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Article

Sheryl Conkelton

(b St Petersburg, Sept 4, 1900; d Los Angeles, CA, Sept 13, 1968).

American photographer of Russian birth, active also in France. He came to England during the Russian Revolution of 1917 and moved to Paris in 1921. He studied painting with André Lhote, attempted fashion drawing influenced by his teacher’s Cubism and collaborated with Man Ray on a fashion portfolio. After designing fashion backgrounds he began to photograph in 1925 and became chief photographer for Vogue in France. He was inspired by Edward J. Steichen, one of his predecessors at Vogue. Hoyningen-Huene very quickly developed his own sense of line and volume, utilizing back- and cross-lighting to create strong contrasts. He collaborated with Paul Outerbridge, photographing mannequins, and he made two amateur films on fashion and dance. He was an important presence at French Vogue from the mid-1920s to 1935; among his protégés was his lover, Horst. In 1935 he came to New York where he worked for Vogue and was influenced by the informality of Martin Munkacsi’s photographs. Hoyningen-Huene’s clean, sharp style is demonstrated in the well-known photograph of a male and a female model in Izod bathing costumes (...

Article

Francis Summers

(b Trenton, NJ, Oct 11, 1934; d New York, Nov 26, 1987).

American photographer. He attended the High School of Art and Design, New York, from 1948 to 1952 and worked as a commercial photographer’s assistant before turning exclusively to fine art photography. Based in New York, he was a celebrity in its underground scene, yet never achieved a larger commercial success due to his irascible attitude towards art dealers. Using a considered and classical style of photography that changed little throughout his career, he situated himself within the trajectory of photography from Eugène Atget to Diane Arbus, always working in black and white with static and harmonious composition. Although he explored all the genres of classical photography, Hujar’s most developed work was his portraiture. Photographing his lovers, friends and other underground New York celebrities (such as Andy Warhol, the film maker John Waters and the writer Susan Sontag), Hujar’s photographic gaze managed to dissect the person from the persona, leaving us with a disarmingly vulnerable and tender picture of the human being. His portrait of the actor ...

Article

American museum and school for photography in New York. Hungarian-born photographer Cornell Capa founded the International Center of Photography (ICP) in 1974. He intended the Center to collect and promote the work of documentary photographers and journalists, with the aim of increasing the status of their work among museums and collectors. The ICP originally collected the work of Cornell Capa, his brother Robert Capa, and David Seymour—all members of Magnum—as well as that of the American photojournalist Weegee. It also held large collections of photographs by Roman Vishniac, Henri Cartier-Bresson, and Lisette Model. Much of this work can be described as ‘concerned photography’, a term that Cornell Capa coined for photography concerned with social and political welfare.

In 1994 curator Miles Barth moved the ICP to a dedicated building in Midtown Manhattan and tripled the size of the collection. Since then the Center has embraced a democratic and inclusive definition of photography, including in its collections advertising photography, fashion photography, illustrated magazines, postcards, photo albums, and other forms of commercial and vernacular photography....

Article

Kohtaro Iizawa

(b San Francisco, CA, June 14, 1921; d Tokyo, Feb 6, 2012).

Japanese photographer, active also in the USA. He was brought up in Japan and in 1939 returned to the USA, where he studied agriculture and architecture before photography. In 1952 he graduated from the Institute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, where he had studied under Harry Callahan and Aaron Siskind, and in 1953 he returned to Japan. He published works in Japanese photography magazines and a collection of his own photographs, Aru hi, aru tokoro (‘Someday, somewhere’; Tokyo, 1958). At the same time he photographed the Katsura Detached Palace in Kyoto, one of the great buildings of the 17th century, publishing the results as Katsura (Tokyo, 1960). This collection, which showed the influence of Callahan and Siskind, involved a new way of interpreting the traditional beauty of Japan and was somewhat shocking to the Japanese. His uncompromising style had a strong influence on the photographers working in the Vivo (Esperanto: ‘life’) group, especially Ikko Narahara, Eikoh Hosoe and Kikuji Kawada. Again resident in Chicago from ...

