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Luciano Bellosi

(fl Assisi, 1341–7).

Italian painter. Vasari described him as one of Giotto’s most important pupils, but he identified him with the painter Puccio di Simone who is documented in Florence, although he included among the works attributed to this artist numerous paintings in Assisi and noted that the inhabitants of Assisi considered him to be a fellow citizen. A document of 1341, however, confirms the existence of an Assisi painter named Puccio di Capanna: the authorities commissioned ‘Puccius Cappanej et Cecce Saraceni, pictores de Assisio’ to paint images of the Virgin and Child with Saints on the ‘Porta externa platee nove’ and the ‘Porta Sancti Ruphini’ (see Abate). Puccio Capanna is also documented in Assisi in 1347 (Cenci).

On the basis of this document, a fresco fragment from the Porta di S Rufino representing the Christ Child Turning towards St Francis (Assisi, Mus. & Pin. Com.) has been identified as Puccio Capanna’s work; it is clearly part of a larger composition of the ...

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C. Bruzelius, Patrick M. de Winter and Pippa Shirley

French dynasty of rulers, collectors, and patrons. Hugh Capet, Duke of the Franks, succeeded the last Carolingian ruler, Louis V (reg ad 986–7), as King of France (reg ad 987–96). There were no outstanding patrons until the 13th century, when (1) Blanche of Castile became Queen of France as a consequence of her marriage (1200) to Louis VIII (reg 1223–6). Her patronage is sometimes difficult to distinguish from that of her son (2) Louis IX, particularly during his minority, when they were jointly involved in the foundation and endowment of several monastic institutions and the rebuilding of Saint-Denis Abbey. Nevertheless, their individual tastes are evident: for instance in Blanche’s patronage of manuscript illumination and her preference for Cistercian foundations. Among Louis IX’s architectural projects, his foundation and embellishment of the Sainte-Chapelle, Paris, is outstanding. His grandson (3) Philip IV was particularly active as a patron in Paris, his interests ranging from manuscript illumination, goldsmithswork, and ivory-carving to more monumental projects; he also employed Italian artists. ...

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Gordon Marshall Beamish

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Patrick M. de Winter

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Gordon Marshall Beamish

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John Richards

[Carraresi]

Italian family of rulers and patrons. Though Giacomo I da Carrara (d 22 Nov 1324) was elected Capitaneus et Dominus Generalis of Padua in 1318, he relinquished power in 1320, and the family did not secure an independent and unassailable hold on the city until Marsilio I da Carrara (d 21 March 1338) expelled the della Scala family of Verona (who had controlled Padua from 1328) and became Signore in August 1337.

Carrarese patronage on any substantial scale evidently started during the rule of Marsilio’s successor, Ubertino (reg 1338–45), who began to build the Reggia on a site possibly earmarked by Cangrande della Scala for his own palace in Padua. The western section, the Palazzo di Ponente, was completed by 1345, and the eastern section, the Palazzo di Levante, was at least under construction by then. Much of the Reggia was demolished in the 19th century, but its general layout—a series of interconnected courtyards, loggias, and apartments of various sizes—can be understood from maps and other reliable records. The initial decorative campaign continued through the rule of ...

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Rosa Alcoy

[Castayls, Jaime]

(b ?Berga; fl 1345–79).

Catalan sculptor, painter and architect. A citizen of Barcelona, he must have been trained among Italians, but in a school that was acquainted with developments in France and receptive to Sienese influences—possibly Pisa or Naples. Mallorcan painting—especially manuscript illumination, which was influenced by Pisan art—and the work of the Master of the San Michele in Borgo Pulpit (a Pisan sculptor who worked on the shrine of S Eulalia, 1327–39, in Barcelona Cathedral) also constituted important formative influences on his style. He married the daughter of Ferrer Bassa and was associated with the Bassa workshop in a commission for works for Saragossa in 1346. Like Ferrer Bassa, he was responsible for introducing Italianizing elements into Catalonia.

No authenticated paintings by Jaume Cascalls survive, however, and he is now known primarily for his sculpture, notably for the signed alabaster retable of the Virgin (c. 1345; 2.07×3.35 m) in S María, Cornellà del Conflent, which shows Italian characteristics in the treatment of continuous narrative and in the technique, in which some areas are deliberately left unfinished for expressive effect. At about this time, Jaume worked in Perpignan for the Aragonese crown. By ...

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Andrew Ladis

(fl c. 1315–?1349).

Italian painter. He was the subject of a biography by Vasari, who incorrectly identified him as a member of the Landini family still active at the end of the 14th century, and as a fellow Aretine from Pratovecchio. This source, combined with the dearth of documentary evidence, is to blame for much of the confusion surrounding Jacopo. The only clue to his origins is his name, ‘de Casentino’, given in his one signed work, the Cagnola Triptych (Florence, Uffizi), and as he is called in the two contemporary notices that mention him; the evidence of his surviving work, however, indicates a Florentine training in the milieu of the St Cecilia Master, and a career confined to the first half of the 14th century. The chronology of his works is uncertain, and only two of his panels are dated: a Presentation in the Temple (Kansas City, MO, Nelson–Atkins Mus. A.) that bears a plausible date of ...

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Cassone  

Ellen Callmann and J. W. Taylor

[It.: ‘chest’]

Term used for large, lavishly decorated chests made in Italy from the 14th century to the end of the 16th. The word is an anachronism, taken from Vasari (2/1568, ed. G. Milanesi, 1878–85, ii, p. 148), the 15th-century term being forziero. Wealthy households needed many chests, but the ornate cassoni, painted and often combined with pastiglia decoration, were usually commissioned in pairs when a house was renovated for a newly married couple and were ordered, together with other furnishings, by the groom. Florence was the main centre of production, though cassoni were also produced in Siena and occasionally in the Veneto and elsewhere.

The earliest cassoni were simple structures with rounded lids, probably painted in solid colours, such as the red cassone in Giotto’s Annunciation to St Anne (c. 1305; Padua, Arena Chapel). The earliest known chests with painted designs are all from the same shop (e.g. Florence, Pal. Davanzati, inv. mob. 162). Like the much more numerous contemporary chests with gilded low-relief in pastiglia (...

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Dorothy Gillerman

(fl 1372; d before 1387).

French sculptor. Originally from the Poitiers region, he had apparently moved to Avignon by 1372, where he worked for members of the papal court. He directed the execution of the tomb of Innocent VI (partly destr.; Villeneuve-lès-Avignon, Charterhouse). Between 1372 and 1377 he worked probably with other sculptors on a tomb for Cardinal Philippe Cabassole (d 1372) to be installed in the Carthusian church of Bonpas, near Avignon. Partially destroyed during the Revolution, the figures that remain, a standing figure of Christ the Redeemer (Marseilles, Mus. Grobet-Labadié), a Coronation of the Virgin and an incomplete set of Apostles (both Avignon, Mus. Petit Pal.), reveal a variety of French and Italian influences. Such stylistic mixtures were probably not unusual in works commissioned by patrons whose ecclesiastical and political activities carried them between Paris, Rome and Naples.

Les Fastes du gothique: Le Siècle de Charles V (exh. cat., Paris, Grand Pal., 1981–2), no. 72, p. 429...