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(b Sens, Yonne, Feb 21, 1875; d Paris, March 19, 1939).

French painter and illustrator. He trained at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris in the studio of Gustave Moreau and first exhibited in Paris at the Salon de la Société Nationale in 1897, also showing at the Salon des Indépendants from 1901, at the Salon d’Automne from 1903 and from 1923 at the Salon des Tuileries. In addition to portraits and still-lifes he painted nudes, such as The Partition (1906; Caen, Mus. B.-A.). In his still-lifes he often included musical instruments, as in Still-life with Lute (1910; Paris, Pompidou). His most striking works, however, included a number of imaginary romantic pictures in which the figures, often elongated, were given mid-19th-century dress, as in Colombine (1920; see Klingsor, p. 61). While most of his works were executed in an undistinguished realist style, these romantic paintings bear the influence of Impressionism and of Cézanne’s geometrical brushstrokes.

Guérin also contributed illustrations to ...


Roger Blackley

(b Bath, bapt March 21, 1819; d Nelson, NZ, Nov 1, 1888).

New Zealand painter of English birth. He arrived in New Plymouth in 1852, first working as a shopkeeper, teaching privately and advertising for commissions. On the outbreak of the Taranaki land wars, Gully moved to Nelson where he again struggled to establish himself as an artist and art teacher, eventually finding full-time work as a draughtsman in the provincial Survey Office. Specializing in lake and mountain views in the style of J. M. W. Turner (e.g. In the Southern Alps, 1881; Wellington, Mus. NZ, Te Papa Tongarewa), and frequently working on a very grand scale, Gully exhibited regularly in New Zealand and Australia, and in Europe. A portfolio of chromolithographs based on his watercolours, New Zealand Scenery, was published in London in 1877. The vast number of works he exhibited, and the high prices he asked for them, indicate that Gully was one of the more successful New Zealand artists of the period....


Katalin Gellér

(b Sepsiszentgyörgy, Transylvania [now Sfîntu Gheorghe, Romania], April 6, 1857; d Sepsiszentgyörgy, Dec 13, 1925).

Hungarian painter and illustrator. From 1873 he studied at the school for design drawing, Mintarajziskola, Budapest, under Bertalan Székely, and he attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1877–80). He exhibited genre paintings in Budapest, Munich and Brussels, with considerable success. In 1880 he returned to Hungary, but he could find no buyers for his work. After a study trip to Italy (1882) he withdrew to his birthplace and thereafter played little part in public artistic life.

Gyárfás’s first important work, Testifying before the Corpse (1881; Budapest, N.G.), is based on a poem by János Arany and employs strong chiaroscuro. His paintings couple the depiction of character with an intense sense of drama, the subjects often derived from literature. In his later historical pictures he was unable to repeat his early success. Among his portraits, which display strong realism and concentrated detail, a major work is that of ...


Norbert Hostyn

(b Ostend, Sept 24, 1819; d Paris, March 31, 1888).

Belgian painter and illustrator. He studied first at the Tekenacademie in Ostend with François Bossuet (1798–1889) and Michel van Cuyck (1797–1875), then from 1837 with Nicaise De Keyser in his private school in Antwerp. He was also influenced by the works of Louis Gallait. From the beginning he painted historical genre scenes with great success. He first exhibited at the Ghent Salon of 1838, but it was his Last Moments of Francisco de Zurbarán (untraced), shown at the Brussels Salon in 1842, that first brought him to the notice of the Belgian public. A commission from the Belgian government followed soon afterwards, Entry of Archduke Albert and Isabella into Ostend after the Fall of the Town in 1604 (destr. 1940; ex-Mus. S. Kst., Ostend). During his Antwerp period he also illustrated books by his friend the novelist Hendrik Conscience (1812–83), including his Histoire de Belgique...


Sarah Wimbush

(b Sheffield, Yorks, Jan 15, 1867; d London, Aug 11, 1922).

English painter and illustrator. He studied with his father, T. B. Hardy (1842–97), and later at the Academy in Düsseldorf, in Antwerp and in Paris before returning to London. He was a prolific artist, exhibiting regularly at the Royal Academy from 1884 until 1922. His oils vary from oriental to Breton genre scenes. Other paintings bear a social message, such as Sans Asile (1888), depicting huddled figures sleeping in Trafalgar Square; this work was shown at the Royal Society of British Artists Galleries in London in 1893 (after exhibition in other European cities) and established his reputation. However, it was Hardy’s graphic art that made his name. His talents coincided with the boom in illustrated magazines and the power of the poster at the turn of the century. The influence of French graphic style is seen in his fluent line and use of tone, and artists such as Jules Chéret influenced the ...


Justine Hopkins

(b Newcastle upon Tyne, July 13, 1798; d Richmond, London, Jan 13, 1866).

English illustrator and engraver. He was the last pupil of Thomas Bewick, from whom he learnt the art of wood-engraving, assisting on the illustrations for the famous edition of the Fables of Aesop (Newcastle upon Tyne, 1818). In 1817 he moved to London, working in the studio of Benjamin Robert Haydon; his large woodcut of his master’s history painting, the Assassination of Dentatus (1806–9; Marquess of Normanby priv. col.), completed in 1821, was much admired. From 1824 he effectively abandoned wood-engraving and concentrated on designing illustrations on wood and cooper for various books ranging from editions of the Bible and Shakespeare to contemporary works, including such scientific publications as the Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society (Chiswick, 1830–31). He was meticulous in the accuracy of his designs, and his early training gave him rare insight into the requirements of engravers, making him popular with publishers and printers alike. As the fashion for illustrated books developed, Harvey’s career prospered. His masterpieces were ...


(b Boulogne-sur-Mer, July 16, 1820; d Paris, Jan 12, 1889).

French painter, printmaker and illustrator. He studied engraving and lithography under Célestin Nanteuil (1813–73) from 1835 and in 1838 entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he studied under Paul Delaroche. He made his Salon début with a peasant genre scene in 1842 and at the Salon of 1846 was singled out for praise by Baudelaire for his powerful handling of colour.

Hédouin’s Orientalist work dates from a visit made to Algeria in the company of Adolphe Leleux in 1847. Sketches executed during this trip provided the themes of finished paintings throughout his subsequent career (Café at Constantine, 1868; Narbonne, Mus. A. & Hist.). Hédouin’s pleasing, realistic scenes of French, Spanish and Arab peasant life were much to the taste of Second Empire officialdom, and a number of the artist’s works were acquired by the State during his own lifetime: for example, The Gleaners (1857...


Sepp Kern

(b Leipzig, Feb 28, 1867; d Stockholm, Jan 26, 1948).

German painter, printmaker and illustrator. Having established a reputation as a caricaturist while still a schoolboy through drawings contributed to his school magazine (a satirical weekly), he entered the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf in 1885. Expelled a year later because of his irreverent treatment of the image of the Laocoön, he studied briefly at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich before being allowed to return. He then studied under Peter Janssen until 1889. He moved again to Munich and in the nearby artists’ colony of Dachau produced around 30 impressionist landscape paintings, for example The Angler (1892; Munich, Lenbachhaus). In 1892 he worked on the bourgeois family magazine Fliegende Blätter. He began to work with the publisher Albert Langen in 1895, designing covers for brochures and books. Drawings by Heine appeared in the art magazine Pan, and he rose to sudden fame in 1896 with the first issue of the magazine ...


Lee M. Edwards

(b Waal, Bavaria, May 26, 1849; d Budleigh Salterton, Devon, March 31, 1914).

English painter, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, writer and teacher of German birth. He was the only child of Lorenz Herkomer (d 1887), a wood-carver, and Josephine (née Niggl), an accomplished pianist and music teacher. They left Bavaria for the USA in 1851 and lived briefly in Cleveland, OH, before settling in Southampton, England, in 1857.

