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Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1827; d 1891).

French glassmaker and ceramicist . He was an early advocate of Japonisme, commissioning Bracquemond family, §1 ’s ‘Japanese’ service (1866) and from 1867 running a studio in Paris, where he imitated Chinese carved jade in glass and applied the decorative techniques of Japanese pottery to glass.

K. Schneck: François Eugene Rousseau: Keramik und Glas an der Schwelle zum Jugendstil...

Article

Gordon Campbell

French glass manufactory. In 1693 Louis XIV (reg 1643–1715) and his minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert established the Manufacture Royale des Grandes Glaces at Saint-Gobain (Picardy). The company’s large plate-glass mirrors quickly displaced the smaller blown-glass mirrors of Venice in European markets, and within France enjoyed a monopoly until the Revolution. Thereafter it opened a depot in New York (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Szklarska Poręba Glasshouse]

German glass factory founded in 1842 by Graf Leopold von Schaffgotschin the Silesian town of Schreiberhau (now Szklarska Poręba, in Poland); the factory was known as the Josephinehütte (Pol. Józefina). Under the direction of Franz Pohl (1813–84) the factory made hand-crafted glass in Biedermeier styles, and also imitated Venetian glass. It produced enamelled glass from the 1870s and iridescent glass from the 1880s. In ...

Article

T. A. Petrova

(Ivanovich) [Andreas Heinrich]

(b Ivanovka, nr St Petersburg, March 6, 1802; d Moscow, Aug 20, 1865).

Russian architect and designer. His grandfather moved with his family from Germany to Russia in the 18th century. He studied (1815–20) at the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, and began his career in the commission for the construction of St Isaac’s Cathedral, St Petersburg, under the direction of Auguste Ricard de Montferrand. He also assisted the latter in redecorating the interior of the Winter Palace (1825–31; destr. 1837). His first independent work was the construction of a classical-style villa (1828) near Vyborg. In his later work he departed from the pure Neo-classicism of his training and began interpreting historical styles. He rebuilt, in Gothic style, the castle of Fall (1831–3), near Reval’ (now Tallinn), Estonia. At about the same time he was working in St Petersburg as a designer of, inter alia, chandeliers and candelabra for the Imperial Glass Factory. His plans for rebuilding the palace at Kolomenskoye (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Ferenc Batári

(b Liptószentmiklós, Hungary [now Liptovský Mikuláš, Slovakia], Dec 26, 1858; d Sepsibükszád, Transylvania [now Romania], Feb 23, 1944).

Hungarian glass artist. In 1881 he was employed in the Zayugrócz (now Uhrovec, Slovakia) Glassworks, in upper Hungary, where he was director of the glass-painting studio. He later worked in the Ujantalvölgy Glassworks. During this period he gained recognition for acid-etched pieces. From 1907 to 1914 he leased the Sepsibükszád Glassworks. He produced ornamental pieces in the Art Nouveau style, with acid-etched decoration of plants and animals. His pieces were built up of thin layers of different colours, resulting in fine pastel shades; the outer layer was left in a natural matt finish. Sovánka was awarded a gold medal at the World’s Fair in St Louis in 1904 and at the Esposizione Internazionale del Sempione in Milan in 1906.

I. Katona: ‘Sovánka és a Magyar üveg a szazadfordulón’ [Sovánka and Hungarian glass at the turn of the century], Művészettörténeti Értesitő, 29/3–4 (1980), pp. 237–48

Hungary, §VII: Glass

Slovakia, §V: Decorative arts...

Article

Spoilum  

Patrick Conner

[Spilem; Spillem]

(fl Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 1770–1810).

Chinese painter for the Western export market. The artist known to Westerners as Spoilum – his Chinese name is uncertain – is first recorded in 1774, as the painter of a ‘reverse-glass’ portrait of a Western merchant. By the following decade he was painting in oils on canvas. Oil paint was an unfamiliar medium in the context of the Chinese pictorial tradition, and its use stemmed from Western influences. However, the Cantonese export painters of the late 18th century rapidly acquired a facility in this medium and, in the case of Spoilum, an individuality that could be regarded, in Western terms, as evidence of original genius.

Spoilum’s portraits, of Chinese and Western sitters alike, share certain idiosyncrasies: a sharply defined outline, a direct, almost quizzical expression, carefully observed costume details and, in the background, a markedly pale passage above the right shoulder. Typical examples are the portraits of the Cantonese silk merchant Eshing (before ...

Article

Catherine Brisac

(b Strasbourg, July 26, 1814; d Paris, March 16, 1885).

