121-140 of 305 results  for:

  • Ceramics and Pottery x
  • 1800–1900 x
Clear all

Article

(b London, July 1833; d ?Hanley, Staffs, Jan 4, 1906).

English potter and manufacturer. He studied art and design in London and in 1857 was employed as a modeller by W. T. Copeland & Sons Ltd, Stoke-on-Trent, Staffs. In 1858 he set up a factory in partnership with a Mr Peake, producing a variety of high-quality parian porcelain: jugs, vases, lidded jars, portrait busts and ‘jewelled’ porcelain. He had observed that the ‘jewelled’ pieces made at the Sèvres porcelain factory were often lacking their enamel ‘stones’ and he developed a method of securely counter-sinking these into the clay. He modelled many of the prototypes himself, and the factory made pierced and coloured floral jewellery, crosses, scent bottles and other small luxury items. He also invented a light, lustrous ware called ‘ivory porcelain’, which was adopted by the Belleek factory in Co. Fermanagh, N. Ireland, and experimented with commercial glazes to produce brilliantly coloured pieces. In 1870 Goss established his own factory, the ...

Article

Gotha  

Gordon Campbell

German centre of porcelain production. In 1757 the first porcelain factory in Thuringia was established in Gotha. The factory produced delicate tablewares (notably coffee-sets) similar to those of the Fürstenberg Porcelain Factory. It closed in the mid-19th century, but was succeeded by other porcelain factories in the town. There is a substantial collection of Gotha pottery in Friedenstein Castle (Gotha)....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1735; d 1813).

English potter. Greatbatch trained at Whieldon (see Whieldon, Thomas) and then established a workshop at Lane Delph, Staffs, where he made creamwares, of which the best-known are teapots with transfer-printed decorations depicting the Prodigal Son; he also made tableware in the shape of fruit which he sent to Wedgwood for glazing. His pottery became bankrupt in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

American pottery factory established in Phoenixville, PA, in 1867, when it was known as the Phoenix Pottery, Kaolin, and Fire Brick Company. The company made industrial pottery, and in 1882 began to make maiolica in the Etruscan style. Its best-known product was the ‘ Shell and Seaweed’ dinner service. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[now Grossbreitenbach]

German centre of porcelain production. A factory founded in Groszbreitenbach, Thuringia, in 1778. From 1782 it was owned by the Greiner family, who also owned the Limbach factory; the products of the two factories are very similar. The factory closed in 1869. There is a fine cup and saucer in the Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle....

Article

(b 1867; d 1925).

American potter and ceramic manufacturer. He was apprenticed in 1882 to the J. and J. G. Low Art Tile Works, Chelsea, MA, where he remained for ten years. At the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, he was very impressed with the high-temperature flambé glazes of the French art pottery created by Auguste Delaherche and Ernest Chaplet, which encouraged Grueby’s own experiments with matt, monochromatic glazes. In 1895 he set up his own factory, the Grueby Faience Co., in Boston, which produced tiles and architectural faience in Greek, medieval and Hispano-Moresque styles, popularized by the Arts and Crafts Movement. From 1897–8 he manufactured a range of vases finished in soft, matt glazes in greens, yellows, ochres and browns, with the ‘Grueby Green’ predominating. Until 1902 the potter George Prentiss Kendrick was largely responsible for the designs, executed in heavily potted stoneware based on Delaherche’s Art Nouveau shapes. Young women were employed to carry out the hand-moulded and incised surface decoration, which consisted mainly of vertical leaf-forms in shallow relief (e.g. stoneware vase, late 19th century; London, V&A). The work was enthusiastically received by the public, and such designers as ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

The name of two important figures in the pottery industry in Staffordshire. One William Hackwood (d 1836) was the principal modeller to Josiah Wedgwood and his successors at Etruria from 1769 until 1832. He was chiefly employed in the adaptation of Classical busts for reproduction on jasper and basaltes wares, but also modelled portrait medallions, including one of Josiah Wedgwood (...

Article

Hagi  

Richard L. Wilson

Centre of ceramics production in Japan. High-fired Hagi ware was manufactured from the early 17th century in Nagato Province (now Yamaguchi Prefect.; see Japan, §IX, 3, (ii)). The first Hagi potters, the brothers Yi Suk-wang and Yi Kyŏng (Jap. Sakamoto Sukehachi), were brought to Japan from Korea during Toyotomi Hideyoshi invasions in the 1590s. The older Yi was first brought to Hiroshima to serve the daimyo Mōri Terumoto (1553–1625), a student of the tea master Sen no Rikyū. After the defeat of the Toyotomi family at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 and the establishment of Tokugawa hegemony, Terumoto’s fief was reduced to Nagato Province alone. The Yi brothers were probably brought together to found an official kiln at the new clan seat, Hagi, when it was established in 1604.

Production began in the village of Matsumoto just east of Hagi. Yi Suk-wang died not long after the opening of the kiln, whereupon leadership was assumed by his younger brother. Yi Kyŏng also trained his brother’s son, who received the name ...