Herkomer received his first art instruction from his father and from 1864 to 1865 he attended the Southampton School of Art. Later he often criticized the crippling academic methods to which he was exposed as a student. In 1865 he briefly attended the Munich Academy and spent the summer terms of 1866 and 1867 at the South Kensington Art School in London, where he found the teaching ‘aimless and undirected’. With the encouragement of his fellow student Luke Fildes, Herkomer took up black-and-white illustration; his first wood-engraving appeared in Good Words...


[Paul, Georges Hermann René]

(b Paris, Dec 27, 1864; d Les Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer, Bouches-du-Rhône, June 23, 1940).

French illustrator, printmaker and painter. After briefly studying sciences to please his father, he entered the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Paris and then studied painting under Henry Lerolle and Gustave Colin. He soon made a reputation through his lithographs and drawings for a number of journals. He worked in 1894 on the Courrier français and on Le Rire, in 1897 on Cri de Paris, in 1898 on the anarchist periodical La Feuille, in 1901 on Assiette au beurre, in 1904 on Temps nouveaux and in 1906 on La Guerre sociale. During the Dreyfus affair in 1899 he acquired some notoriety through his pro-Dreyfus drawings for Le Figaro.

From 1894 to 1931 Hermann-Paul illustrated a number of books, such as Laurent Tailhade’s Au pays du mufle (1894), Emile Zola’s L’Assommoir (1920), François Rabelais’s Gargantua (1921), Colette’s Mitsou and Henri de Montherlant’s Les Bestiaires (...


Eloísa Uribe

(b Mexico City, 1833; d Mexico City, 1908).

Mexican illustrator and lithographer. He studied at the Escuela Militar de Ingenieros, Mexico City. When the school was reorganized following the American invasion of 1847, he was commissioned to execute portraits of the Child Heroes. During the French intervention he founded a number of political newspapers, including El espectro, El perico and Palo de ciego, for which he executed caricatures and lithographs. Persecution forced him into hiding, but he re-emerged in 1865 as interpreter and chief draughtsman to the Comisión Científica del Imperio. Following the death in 1868 of Constantino Escalante, Hernández became the caricaturist for the periodical La orquesta; he also produced lithographs for El artista (e.g. The Rattle; see Fernández, fig.). He collaborated with Hesiquio Iriarte on, among other things, illustrations for El libro rojo (1870), a novel by Vicente Riva Palacio, director of La orquesta. At the time of his death Hernández was producing caricatures for ...


Masato Naitō

[Iwakubo Kinemon; Kikō; Kyōsai]

(b Edo [now Tokyo], 1780; d Edo, 1850).

Japanese printmaker and book illustrator. He initially studied painting with Kanō Yōsen (1735–1808), the head of the Kobikichō branch of the Kanō school and okaeshi (official painter) to the Tokugawa shogunate. Together with Teisai Hokuba (1771–1844), Hokkei was one of Katsushika Hokusais best students (see Japan §X 3., (iii), (d)). He made his artistic debut in ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) circles c. 1800, producing illustrations for sharebon (comic novels, usually licentious), hanashibon (story books) and kyōkabon (books of ‘crazy verse’). His main period of activity, however, was in the 1820s and 30s. He continued to illustrate kyōka books, but his most outstanding works are kyōka surimono (‘printed objects’; deluxe prints). His representative piece from this period is his illustrated edition of Rokujuen’s [Ishikawa Masamochi] (1753–1830) kokkeibon (humorous tales of urban life), Hokuri jūniji (‘The twelve hours of the northern village’, a euphemism for the Yoshiwara pleasure quarter). Hokkei produced few ...


Peter Cormack

(George Alexander)

(b London, June 17, 1839; d London, April 15, 1927).