Article

Sarah Urist Green

revised by Julia Detchon

(b Santiago, Chile, Feb 5, 1956).

Chilean architect, public interventionist, installation artist, photographer, and filmmaker, active in the USA. He first studied architecture at the Universidad de Chile in Santiago, then filmmaking at the Instituto Chileno-Norteamericano de Cultura, Santiago, concluding in 1981. Throughout his career, Jaar’s works have taken many forms in order to address global themes of injustice and illuminate structures of power. In over fifty projects he termed “public interventions,” Jaar conducted extensive research around the world to create site-specific works that reflect political and social realities near and far from his sites of exhibition. He created works—in gallery spaces and in public, often engaging spectator involvement—that present images critically and confront the social and political interests they serve.

Jaar’s first public intervention was Studies on Happiness (1979–1981), a three-year series of performances and exhibitions in which he asked the question, “Are you happy?” of people in the streets of Santiago. Inspired by ...

Article

Sheryl Conkelton

(b Keesville, NY, April 4, 1843; d New York, June 30, 1942).

American photographer. Jackson began his career as a colourist and retoucher in photographic studios in New York and Vermont. After enlisting in the infantry and working as a sketcher of camp life, he began to travel. He reached Omaha, NE, in 1867 and set up a photographic studio with his brother, Edward Jackson. He began to make expeditions along the Union Pacific Railroad, photographing the Pawnee, Omaha, and Winnebago people, and points of interest in and around Omaha. He gained a contract with the E. & H. T. Anthony Company to supply them with 10,000 views of American scenery. In 1870 the government surveyor Ferdinand V. Hayden visited Jackson’s studio and invited him to join his US Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. Jackson worked with Hayden every year until 1878, using wet collodion negatives to photograph the Oregon trail (1870), Yellowstone (1871), the Teton Mountains (...

Article

[Johanna Alexandra ]

(b Thorn, W. Prussia [now Torun, Poland], Aug 17, 1896; d Concord, NH, May 9, 1990).

American photographer of German birth. From 1925 to 1927 she studied photography and film at the Bavarian State Academy of Photography, Munich. She took over her father’s photographic studio in Berlin in 1927 and became noted for celebrity portraits. Because of Nazism she left Berlin to establish a studio in New York (1935). She avoided a specific style, often presenting subjects casually, for example the portrait of Albert Einstein (1938; see Wise, p. 100) wearing a leather jacket. Another aspect of her professional work was published as Theatre and Dance Photographs (Woodstock, VT, 1982). She used the term ‘photogenics’ to describe the abstract black-and-white images that she produced by moving torches and candles over light-sensitive paper. In 1955 she moved to Deering, NH, and opened a studio.

K. Wise, ed.: Lotte Jacobi, intro. J. A. Fasanelli (Danbury, NH, 1978)V. Goldberg: ‘Lotte Jacobi’, American Photographer (March, 1979), pp. 22–31...

Article

Morgan Falconer

(b Long Beach, CA, 1959).

American photographer. He emerged in the art world in the 1980s, incorporating found texts from popular sources into computer-manipulated photographic images. Untitled (John-John and Bobby) (1998; see D. Raminelli, p. 162), citing the son and brother of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, is typical in that each letter is set in a different colour while the whole text lies on a bright pastel ground, reminiscent of billboard advertisement. In 1988 Johnson began to place his own, often urbane, poetic and mannered writing into his images. In a series of computer-generated images of the early 1990s these texts are shown as if erected on signboards and situated in unusual, almost Oriental or comic-book landscapes. Untitled (Ghost Story #1) (1991; see D. Hickey, p. 34) depicts words seemingly falling out of the sky into a snowy landscape. Johnson acknowledged debts to Sherrie Levine and Al Held, yet the tenor of his work suggests that it evolved out of a reaction against the didactic, political, text-based art of the 1980s. His work often suggested satirical attacks on other artists who employed appropriation as a technique, and his reliance on text and humour has led him to be compared to Richard Prince. In the 1990s Johnson began to exhibit photographed drawings and altered animation cells from children’s cartoons. ...

