives only in the engraving (1771) by Charles Eugène Duponchel (1748–80). Two surviving portraits of the future queen (both priv. col.) are conventional and not very expressive. Ducreux spent two years at the Austrian court. While there he also received a commission to paint the portrait of ...

Article

Maxime Préaud

[Duflaud.]

French family of printmakers. Claude Duflos (b Coucy-le-Château, 1665; d Paris, 18 Sept 1727) was essentially a reproductive engraver and etcher: skilful, but lacking genius. He may have been a pupil of Sébastien Leclerc (i), whose portrait he engraved (Roux, no. 123). He made prints after most contemporary painters. His total oeuvre numbers more than 300 pieces, a third of which are portraits: these include Louis XV (1710; r 134) and the Marquis d’Argenson (1711; r 75, 76), both after Hyacinthe Rigaud. His son Claude-Augustin Duflos (b Paris, 10 May 1700; d Paris, 27 Feb 1786) was an etcher and line engraver, who worked mainly after François Boucher and collaborated on the illustration of numerous books. Another of Claude’s sons, Simon-Nicolas Duflos (b Paris, c. 1701; d Paris, after 1752), was an engraver, the pupil of Jean-Joseph Baléchou. From 1727 until 1752...

Article

Matthias Frehner

(b Saal, nr Stralsund, Sweden [now Germany], Jan 15, 1746; d Berne, April 2, 1807).

Swiss watercolourist, draughtsman, engraver and illustrator. He received his first drawing lessons in Stralsund from Philipp Hackert in 1762. In 1765 he moved to Paris and became a pupil of Joseph-Marie Vien and Noël Hallé. In Paris Dunker met a number of artists in the circle around the engraver Jean Georges Wille, including Pierre-François Basan, Jacques Gabriel Huquier, Adrian Zingg and Sigmund Freudenberger. At this period he worked as a draughtsman and watercolourist, principally of landscapes. He worked with the engravers and publishers Huquier and Basan, collaborating with other artists on an album of engravings from the collection of Etienne-François, Duc de Choiseul, Recueil d’estampes gravées d’après les tableaux du cabinet de Monseigneur le duc de Choiseul (Paris, 1771). In 1772 Dunker was working in Basle and in 1773 in Berne. He produced book illustrations for the Heptaméron français (Berne, 1778) as well as vignettes, genre scenes and landscapes, such as ...

Article

Hugh Belsey

(b Sudbury, Suffolk, Dec 24, 1754; d London, Jan 20, 1797).

English painter and engraver. He was the nephew of Thomas Gainsborough. On 14 January 1772 he entered his uncle’s studio, where he remained until 1788. The extent of their collaboration is uncertain, but a contemporary source states that they worked together on the dress in the portrait of Queen Charlotte (1781; Windsor Castle, Berks, Royal Col.); yet in this picture there appears to be no diminution of quality, and Dupont may have collaborated similarly in other works. Apart from working as a drapery painter, Dupont made mezzotints from his own reduced copies of Gainsborough’s late works and became thoroughly conversant with his master’s style. Indeed, such portraits as J. Phillips (1789; Southill Park, Beds) are stylistically very close to Gainsborough. Although Dupont’s technique was more frenetic, his palette more varied and his draughtsmanship weaker, scholars have only recently been able to separate Dupont’s work from that of his uncle. There is some evidence to suggest that, after Gainsborough’s death, patrons approached Dupont as the inheritor of his master’s distinctive style. He worked for the royal family and for William Pitt the younger, but his principal portrait works are a series of theatrical portraits (...

Article

Véronique Meyer

(b Paris, c. 1698; d Paris, March 1771).

French engraver. He was the younger brother of the engraver Charles Dupuis (1685–1742). He first worked as a dyer and for many years engraved plates of ornaments intended for printing on silk. With his brother he worked in the workshop of Gaspard Duchange, whose daughter he married in 1737; he collaborated with his master in the execution of several large works, including the Coronation of Louis XV (Roux, no. 13); parts of Raphael’s cartoons of the Acts of the Apostles (London, Hampton Court, Royal Col.; r 6–8); and Jean de La Fontaine’s Fables (r 47–50) after Jean-Baptiste Oudry. Dupuis’s interpretations of Jean-Baptiste Massé’s drawings for La Galerie de Versailles after Charles Le Brun brought him recognition. Massé was so pleased with them that he recommended Dupuis to the Académie Royale de Sculpture et de Peinture. He was approved (agréé) in 1751 and received (reçu...

Article

Christine Clark

(b London, 1767; d Hobart, Tasmania, July 11, 1851).

English painter, printmaker and sculptor, active in Australia. In London he exhibited six portraits at the Royal Academy (1817–23) and three genre paintings at the British Institution and engraved two colour plates for George Morland, before moving to Hobart, Tasmania, in 1832. At the Hobart Mechanics’ Institute in 1833 he delivered the first lecture in Australia on the subject of painting. In 1849 he contributed the paper ‘The School of Athens as it Assimilates with the Mechanics Institution’ to a series of seven lectures (later published) delivered at the Institute. Duterrau painted landscapes and portraits but is best known for his works depicting the Aborigines of Tasmania and their traditional way of life. He was very interested in the events that led to the exclusion of the Aborigines from Tasmania, and in a series of works begun in 1834 but not executed until the early 1840s he showed George Augustus Robinson under commission from the Governor of Tasmania to restore peace with them. ...

Article

Elizabeth Miller

(b London, 1743; d London, Oct 9, 1822).

English printmaker. Taught by Giovanni Battista Cipriani, he worked in mezzotint, etching and occasionally stipple. His mezzotints of flowers and still-lifes, such as Roses for the Temple of Flora (1805) by Robert John Thornton (?1768–1837) or the Fruit Piece (see Wessely, no. 145) after Jan van Huysum, are also found printed in colours or coloured by hand. Earlom’s most influential prints were a set of outline etchings combined with mezzotint of the volume, then belonging to the Dukes of Devonshire, of Claude’s drawings of his own landscape paintings (now London, BM). The prints were published in 1777 by John Boydell in two volumes as the Liber Veritatis (see Claude (le) Lorrain §II 2.), a name that subsequently came to be applied to the drawings. A third volume of prints of Claude drawings from other sources was added when the first two were reprinted in ...

Article

Maxime Préaud

(b Antwerp, bapt Oct 20, 1640; d Paris, April 2, 1707).

French engraver and print publisher of Flemish origin. He was the son of a tailor in Antwerp and trained as an engraver with Gaspar Huybrechts (1619–84) and Cornelis Galle the younger. On arriving in Paris in 1666, he worked with his compatriot Nicolas Pitau the elder, and then with François de Poilly, Robert Nanteuil and Philippe de Champaigne. In 1672 he married the daughter of Nicolas Regnesson, the Parisian engraver and print publisher, thus himself becoming a print publisher. In 1675 he became a naturalized Frenchman and in 1677 was admitted (reçu) to the Académie Royale. In 1695 he was made a Chevalier of the Order of St Michel and a Papal Knight. He became both a councillor at the Académie and Premier Dessinateur du Cabinet du Roi. Among his pupils were his brother Jean Edelinck (b Antwerp, c. 1643; d Paris, 14 May 1680...