Article

Jon Whiteley

(b Saint-Loup, near Plouay, Côtes-du-Nord, May 5, 1821; d Saint-Raphaël, May 29, 1874).

French painter and designer. He was encouraged to practise drawing by the Brothers of the Christian Doctrine at Lannion. Through the intervention of Félicité-Robert de Lamennais (1782–1854), he was made drawing-master at a religious seminary at Ploërmel, Brittany, although at this stage he had received no instruction and had never seen an oil painting. In 1840 he asked his conseil général for help and left for Paris the following year with a grant of 500 francs. He went to Delaroche’s studio, where he made friends with Picou, Jean-Léon Gérôme, Jean Aubert (1824–1906) and Jean Eugène Damery (1823–53). Charles Gleyre, who took over Delaroche’s studio in 1843, encouraged and protected him during years of poverty. Daphnis and Chloe (untraced), his first Salon picture, exhibited in 1847, was painted in Gleyre’s studio.

In 1848, on Gleyre’s recommendation, Hamon was given a post as a designer to the ...

Article

Norman Stretton

(b Badsey, Hereford & Worcs, bapt April 7, 1731; d Brislington, Avon, Oct 14, 1817).

English engraver and painter. He was apprenticed to George Anderton, an engraver, in Birmingham on 28 January 1745. In 1756 he joined the Worcester Porcelain Company of Dr John Wall (1708–76). He became a partner in the firm in March 1772. At Worcester, Hancock engraved copperplates for transfer-printing on porcelain. Many designs were adapted from contemporary engravings and paintings, particularly those of the French schools; such romantic scenes as Amusements champêtres and Fêtes vénitiennes were derived from compositions by Antoine Watteau. A series of children’s games, including Battledore and Shuttlecock, Blind Man’s Buff and Marbles, are based on a series of compositions engraved by Gravelot. Mugs with portraits of Frederick II, King of Prussia, dated 1757 (for illustration see Worcester), are based on an engraving by Richard Houston after a painting by Antoine Pesne and are among the best-known examples of Hancock’s work. The English schools also provided subjects for Hancock’s engravings. A half-length portrait of George III decorates Worcester mugs together with one of Queen Charlotte, both likenesses after engravings by ...

Article

Linda Whiteley

American family of ceramics decorators and manufacturers and collectors, active in France. They were of English Quaker origin, established in America since 1642. In 1838 David Haviland (1814–79), six of whose seven brothers were in the porcelain trade, formed an importation and retail business, D. G. & D. Haviland, with his brother Daniel (b 1799). In 1852 Robert Haviland joined the company, which became Haviland Brothers & Co. In 1840 David went to France, settling there in 1841, with the intention of improving the range of porcelain imported by the company by selecting it personally. In 1847 he opened a porcelain-decorating workshop, and in 1855 began porcelain production. He was helped in this by the French manufacturer Pillivuyt. In 1864 a new company, Haviland & Co. was founded by David together with his elder son Charles (b New York, 1839; d Limoges, 1921). His younger son ...

Article

(b Stuttgart, Dec 2, 1795; d Munich, July 9, 1846).

German painter and printmaker. He was a pupil in Stuttgart of Johann Baptist Seele, whose stiff drawing style he at first adopted. After taking part in the Napoleonic Wars he moved to Munich in December 1815 to study landscape painting at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste under Wilhelm Alexander Wolfgang von Kobell. His first oil paintings were copies of hunting scenes after Franz Joachim Beich, whose works were in the royal collection at Schloss Schleissheim. He also copied pen drawings by Kobell and Johann Georg von Dillis. His first original oil paintings (e.g. Militia Picket at Schlettstadt, 1816; Stuttgart, Staatsgal.) depicted scenes from his own life as a soldier. Between 1818 and 1822 he painted many landscapes replete with genre-like details of the area around Munich and the Bayerisches Oberland, and these were widely disseminated as lithographs (e.g. Excursion on the Tegernsee, 1818; e.g. Munich, Staatl. Graph. Samml.). The composition tends to draw attention first to the active figures in the foreground and then to an open view of the countryside, a device recalling the works of Kobell. These early naturalistic scenes are characterized by an affinity for nature and by the depiction of people at work....

Article

Ferenc Batári

Hungarian ceramics factory. It was established by Vince Stingl as a stoneware workshop before 1825, but by 1826 it was producing porcelain. In 1840 the porcelain painter Móric Farkasházi-Fischer (1799/1800–1880) bought the workshop and developed it into a factory. The early wares included goods for everyday use and clearly showed the influence of the Vienna and Meissen porcelain factories. The considerable competition from mass-produced Czechoslovak wares forced the factory to produce fine merchandise. Herend became most famous for reproducing 18th-century East Asian and European porcelain. The factory was particularly successful at the international exhibitions, and, at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, Queen Victoria ordered a dinner service decorated with butterflies and flowers, which became known as the ‘Victoria’ design. Under the management of Farkasházi-Fischer’s sons the factory declined, and in 1884 it became a public company. Farkasházi-Fischer’s grandson Jenö Farkasházi-Fischer, who became the managing director in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

German porcelain manufactory. In 1843 the Heubach family established a factory in Lichte, near Wallendorf in Thuringia. The factory’s products included dolls’ heads and (from the 1880s) piano babies (which were used to hold objects such as papers and shawls on top of pianos. Early in the 20th century, by which time the company was called Gebrüder Heubach, the factory had begun to specialize in animal sculptures....