French painter, designer, illustrator and glazier. A pupil of the history painter Henri Decaisne (1759–1852) and of the sculptor David d’Angers, and brother-in-law of the painter Ernest Meissonier, he made his début at the Salon of 1836 in Paris with a genre painting, Consolation (untraced); he exhibited there annually until 1855. During the same period he illustrated a number of novels, including Bernardin de Saint Pierre’s Paul et Virginie (Paris, 1838) and Victor Hugo’s Notre-Dame de Paris (Paris, 1844), and religious books.

In 1839 Steinheil provided the architect Jean-Baptiste-Antoine Lassus with a cartoon, depicting the Passion, for one of the first antiquarian stained-glass windows in France, installed in the Chapelle de la Vierge in St Germain-l’Auxerrois, Paris. It established his reputation among architects and scholars who were eager to rediscover and reintroduce the religious art and artistic techniques of the Middle Ages. Steinheil devoted most of his energies to producing drawings and cartoons, based on original medieval and Renaissance examples but modernized to make them more accessible to contemporary taste. As a result he became one of the most sought after painters of cartoons on all subjects, and he was appointed a member of the Commission des Monuments Historiques. He used his skills to restore the stained-glass windows in Sainte-Chapelle, Paris (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1882; d 1942).

Italian glass designer. He worked for Barovier before becoming an independent designer of Art Deco glass. In 1927 his workshop was absorbed into the Studio Ars Labor Industrie Riunite , and Stella became the founding director. In 1930 he left to become head of the Academy of Applied Art at Villa Reale in Monza. He also continued to work in Venice, where his principal collaborator was the Bohemian Franz Pelzel (...

Article

Petr Wittlich

(b Kroměříž, Sept 17, 1873; d Prague, Feb 10, 1962).

Czech painter, draughtsman, engraver, stained-glass designer, mosaicist and teacher. From 1891 to 1896 he studied under Maximilián Pirner at the Academy of Fine Art (Akademie Výtvarných Umění) in Prague, where he distinguished himself so brilliantly that he was given a studio for a further two years. From 1891 he was a member of the Mánes Union of Artists. His work was inspired by fin-de-siècle Symbolism and French Intimisme, as well as the art of the Pre-Raphaelites (e.g. Fusion of Souls, 1896; Prague, N.G., Valdštejn Riding Sch.). In 1896, inspired by the work of Puvis de Chavannes, he painted his first fresco (in situ) in the entrance hall of the Provincial Bank (Zemská banka) on Na příkopě, Prague. He studied in Paris in 1898–9 and won a diplôme d’honneur at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1900 for his Round Portrait (1897; Prague, N.G., Valdštejn Riding Sch.). Švabinský was a distinguished portrait painter and had as his sitters a large number of his fellow countrymen who were famous figures from the worlds of art, literature and music (e.g. ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

John Steen

(b The Hague, June 6, 1868; d Cologne, March 5, 1932).

Dutch painter, printmaker, mosaicist and stained-glass artist. He attended the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague (1881–8). During this period he painted mainly landscapes in the style of The Hague school. Until c. 1896 he produced Symbolist works, in which the emphatic line flow and the subtle colour shading are especially noticeable, for example The Bride (1893; Otterlo, Kröller-Müller). From 1892 until 1897 he corresponded with Henri Borel, partly about his Symbolist work, often drawing in the letters. During this time he came into close contact with Belgian artists, in particular with Henry Van de Velde through whom he was able to exhibit with Les XX in Brussels. In summer he regularly stayed in Visé, where he produced pastel drawings in a rhythmic pointillism, a style with which he could achieve a form of abstraction.

From 1896 Thorn Prikker concentrated on the applied arts, designing batiks, stained glass, murals, mosaics, furniture and bindings. In ...

Article

Lauritz Opstad and Gordon Campbell

(b 1806; d 1890).

Norwegian silversmith. He established a mechanized workshop in Christiania in 1838 and began to manufacture decorative elements in various styles in silver die-stamped from sheets. He also combined silver and glass in domestic wares (e.g. pair of salt-cellars, 1847, Oslo, Kstindustmus.) and produced enamelled silver of considerable distinction. The objects made in Tostrup's workshop were usually in the historicist styles popular during the late 19th century. The firm's leading designer was Torolf Prytz (...

Article

Richard J. Boyle

(b Cincinnati, OH, Aug 4, 1853; d Gloucester, MA, Aug 8, 1902).

American painter and printmaker. He began as a painter of window-shades but developed one of the most personal and poetic visions in American landscape painting, portraying nature on canvases that were, in the words of Childe Hassam, ‘strong, and at the same time delicate even to evasiveness’. His first artistic training was under Frank Duveneck, with whom he studied first in Cincinnati and then in Munich (1875–7). His absorption of the Munich style, characterized by bravura brushwork and dextrous manipulation of pigment, with the lights painted as directly as possible into warm, dark grounds derived from Frans Hals and Courbet, is reflected in such paintings as Venice Landscape (1878; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.) and Landscape (c. 1882; Utica, NY, Munson–Williams–Proctor Inst.)

