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Tarq Hoekstra and Kim W. Woods

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(b Amsterdam, c. 1505; d Amsterdam, 1553).

Dutch printmaker, painter and cartographer, maternal grandson of Jacob Cornelisz. van Oostsanen. He was the dominant figure in the creation of north Netherlandish woodcuts from the mid-1530s until his death. His monogram, which combines the initials ‘C’ and ‘T’ with the staff and bell of St Anthony, was probably inspired by his father’s first name. The greater part of his career was apparently spent in his native Amsterdam, where he probably trained with his grandfather.

Cornelis Anthonisz.’s earliest extant work is a signed and dated panel painting known as the Braspenningsmaaltijd (‘Banquet of the copper coin’, 1533; Amsterdam, Hist. Mus.), which depicts 17 members of the Crossbowmen’s Guild, one of Amsterdam’s civic militia companies. Departing from the traditional isocephalic format for such paintings, Cornelis introduced a narrative element by arranging his subjects around a banquet table. The young man standing directly below the monogram and date at the upper left is probably a self-portrait. His next extant, autograph painting is a ...

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Steven F. Ostrow

[il Bresciano; Prospero da Brescia]

(b Brescia, 1555–65; d Rome, 1592).

Italian sculptor. According to Baglione, he went to Rome from his native Brescia as a youth. He studied anatomy and the art of ancient Rome, and he gained fame for his anatomical models and small bozzetti. His skill as a modeller resulted in several commissions from Gregory XIII, including stucco angels (1580–81) for the Pauline Chapel and the Scala Regia in the Vatican. The success of these elegant, classicizing figures led to the commission (after 1585) for the sculptural components of the tomb of Gregory XIII in St Peter’s, consisting of a seated statue of the Pope, allegorical figures of Charity, Faith, Religion and Justice, and two angels bearing the papal arms. The tomb has undergone numerous transformations and much of its sculpture has been lost; its original appearance is recorded, however, in several engravings and in a drawing by Ciro Ferri (Florence, Uffizi). The surviving stucco figures of ...

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Antico  

Charles Avery

[Alari-Bonacolsi, Pier Jacopo di Antonio]

(b Mantua, c. 1460; d Gazzuolo, 1528).

Italian sculptor. An expert in goldsmith work, bronze sculpture and medals, he earned his nickname ‘Antico’ because of his ‘astonishing penetration of antiquity’ (Nesselrath). He achieved lasting fame through his small-scale re-creations (often also reinterpretations) of famous, but often fragmentary, statues of antiquity (e.g. the Apollo Belvedere, Rome, Vatican, Mus. Pio-Clementino, and the Spinario, Rome, Mus. Conserv.). Most of these bronze statuettes were made for the Gonzaga family, notably for Ludovico, Bishop of Mantua, and for Isabella d’Este, wife of Francesco II Gonzaga, 4th Marchese of Mantua. Antico also restored ancient marble statues and acted as an adviser to collectors.

A birth date of 1460 has been calculated on the basis of Antico’s earliest recorded commission (1479), and he is presumed to have been born in Mantua because his father, a butcher, owned a house there and he himself was granted the privilege of owning a stall in the meat market by Federico I Gonzaga, 3rd Marchese of Mantua. A training as a goldsmith is inferred from the fact that he began as a medallist in relief and in intaglio. In addition, he is documented (see below) as the maker of a pair of silver gilt vases and later demonstrated great skill at casting and chasing bronze statuettes, and at gilding and inlaying them with silver. His restoration of antique marble statues also implies an expertise in working that material, but nothing is known of how he acquired this skill....

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An antiquary (Lat. antiquarius) is a lover, collector and student of ancient learning, traditions and remains. Antiquarianism originated from the revived interest in Classical antiquity during the Renaissance and became a scientific and historical method in the 17th century. The difference between literary and non-literary sources distinguishes humanism from antiquarianism, the latter being based on those tangible remains of antiquity (inscriptions, coins and ruins) related to literary sources. From the 16th century new attitudes towards antiquity were discussed in antiquarian circles, later giving rise to antiquarian societies. Thereafter, antiquarianism was firmly linked to archaeological excavations and to the study and collecting of ancient art. It was also linked to the search for a national identity in the arts and for the origins of Western culture and was sustained by a curiosity about civilizations outside Europe. Antiquarianism, in fact, was associated with the Grand Tour and with travel more generally. Antiquaries and artist–antiquaries were responsible for producing numerous drawings, prints and illustrated volumes. High-quality illustrations of archaeological sites and ancient sculpture contributed to the growth of art history as an autonomous discipline. They also contributed to the popularization of the Antique and to the transformation of commercial dealing in objects associated with antiquarian interests (...

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Carl Van de Velde

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Maria Concepción García Sáiz

Italian family of engineers and architects. They were active in Spain and Spanish America in the service of the Spanish Habsburgs from 1559 to 1650. The most prominent member of the family was Juan Bautista Antonelli the elder (b Gaeteo, Italy, c. 1530; d Madrid, 17 March 1588), who settled in Spain from 1559 while working in the employ of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Most of his fortification works were carried out in the coastal south-east of Spain, where several members of his family settled, although he also worked in Oran and particularly in Portugal as a strategist and engineer. Many of his projects were not realized, including the creation of a navigable river network throughout the Iberian peninsula to facilitate the transport of merchandise from the ports to the interior. Several fortification plans for the Magellan Straits also failed to materialize.