Article

Lene Olesen

(b Rønne, Bornholm, Dec 27, 1834; d Rønne, Dec 9, 1912).

Danish potter and ceramic manufacturer. He served his apprenticeship as a potter in the workshop of Edvard Christian Sonne (1810–76) and then travelled for three years through northern France, Switzerland and Germany, where he worked in various ceramic factories in the Rheinland stoneware region. In 1859 he founded the L. Hjorth’s Terracotta factory in Rønne, where he produced simple, utilitarian wares. In 1862 he began to produce more artistic transfer-printed wares decorated with idyllic landscapes and flower motifs. In 1872 he set up a painter’s studio at the factory and also sent fired wares to artists in Copenhagen, such as the painter and writer Holger Drachmann (1846–1908), for decoration. About 1870 Hjorth began to produce terracotta copies of Greek vases. His inspiration came from the painter Kristian Zahrtmann, who provided drawings and photographs of Greek vases to be used as models. In the 1890s the factory began to manufacture black pottery in Art Nouveau and old Nordic styles....

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1855; d 1915).

French architect, interior designer, potter and collector. His Paris workshop undertook interior decoration, furniture design, woodwork and ironwork. He decorated three rooms at the Exposition Universelle of 1900; his floral decoration was in an Art Nouveau style. When his friend Jean(-Joseph-Marie) Carriès died, Hoentschel took over his pottery studio in Montriveau, and thereafter Carriès’s workers produced stoneware that Hoentschel integrated in his furniture. His collections of French art of the 17th and 18th centuries and of Asian art, acquired by J. Pierpont Morgan and now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, influenced the style of his own work....

Article

Patrick Conner

(b Burslem, Staffs, Oct 18, 1799; d London, Feb 12, 1870).

English painter. As a boy he was employed for seven years to paint flowers on pottery in the factory of John Davenport(fl 1793; d 1848) of Longport. In 1819 Holland moved to London, where he continued at first to work as a pottery painter but also undertook watercolours of flowers and natural history subjects, exhibiting his works at the Royal Academy from 1824. After 1828 oil paintings predominated over watercolours in the many pictures that he exhibited at the Royal Academy, the Society of Painters in Water-Colours (of which he was made an associate in 1835), the British Institution and the Society of British Artists. He travelled to Paris in 1831 and subsequently made repeated tours of the Continent. Buildings in European cities now became his favourite subject, and above all, scenes of Venice, which he first visited in 1835; his Venetian views have sometimes been confused with those by Richard Parkes Bonington. In ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1748; d 1820).

English potter. He worked from 1784 to 1813 at Sheldon, Staffs, where he made red and green stoneware (notably teapots) from the clay at Bradwell Wood previously worked by the Elers family brothers. From 1782 Hollins was a partner in the New Hall Factory. His sons continued the business, trading as Messrs T. & J. Hollins until ...

Article

Ferenc Batári

Hungarian ceramics manufactory. It evolved from a glassworks in the village of Hollóháza on the estate of Count Károlyi, in northern Hungary. Between 1860 and 1880 it was leased to Ferenc Istvánffy, who enlarged and modernized it and added stovemaking. The factory produced dinner-services, a series of ornamental plates inscribed with a line from the Lord’s Prayer and ornamental dishes and bottles, which were very popular. Typical Hollóháza motifs were the cornflower and rose. After 1880 wares were decorated with new designs, which were influenced by the Zsolnay Ceramics Factory and consisted of late Renaissance and traditional Turkish motifs. The factory was very successful at the Millennial Exhibition of 1896 in Budapest and at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 in Paris. In 1915 the factory was merged with the stoneware factory of Emil Fischer in Budapest, and Fischer became the artistic and commercial director of the works. From 1918 until ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American ceramic factory. Homer Laughlin first produced white ironstone in 1873 with his brother Shakespeare, as Laughlin Brothers. The partnership was dissolved in 1877, and Homer Laughlin established the Homer Laughlin China Co. Semi-vitreous dinnerware made for hotels was added as a major product in the 1890s, and in 1896 the firm was formally incorporated. Laughlin retired two years later, but the firm continued to use its new name. By 1905 the company had three potteries in East Liverpool, OH, with a capacity of 36 kilns. Expansion of the operation continued in Newell, WV, and in 1929 all the manufacturing was consolidated there in five potteries. ‘Fiesta’, ‘Harlequin’ and ‘Eggshell’ were among the most popular domestic lines produced between 1935 and 1960. By the late 20th century the firm was one of the largest potteries in the world, producing domestic cooking- and dinnerware and hotelware.

W. C. Gates jr and ...