Article

Fiona Dejardin

revised by Mary Warner Marien

(b Grafton, WV, Jan 15, 1864; d New Orleans, LA, March 16, 1952).

American photographer. She studied art at the Académie Julian in Paris (1883–5) and at the Art Students League, Washington, DC. In 1888, in order to write and illustrate articles for popular magazines, she learnt photography from Thomas William Smillie (1843–1917), Director of the Smithsonian Institution’s Photography Division, Washington, DC. On opening a professional portrait studio in 1894, she became known for images of presidents, government officials and other notables. Her interest in public affairs and contemporary issues, such as the lives of coal-mine workers, led her to chronicle student life at Hampton Institute in Virginia and the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, where African American students were educated in the trades. In 1904 Johnston joined the Photo-Secession. She was one of the first professional photojournalists in the United States, and she is often referred to as America’s first female photojournalist. Johnston also arranged a 1920 Paris exhibition of photographs by professional and amateur women photographers. She was a juror for the second Philadelphia Salon of Photography, received four consecutive Carnegie Foundation grants to document historic gardens and architecture of the South and was made an honorary member of the American Institute of Architects in ...

Article

Jessica S. McDonald

(b Morristown, NJ, Sept 29, 1940).

American photographer, curator, educator, and arts administrator. Jones played a significant role during the expansion of American photography in the 1970s. Jones studied photography and painting at the Maryland Institute College of Art in Baltimore, receiving a BFA in 1965, and in 1972 received an MFA in photography from the University of New Mexico under the mentorship of Van Deren Coke (1921–2004). In 1967 a museum studies fellowship brought him to the George Eastman House International Museum of Photography and Film in Rochester, New York, where he was later hired as an assistant curator, working alongside Beaumont Newhall and Nathan Lyons.

In 1971 Jones became the founding director of LIGHT Gallery, the first in New York City to represent exclusively contemporary photographers. At LIGHT, Jones championed emerging artists and those who experimented with book formats, historic processes, and combinations of media. In 1975 Jones was invited to serve as the founding director of the Center for Creative Photography (CCP) at the University of Arizona in Tucson. Two years later he established the university’s photography programme in the Department of Art, teaching there for over 30 years. In ...

Article

Michelle Yun

(b Ithaca, NY, 1966).

American multimedia artist. A second generation Korean–American, Joo grew up in Minneapolis, MN, and studied briefly at Wesleyan University as a biology major. He took a two-year sabbatical to work at a seed science firm in Austria and subsequently received his BFA from Washington University, St. Louis, MO. In 1989, Joo went on to receive an MFA in sculpture from the Yale School of Art, in New Haven, CT, in 1991, after which he moved to New York.

Joo’s diverse body of work includes sculpture, video, installations and works on paper that deal with issues relating to cultural identity, the body and the relationship between science and art. His projects overlap thematically and formally as part of an ongoing series. Joo has variously implemented a wide range of materials, including monosodium glutamate, salt, taxidermy animals and even his own body, to explore the transformative moment that signals a change of state between matter and energy. Through this exchange, Joo seeks to illuminate the slippages in meaning of the subject within a prescribed cultural context. Time often functions as a cyclical and multilayered catalyst for transformation, exemplified best through his video installations such as ...

Article

Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Mardin, Turkish Armenia, Dec 23, 1908; d Boston, MA, July 13, 2002).

Canadian photographer of Turkish Armenian birth. He moved to Canada in 1924 and worked as an assistant in his uncle’s photographic studio in Montreal (1926–8). He studied photography in Boston from 1928 until 1931. He opened his own portrait studio in Ottawa in 1932. His front cover for Life magazine (30 Dec 1941), a portrait of Winston Churchill, was the basis for his fame and career as a portrait photographer, which involved many of the most important contemporary figures from the worlds of politics, science and the arts (e.g. Beaumont Newhall).

Karsh’s photography used strongly focused lighting and dark backgrounds, creating a chiaroscuro effect seen, for example, in Ingrid Bergman (1946; see Karsh, 1983, p. 169). He tried to reflect a characteristic image of the person photographed through the pose, for example in the contemplative profile portrait of Ronald Reagan (1982; see Karsh, ...

Article

Barbara L. Michaels

(Stanton )

(b Fort Des Moines [now Des Moines], IA, May 18, 1852; d New York, NY, Oct 13, 1934).

American photographer. She studied painting at the Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, NY (1889–93), and in France and Germany (1894–5). She began her professional photographic career c. 1894, as a magazine illustrator, and then c. 1898 she opened a portrait studio on Fifth Avenue in New York. Her simplified portrait style dispensed with scenic backdrops and fancy furniture and was soon widely emulated. Robert Henri, (François-)Auguste(-René) Rodin, McKim, Mead & White, and the chorus girl Evelyn Nesbit were among her subjects. Beginning in 1898, her studies of mothers and children as well as her portraits were acclaimed at major photographic exhibitions such as the Philadelphia Photographic Salons. Käsebier was a founder-member of the Photo-Secession in 1902, and ‘Blessed art thou among women’ was among the photographs featured in the first issue of Camera Work in 1903. By 1907 she had begun to drift from the Photo-Secession, exhibiting with them for the last time in ...

Article

Roy R. Behrens

(b Selyp, Oct 4, 1906; d Cambridge, MA, Dec 29, 2001).

Hungarian designer, painter, photographer, teacher and writer, active also in the USA. After secondary school, he studied painting at the Budapest Academy of Fine Arts (1925–8). Turning to design, photography and filmmaking, he worked in Budapest, then in Berlin, where in 1932 he designed the cover of the first German edition of Film als Kunst by Gestalt psychologist Rudolf Arnheim. He moved to London in 1936 where he joined the studio of fellow Hungarian and former Bauhaus master László Moholy-Nagy. That year he also met his wife, the artist Juliet Appleby (d 1999). In 1937 he followed Moholy-Nagy to Chicago, when the latter was appointed director of the New Bauhaus, which was later re-established as the Institute of Design. Kepes taught and directed the Light and Color Department there for six years. In 1946 he was hired as Professor of Visual Design at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where 20 years later he founded the Center for Advanced Visual Studies. A life-long advocate of cross-disciplinary experimentation between the arts and sciences, his influence came about through the publication of a number of innovative books, the first of which, ...

Article

Sandra S. Phillips

[Andor ]

(b Budapest, July 2, 1894; d New York, NY, Sept 27, 1985).

American photographer of Hungarian birth. As a young man he used to wander around Budapest and visit the Ethnographic Museum. At this time Béla Bartók and Zóltan Kodály were rediscovering Hungarian folk music, and Hungarian poets and painters were looking at their ancient vernacular traditions for inspiration. Kertész, who started taking photographs at the age of 12, also tried to reflect these interests, both in his choice of countryside subjects and in the simplicity of his style. Self-taught, he often took his camera with him when he went to visit relatives in the small peasant towns of the Hungarian heartland, the puszta (see Kertész on Kertész, p. 15). He tried to go beyond the mere recording of holiday memories or of the idyllic relationship of the country people to nature; he rather sought out timeless and essential qualities in the ordinary day-to-day events that he saw around him.

From 1912 to 1914...

Article

(b New York, 1928).

American photographer and film maker. After studying for a degree in social sciences at the City College of New York from the age of 14, he joined the army in 1945, a year before graduation, and worked as a cartoonist for the Stars and Stripes newspaper. He moved to Paris in 1948, studying the history of art at the Sorbonne and also briefly studying painting under Fernand Léger. He began producing large geometric abstract paintings, some of which he exhibited in 1952 at the Galleria Il Milione in Milan. A commission to produce similar works mounted on rotating joints led him to photograph them in motion, resulting in a series of blurred abstract photographs (see Heilpern, p. 11). These essentially abstract images, some of which were used as covers for the magazine Domus, fired his interest in photography.

In 1954 Klein returned to the USA to photograph New York for eight months; the resulting book immediately established his reputation and won him the Prix Nadar. Klein’s pictures of the city were neither elegant nor obviously composed; instead he captured the dynamism, violence, and chaos of New York’s streets in grainy and often unusually framed images (...

Article

Sook-Kyung Lee

One of the characteristics of Korean contemporary art is a continuous effort in employing and interpreting international art practices and discourses. Art movements from Europe and North America in particular, including Abstract Expressionism, Art informel, Minimalism, Conceptual art and Post-modernism, have influenced many Korean artists’ styles and ideas since the 1950s, providing formal and conceptual grounds for critical understandings and further experiments. Whilst some artists who maintained traditional art forms such as ink painting and calligraphy exercised modernist styles and abstract forms largely within the norms and conventions of traditional genres, a large group of artists proactively adapted to Western styles, employing new materials and techniques as well as the notions of avant-garde and experimentalism (see fig.).

A major critique of the reception of Western art and aesthetics came from ‘Minjung art’ (People’s Art) in the 1980s as part of instigating a nationalist and politically charged art strategy. Several art historians and critics who emerged in the 1990s also expanded the scope of the debate with postcolonial and pluralist points of view. The shift in social, economic and political environments played an important role in changing sensibilities in art, along with the advances of technology and new media in the 2000s. The high degree of diversity and sophistication of Korean art in terms of media and subject matters became widely acknowledged within and outside the nation, and an increasing number of artists started to work on the cutting edge of international art....

Article

Margaret Barlow

(b New York, Aug 16, 1943).

American photographer, teacher and printmaker. He studied at Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York (BFA 1964) and at the Pratt Institute, New York (MFA 1967), where he also taught photography and printmaking (1966–7). Krims began working as a freelance photographer in 1967 and taught photography at Rochester Institute of Technology, NY (1967–9). From 1969 he was Professor at the State University of New York, Buffalo. In the late 1960s to early 1970s he was prominent in the group of young photographers who devised fictional scenes for the still camera, which were directed and shot in sequence as in films. He assembled the results as small books or boxed portfolios, published by Humpy Press, which he set up c. 1972. He mainly photographed nudes posing in surreal, grotesque or obscene situations. Drawing from advertising, pornography, Pop and Op art, he also created tableaux involving dwarves, mutilated women and even kidnappings, usually set against backgrounds of kitsch living-rooms with spray-painted patterns and eccentric props. Black humour and allusions to political and sexual hypocrisies and racial prejudices abound in his work. In his notorious book of Polaroid prints ...

Article

(b Newark, NJ, Jan 26, 1945).

American conceptual artist, designer, and writer. She enrolled at Parsons School of Design, New York, where her teachers included the photographer Diane Arbus and Marvin Israel (1924–84), a successful graphic designer and art director of Harper’s Bazaar, who was particularly encouraging. When Kruger’s interest in art school waned in the mid-1960s, Israel encouraged her to prepare a professional portfolio. Kruger moved to New York and entered the design department of Mademoiselle magazine, becoming chief designer a year later. Also at that time she designed book covers for political texts. In the late 1960s and early 1970s she became interested in poetry and began writing and attending readings. From 1976 to 1980 she lived in Berkeley, CA, teaching and reflecting on her own art. Kruger later taught at Art Institute of Chicago and joined the visual arts faculty of the University of California San Diego in 2002, and later the University of California Los Angeles, dividing her time between Los Angeles and New York....

Article

David M. Sokol

(b Okayama, Sept 1, 1893; d Woodstock, NY, May 14, 1953).

American painter, photographer and printmaker of Japanese birth. He arrived in the USA in 1906 and studied at the Los Angeles School of Art and Design from 1907 to 1910. He then moved to New York, studying, in rapid succession, with Robert Henri at the National Academy of Design, at the Independent School of Art and from 1916 to 1920 with Kenneth Hayes Miller at the Art Students League. He supported himself through his later art studies and thereafter as an art photographer. He travelled to Europe in 1925 and again in 1928, settling in Paris, where he studied lithography at the Atelier Desjoubert. After a trip back to Japan in 1931 he worked on the Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Administration during the Depression. Paintings such as Fisherman (1924; New York, MOMA) show both his interest in Surrealism and a blend of his two cultures. His massive forms of the late 1930s and early 1940s, as in ...