English stained-glass artist, painter and illustrator. He studied painting in London at Leigh’s Art School and the Royal Academy Schools, where he was influenced by Pre-Raphaelitism. Contact with Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s circle and the architect William Burges introduced him to the applied arts, and from 1863 he worked primarily as a stained-glass artist, particularly in collaboration with the glass manufacturers James Powell & Sons and Heaton, Butler & Bayne. After visiting Italy in 1867 he abandoned his early Pre-Raphaelite style for one inspired by Classical and Renaissance art, aiming to create a ‘modern’ style of stained glass no longer dependent on medievalism. His memorial window (1868) to the engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel in Westminster Abbey and the complete glazing scheme (1869–75) of St Mary Magdalene, Paddington, London, illustrate the expressive figure drawing and feeling for monumental scale characteristic of all his mature work. In 1891, dissatisfied with the working methods of the commercial stained-glass firms, he established his own workshop in Hampstead, London, and experimented successfully with making pot-metal glass. Many of Holiday’s later commissions were for American churches; his windows (...


(b Amsterdam, Dec 4, 1868; d Bloemendaal, Dec 31, 1938).

Dutch painter, printmaker, illustrator, writer and stained-glass artist. He trained at the Rijksakademie in Amsterdam (1886–90), under the directorship of August Allebé. Having initially painted and drawn Impressionistic landscapes, he started working in the ’t Gooi region in 1892, where, influenced by Vincent van Gogh and Jan Toorop, he made a number of Symbolist drawings and lithographs. In 1896 he married the Dutch writer Henriette van der Schalk. They both devoted themselves to the recently founded Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij. In the years up to c. 1900 Holst produced among other things a series of lithographs of political cartoons with socialist content, as well as serene landscapes and paintings of girls from the village of Huizen. His allegorical murals (1902; in situ), on topics such as ‘Industry’ or ‘Commerce’, in the new Koopmansbeurs in Amsterdam by H. P. Berlage (1876–1903), marked an important point in his career as his first opportunity to construct a monumental piece of work. Partly inspired by the murals in the town hall at ’s Hertogenbosch by Antoon Derkinderen, he developed a tight, stylized type of design, which he believed to be ideal for visually representing idealistic and exalted thoughts. In his murals (...


Helen A. Cooper

(b Boston, MA, Feb 24, 1836; d Prout’s Neck, ME, Sept 29, 1910).

American painter, illustrator and etcher. He was one of the two most admired American late 19th-century artists (the other being Thomas Eakins) and is considered to be the greatest pictorial poet of outdoor life in the USA and its greatest watercolourist (see fig.). Nominally a landscape painter, in a sense carrying on Hudson River school attitudes, Homer was an artist of power and individuality whose images are metaphors for the relationship of Man and Nature. A careful observer of visual reality, he was at the same time alive to the purely physical properties of pigment and colour, of line and form, and of the patterns they create. His work is characterized by bold, fluid brushwork, strong draughtsmanship and composition, and particularly by a lack of sentimentality.

Homer was the second of three sons of Charles Savage Homer, a hardware importer, and Henrietta Benson Homer, a gifted amateur watercolourist. Brought up in Cambridge, MA, where he attended school, he had an active outdoor boyhood that left a lifelong liking for the country. An independent, strong-willed young man, he showed an early preference for art and was encouraged in his interest by both parents. Like a number of self-educated American artists, Homer was first known as an illustrator. At 19 he became an apprentice at the lithographic firm of ...


Paul Hogarth

(b Kotagiri, Madras, India, March 13, 1836; d London, Nov 25, 1875).

English painter and illustrator. He played a leading role in the renaissance of wood-engraved illustration during the so-called golden decade of English book illustration (c. 1860–75), when a new school of artists overcame the limitations of the medium. Deeply influenced by the idealism of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, he imbued both his paintings and drawings with a haunting blend of poetic realism. He was the fourth son of Captain John Michael Houghton (1797–1874), who served in the East India Company’s Marine as a draughtsman.

Houghton was admitted to the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1854 but did not pass further than the Life School. He received additional training at J. M. Leigh’s academy and its convivial corollary, the Langham Artists’ Society, which was then a forcing-house for young impoverished painters who wished to have a foot in both publishing and the fine arts. There, with older artists such as Charles Keene and John Tenniel, he learnt to run the race against time with a set weekly subject. Keene, already a well-known contributor to ...


David Blayney Brown

(b London, Jan 31, 1769; d Oxford, Oct 5, 1847).

English painter, illustrator and designer. He studied for seven years under Philip Reinagle, one of whose daughters he later married, and entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, in 1788. His ambitions were as a history painter in the manner of Reynolds. His Caractacus (untraced), which won a gold medal in 1790, was highly praised by Reynolds, then almost blind. In 1791 Howard went to Rome, where he became a close friend of John Flaxman whose Neo-classical figural style helped to form his own. In 1794, after three years study, he returned to England via Vienna and Dresden. Howard’s exhibiting career began at the Royal Academy in 1794, and from 1806 to 1844 he also showed at the British Institution. His portraits and especially his historical compositions based on classical and literary themes, relatively late manifestations of the traditions of Reynolds, Fuseli and Flaxman combined in a diluted form, proved extremely popular. He was made an ARA in ...


Julian Treuherz

(b London, Jan 27, 1832; d Kew Green, London, Dec 22, 1915).

English painter and illustrator. In 1846 he joined the School of Design at Somerset House, London, under Alfred Stevens (ii). The following year he won an art studentship to the Royal Academy Schools, where in 1849 he won the silver medal for antique drawing. In the same year he showed his first painting at the Royal Academy, Musidora (Birmingham, Mus. & A.G.), a conventionally painted nude. In 1850, while still a student, he saw a copy of the periodical The Germ, which converted him to Pre-Raphaelitism and led to his meeting William Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Ford Madox Brown, though he never became an official member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Hughes’s first exhibited work in the new style, Ophelia (exh. RA 1852; Manchester, C.A.G.), was admired by Millais, whose own Ophelia (1851–2; London, Tate) was in the same exhibition. They became friends and Hughes sat for Millais’s ...


Lewis Johnson

(b Langar, nr Nottingham, 1820; d London, Oct 6, 1861).

English painter and illustrator. He lived with his brother Leonard Huskisson (fl 1839–59), who was also a painter, and exhibited landscapes, scenes of rural life and works in the fairy genre for which Richard Dadd, his contemporary, is better known. Only four of Huskisson’s paintings and two sketches have been traced but the subject-matter of his oeuvre can be reconstructed from its listing as exhibits at the Royal Academy (1839–59) and the British Institution (1851–8) in London, such as the Dancing Doll (RA, 1838), Sunday Morning (RA, 1842; BI, 1843), Troublesome Neighbour (RA, 1843) and Itinerant Performers (RA, 1844).

Huskisson’s earliest extant work, Come Unto These Yellow Sands (oil on panel, 1847; London, Maas priv. col.; engraved in the Art-Union, ix, 1 Nov 1847), was not exhibited, perhaps owing to Dadd’s success at the Royal Academy in 1842 with a similar picture of the same title (British priv. col.). Taking their text from ...


Belinda Thomson

(b Paris, Nov 30, 1867; d Paris, Feb 1936).

French printmaker, illustrator and painter. He became one of the original members of the Nabis as an art student at the Académie Julian, Paris, in 1888–9. He joined in the early group ventures such as printmaking, puppet plays and theatre design, but he was never involved with the more esoteric Symbolist aspirations of some of the group’s leading members. He first exhibited at the Salon des Indépendants in 1891 and participated in the Nabis’s group shows at Louis Le Barc de Boutteville’s gallery. With Edouard Vuillard and Maurice Denis, he was quick to attract public attention, the nature of his work earning him the sobriquet ‘le Nabi journaliste’. His art was inspired by contemporary life, with subjects drawn from the spectacle of modern Paris, particularly from the café, circus and boxing ring. Both in subject and technique he can be likened to such artists as Adolphe Willette, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec and Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen, and his work shares many characteristics with theirs, notably an economy of line and a simplicity of shapes and colours. Such features derived in Ibels’s case from the art of Honoré Daumier, Japanese printmakers and Paul Gauguin and the Pont-Aven group....