Bautista Antonelli (b Rimini, ...

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Hanno-Walter Kruft

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Giulio Bora

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Helen Geddes

(di Ancona)

(fl Ancona, 1472–1510).

Italian painter. His only autograph work is the signed and dated altarpiece of the Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints (1472; Pittsburgh, PA, Carnegie Inst.) from S Francesco delle Scale, Ancona. Other paintings attributed to him on the basis of this work include the Massimo Altarpiece (main panel, Rome, Pal. Massimo alle Colonne), a lunette of SS Lucy, Anthony, and Bernardino (Montefortino, Pin. Com.), St Mary Magdalene, St Francis (both Oxford, Ashmolean), a Pietà (Jesi, Pin. Civ.), and an Annunciation with Saints (Urbino, Pal. Ducale). His works are indebted to Francesco Squarcione, Carlo Crivelli, Marco Zoppo, and Cosimo Tura. The influence of Piero della Francesca is also apparent in the light and landscape of the autograph altarpiece, which has figures of great inner tension and strange beauty.

G. Hedberg: ‘In Favour of Nicola di Maestro Antonio d’Ancona [sic]’, Minneapolis Institute of Arts Bulletin, vol. 62 (1975–6), pp. 84–99 D. Pennacchioli...

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Dan Ewing

Style of painting and drawing practised by artists working in Antwerp during the period from c. 1500 to 1530. The term was coined by Max Friedländer in 1915 in his article ‘Die Antwerpener Manieristen von 1520’. In this and subsequent publications (1921, 1933 and 1937) he attempted to bring order into a large body of anonymous Antwerp paintings (and some drawings) that had been gradually gathered under the name of Herri met de Bles, after an Adoration of the Magi (Munich, Alte Pin.) bearing a false Bles signature. Only a small proportion of these works could be sorted into recognizable hands. The principal anonymous masters identified by Friedländer were Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family, §I, (or Pseudo-Blesius), the author of the Munich painting, the Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family, §I, , the Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family, §I, , the Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family, §I, (for all of whom ...

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Gordon Campbell

Modern name for a group of unidentified workshops that produced embossed parade armours and shields for the court of Henry II in the third quarter of the 16th century. Some of these armours were produced by Etienne Delaune in a hypothetical French royal workshop assumed to be in Paris and long known as the Louvre School of Armourers. It was discovered that some of these armours had been decorated in the early 1560s in Antwerp by a goldsmith called Elisius Libaerts (...

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J. Krčálová

[Aostallo; Austalis; Avostali]

Italian family of architects, active in Bohemia. The family helped introduce a more austere, Tuscan style into Bohemian architecture, replacing the decorative Lombard style but retaining such vernacular features as the pitched roof. The exact relationship between the family members is unclear. Giovanni Maria Aostalli (b Pambio; d Prague, 1567) assisted Giovanni Spazio in 1538 at the Belvedere Villa in Prague and succeeded him during its construction (1539–45). From 1545 to 1562 he was Master of the Works at the Hradčany in Prague, assisted in 1548 by his sons Pietro Aostalli and Andrea Maria Aostalli (b ?Pambio; d Prague, 1586–7), as well as by his relative Ulrico Aostalli (b Savosa; d Prague, 10 May 1597). In 1555 Giovanni Maria began the Hvezda at Bila Hora, outside Prague, to the designs of Archduke Ferdinand I (later Emperor). In 1559 he, Giuseppe Soldata and the mason ...

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Gordon Campbell

Small silver spoon, the handle of which ends with an apostle figure. Such spoons were manufactured in England and Germany from the late 15th century to the late 17th and were the usual present of sponsors at baptisms. When manufactured in sets of 13, the handle of the ‘master spoon’ was a figure of Jesus....

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John N. Lupia

Type of ewer, usually of metal, used for the washing of hands in a liturgical or domestic context. It is often zoomorphic in form and usually has two openings, one for filling with water and the other for pouring. In their original usage aquamanilia expressed the symbolic significance of the lavabo, the ritual washing of the hands by the priest before vesting, before the consecration of the Eucharist and after mass. The earliest production of aquamanilia is associated with Mosan art of the Meuse Valley in northern France, and with Lower Saxony in north-east Germany. The majority of surviving examples are made of a variety of bronze that resembles gold when polished, while nearly all those made of precious metals are known only from church inventories.

Church documents refer to aquamanilia as early as the 5th century, when canon regulations stipulated that on ordination the subdeacon should receive such a vessel. Various documents from the 5th century to the beginning of the 11th sometimes use the term to denote both the ewer and its basin. Sometime after the beginning of the 11th century the term became transferred to a type of vessel, usually in the shape of an animal (e.g. lion, stag, horse; ...