Twachtman became increasingly dissatisfied with the Munich style’s lack of draughtsmanship, so he went to Paris in 1883 to study at the Académie Julian. In the winter he concentrated on drawing, and in the summer he painted in the Normandy countryside and at Arques-la-Bataille, near Dieppe. ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Halina Chojnacka

[Radziwiłł]

Glassworks in Urzecze, Poland (now Urechje, Belarus’), established by Princess Anna Radziwiłł (1676–1746), and in production from 1737 to 1842. The Glassworks was started by a team from Dresden-Friedrichstal and specialized in mirrors. Mirror plates were produced firstly by the ‘Lorraine’ method (see Glass §II 1., (ii)) and from 1756 by the casting method. Mirrors were mounted and ornamented with cut and engraved decoration under the artistic supervision of Christian Theodor Scherber (fl 1737–65; e.g. Warsaw, N. Mus.; Krakow, N. Mus.). Urzecze products included pier-glasses with glass cresting, sconces, devotional pictures and panels for furniture. Surviving examples date from 1750 to 1780 and reflect the English and Dresden Baroque style. A factory pattern book (Warsaw, Cent. Archvs. Hist. Rec.) dates from 1748. About 1750 Urzecze Glassworks started production of vessels in association with the Naliboki Glassworks. Local craftsmen were employed in both glassworks and contributed to a distinctive local style known as the Urzecze–Naliboki style (...

Article

Regina Soria

(b New York, Feb 26, 1836; d Rome, Jan 29, 1923).

American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer (see fig.). He studied under Tompkins Harrison Matteson in Shelbourne, NY, and went to Paris in March 1856. After eight months in the studio of François-Edouard Picot, he settled in Florence until the end of 1860. There he learnt drawing from Raffaello Bonaiuti, became interested in the Florentine Renaissance and attended the free Accademia Galli. A more significant artistic inspiration came from the Italian artists at the Caffè Michelangiolo: Telemaco Signorini, Vincenzo Cabianca (1827–1902), and especially Nino Costa (1827–1902). This group sought new and untraditional pictorial solutions for their compositions and plein-air landscapes and were particularly interested in the experiences of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon painters. They became known as Macchiaioli for their use of splashes (macchia) of light and shadows and for their revolutionary (maquis) attitude to prevailing styles. Among Vedder’s most notable Florentine landscapes are ...

Article

(b Brussels, Aug 31, 1847; d Brussels, Sept 11, 1917).

Belgian architect, designer, engineer, writer and politician. After graduating as an engineer at the University of Ghent in 1870, he established himself in Charleroi before settling in Ghent on his marriage in 1872. Under the influence of Jean-Baptiste-Charles-François Baron Bethune, he worked in the Belgian Gothic Revival style on architecture, furniture and wall paintings and in stained glass, gold, iron and embroidery. From 1875 to 1895 he directed the workshop for stained glass founded by Bethune. Verhaegen’s most important building is the new Beguinage (1873) of Sint Amandsberg near Ghent, which conforms to the severe Gothic Revival ideals of Bethune and anticipates some of the features of garden-city designs. His churches and conventual buildings at Ghent (Poortakker, 1874; St Macharius, 1880–82), Hekelgem (abbey, 1880; church destr.), Paris (Oeuvre des Flamands Church, c. 1875) and Rome (Everlasting Adoration, 1885–6) and châteaux at Watermaal-Bosvoorde (1880–81) and Merelbeke (...

Article

Bruce Tattersall

German ceramics and glass manufacturers. In 1748 François Boch (1695–1754) founded a small factory for the production of faience fine (a lead-glazed earthenware) at Audun-le-Tiche in the Meurthe-et-Moselle region of France, near Luxembourg. In 1766 a second factory was opened at Septfontaines in Luxembourg, and more diversified wares were produced. In the early 19th century Boch’s son Jean-François Boch (1735–1817) visited England to study ceramic techniques, which led to the introduction of transfer-printing at the factory. In 1809 Boch founded a factory for the production of creamware at the monastery of Mettlach. In 1787 another earthenware factory had been started at Vaudrevanges-Wallerfangen, Luxembourg, by Nicolas Villeroy (1759–1843). Under the direction of the Englishman John Leigh this also produced faience fine decorated with enamelled and transfer-printed flowers and views. Pierced wares and Neo-classical vases, influenced by wares from the Leeds factory, were also made. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell