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H. V. Trivedi

[Cāhamāna; Chahamanas of Rajasthan; Chauhan]

Indian Rajput clan, several branches of which ruled in Rajasthan from medieval times. The earliest Chahamanas originated with Vasudeva, who established himself at Sakambhari, or Sambhar, near Jaipur, in the early 7th century ad. This house came into prominence when one of its scions, Durlabharaja, a feudatory of the Gurjara-Pratihara king Vatsaraja (reg c. 777–808), defeated Dharmapala of Bengal (reg c. 781–812) in the last quarter of the 8th century. The Chahamana dominions extended to Sikar, where they built an impressive Shiva temple in the 10th century. To the north of Sikar was the kingdom of the Tomaras of Delhi, with whom the Chahamanas were on hostile terms: one of their records states that Chandna, a scion of the dynasty, defeated and killed the Tomara prince Rudra (Rudrena) in the 9th century. The last ruler of the house was Prithviraja III (reg c. 1178–92), who, after a glorious career of conquest, fell fighting with Muhammad Ghur (...


Carol Radcliffe Bolon and K. V. Ramesh

Indian dynasty with sundry branches. Apart from the Chalukyas of Badami (see §1 below) and the later Chalukyas of Kalyana (see §2 below) there was a branch in western India known as the Chalukyas of Gujarat (see Solanki) and a branch known as the Eastern Chalukyas, or Chalukyas of Vengi, who ruled in Andhra in the 7th century ad.

Indian dynasty that ruled portions of Karnataka, Maharashtra and Andhra from c. ad 543 to 757. Over 200 inscriptions of the Chalukyas provide a fairly complete history of the dynasty. They first emerged under Pulakeshin (reg c. 543–566/7), with their capital at Badami, (anc. Vatapi). The Vaishnava cave (no. 3) at Badami, dated ad 578 (Shaka year 500) and the earliest dated monument in south India, was dedicated by Mangalesha (reg 597/8–609/10) before he ascended the throne. Other early monuments are found nearby at Aihole...


R. N. Mehta

Ruined fortified city 125 km south-east of Ahmadabad in Gujarat, India. The site was occupied by the Solanki kings during the 10th–13th centuries ad. On the summit of Pavagadh Hill, the site of the later fortress, are the remains of Jaina temples and a Shiva temple (late 10th century to early 11th) containing several sculptures of Lakulisha, founder of the Pashupata sect. A local Rajput clan, the Chahamana, took over the site in 1297 and remained there until 1485, when it was captured by the Sultan of Gujarat, Mahmud Bigara (reg 1458–1511), who made the town his new capital. The town prospered only until 1535, when it was sacked by the Mughal emperor Humayun (reg 1530–40, 1555–6); in the following year the capital was moved back to Ahmadabad. From the beginning of the 17th century the city was essentially in ruins.

The site as a whole has two parts, the hill fortress and the city below, the latter extending over an area of several sq. km. All that remains of the city is a scattering of small mosques and tombs. One of the more elaborate examples is the Nagina Masjid (...


John R. Topic and Trent Barnes

Pre-Columbian site at the juncture of the Moche and Chicama valleys in northern coastal Peru, and capital city of the ancient kingdom of Chimú, flourishing c. ad 850–1470. The ruins of Chan Chan overlook the Pacific Ocean from a bluff near modern Trujillo. Watercolours of c. 1789 commissioned by Bishop Baltazar Jaime Martínez de Compañon y Bujanda include plans of Chan Chan and some drawings of artefacts from the site. In the 19th century further plans and drawings were made by Mariano Eduardo Rivero, Ephraim George Squier, and Adolph Bandelier. Extensive archaeological work was conducted between 1969 and 1975 under the direction of Michael E. Moseley and Carol J. Mackey; the collections resulting from these excavations are held by the Instituto Nacional de Cultura in Trujillo.

The core of the city covers approximately 6 sq. km, but its walled fields, isolated pyramids, and cemeteries extend over more than 20 sq. km. High walls subdivide the site into isolated units that are often repetitive in their internal organization; at ground level this gives the impression of a vast maze, but from the air the unity and order of the overall site plan can be appreciated. At the centre of the city is a rectilinear area measuring ...


Michael D. Willis

[Candella; Candrātreya; Candrella]

Dynasty of Rajputs who ruled parts of northern India from the 9th century to the early 14th. The Chandellas were an important regional house that came into prominence with the decline of the imperial Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty in the mid-10th century. Best-known for their patronage of temple architecture at Khajuraho, the Chandellas were at the height of power under Yashovarman (c. 925–54) and Dhangadeva (c. 954–1002). The region they ruled, now called Bundelkhand, is bounded on the north by the River Yamuna, on the east by the River Tons and on the west by the River Betwa. During Chandella times this territory was called Jejakabhukti or Jejakadesha after the ruler Jayashakti (Pkt Jejā or Jejjāka), who ruled c. 865–85. The important centres of Chandella power were Mahoba, Ajayagarh and Kalanjara. The interesting ruins of the fort of Kalanjara have yet to be thoroughly studied.

The earliest known record of the Chandella dynasty is the Lakshmana Temple inscription from ...


Bent L. Pedersen

[ Chao Ch’ang ; zi Changzhi]

(b Guanghan, Sichuan Province, c. ad 960; d after 1016).

Chinese painter . He was a painter of birds, flowers and insects, following the style of Teng Changyou ( fl ad 907–20). Although paintings attributed to him are not genuine, they provide an indication of his style. These works can be divided into two groups: one of relatively small paintings of flowers and another of larger pictures, with birds, insects, trees, rocks and flowers.

Zhao is known to have studied his subjects thoroughly before painting them. The flowers he depicted tended to be the cultivated varieties he saw in the gardens of contemporary Sichuan Province or in the capital, Bianliang (now Kaifeng, in Henan). Although the flowers possess many realistic features, they are sometimes painted in a formal way, producing a decorative effect. Zhao was famous for rendering flowers in such a way that the thickness of the ink and colour pigment could be clearly seen. This is evident in the fan painting ...


Erberto F. Lo Bue

[Cāṅgū Nārāyaṇa; Newari Cāṅguṃ; Skt Dolādri, Dolagīri, Dolāśikhara: ‘Hill of the Palanquin’]

Temple site at Changu Village, Bagmati Province, Nepal. Changu Narayan is the earliest and most famous of four Vishnu temples that, according to tradition, protect the Kathmandu Valley. It is mentioned in a long panegyric inscribed on the stone victory pillar erected in front of its main doorway in ad 464. The temple was destroyed by earthquake and fire, and rebuilt and restored several times. The gilt copper portraits of King Bhupalendra Malla of Kathmandu and of the Queen Mother Riddhilakshmi, who reconstructed it in 1694, are enshrined opposite the main doorway. The present structure was completed in 1708, after a fire had destroyed the temple six years earlier, and was restored again after the earthquake of 1934. Its two storeys are supported by wooden struts carved with figures of Vaishnavite gods and masters. The upper roof was covered with gilt copper slabs in 1834. There are four triple doorways opening in the brick walls, and elaborately carved frameworks, brackets and panels surrounding them. Those on the western side are covered with gilt copper sheets over the wood-carvings....


(b Aachen, 2 April ad 742; reg 768–814; d Aachen, Jan 28, 814; can 1165).

Frankish emperor and patron (see fig.). By means of political opportunism, military acumen and an alliance with the Roman Catholic Church, he expanded the Frankish kingdom to encompass an empire extending from Rome to the English Channel and northwards to beyond the River Elbe. His first experience of the Late Antique world was on his expedition to Italy, to conquer Lombardy, in ad 773–4; he attempted to realize the restoration of the Roman Empire (‘renovatio Romanorum imperii’) by reviving the culture of ancient Rome, more specifically that of Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor. Charlemagne was crowned emperor in Rome by Pope Leo III in 800. Throughout his dominions, assisted by a group of advisers largely composed of international scholars, he re-established high standards of Classical and biblical studies. He ruled with the assistance of churchmen, and the reform of the Frankish Church, in particular the imposition of the Roman liturgy, generated the need for buildings, paintings, books, furnishings, and vestments. Charlemagne’s buildings included imperial residences, cathedrals, and monasteries. One of the earliest and most important examples of ...


(b Frankfurt am Main, June 13, 823; reg 840–877; d nr Nantua, Oct 6, 877).

Frankish emperor and patron. The grandson of Charlemagne, he was one of the most prolific patrons of the early Middle Ages. He became king of the western portion of the Carolingian empire in ad 843 on the death of his father, Louis the Pious (reg 814–40). His patronage began soon after 843, when his position was affirmed by the Treaty of Verdun, and it continued until his death. This coincidence of rule and patronage was not accidental; for Charles the Bald artistic patronage and political activity were inseparable. He was the most important Carolingian patron, not only on account of the number of objects made for him and their material and intellectual richness but also for the range of his patronage. He commissioned luxurious works in architecture (his palatine chapel at Compiègne (destr.) seems to have been a copy of Charlemagne’s chapel at Aachen), manuscript illumination, ivory-carving, and metalwork from every important artistic centre of the later Carolingian period. The ...



James D’Emilio

Legal document typically written in documentary script on a single parchment sheet and authenticated by subscriptions, notarial signs or seals. In archives, originals were sometimes stitched into booklets or rolls. Notarial charters were registered, while deeds of ecclesiastical and civil institutions were copied in cartularies organized by place, date or issuer. Charters include contracts, property transactions, marriage agreements, dispute settlements, official privileges and decrees.

Besides their value as historical documents, collections of early medieval charters, such as those at St Gall, Lucca or Catalonia, furnish insights into law, literacy and linguistic change. In the mid- to late Middle Ages, the texts, scripts and physical features of papal bulls, charters from monastic or episcopal scriptoria, and the burgeoning output of royal chanceries and civil notaries chart pathways of education and cultural exchange geographically and through social strata. In relation to medieval art, charters have fourfold importance. As historical sources, some document artists, patrons or artworks. Signed and dated originals of known provenance help to date manuscripts and reveal practices of scribes and scriptoria responsible for book production and illumination. In contrast with the dearth of medieval artists’ signatures, signed charters represent a sizeable corpus of securely attributed work with ample contextual information that facilitates study of individual style and artistic careers. Lastly, some are of artistic interest for their execution in a book hand or embellishment with decoration comparable to that in manuscripts: decorated lettering; calligraphic flourishes; the chrismon, cross and other religious symbols; validation signs, monograms and seals; and, rarely, illuminations....


Carol Michaelson


Chinese dynasty that ruled in southern China between ad 557 and 589. It was the last of the so-called Six Dynasties (222–589), who were the ‘legitimate’ successors to the Han dynasty (206 bcad 220) and made Jiankang (now Nanjing) their capital.

In 557 Chen Baxian (later Emperor Wudi; reg 557–9) deposed the Liang (502–57) emperor and established the Chen dynasty. The government attempted to resuscitate the economy but the area under its rule was the smallest of the southern dynasties, with fewer territories than its predecessors and a northern border reaching only to the southern bank of the Yangzi River. The Chen government was strong enough initially to resist incursions by the Northern Qi (550–77) and Northern Zhou (557–81) but was not in a position to take advantage of the divisions in the north.

Jiankang continued to be a cultural and political centre to which merchants and Buddhist missionaries came from South-east Asia and India, and it became one of the world’s greatest cities. The capital was also a major Buddhist centre; several Buddhist temples, many of them caves or niches, had been constructed in the preceding Liang period. To the north-east of the city lay an imperial burial ground, notable for its carved tomb guardians in the form of chimeras (...


Joan Stanley-Baker

[Li Ch’eng; zi Xianxi; hao Yingqiu]

(b ad 919; d 967).

Chinese painter. His ancestors, members of the imperial clan, were natives of Chang’an (now Xi’an, Shaanxi Province), the Tang-dynasty (ad 618–907) capital. During disturbances at the end of the 9th century the clan split into two branches. Li’s grandfather, who settled in Qingzhou (now Shandong), and his father both held official posts. From 956 to 958 Li was in government service in Bianliang (now Kaifeng), at the invitation of his friend Wang Pu, then Commissioner of Military Affairs for Emperor Shizong (reg 944–54). Li came to know many important scholar–officials, but, despondent after the death of Wang, took to poetry, music, painting and drink. His paintings became sought after, but he remained at first socially aloof. Later he became a habitual wanderer, until, some time after 964, he accepted an invitation to live in Huaiyang (Henan Province), where he died of overindulgence in wine.

Li Cheng exemplifies the Chinese phenomenon of a profoundly admired artist whose true style was, within a century of his death, obscured by unreliable attributions, the relationships of which to the original can no longer be determined. His fame was established early in the Northern Song period (...


Yu. P. Kalashnik

[now Khersmes]

Site on the south-west of the Crimean peninsula, near Sevastopol’. Its position on the Black Sea trade routes determined its commercial importance. It was founded by the people of Herakleia Pontica jointly with the Delians c. 422/421 bc and became an important state in the 4th and 3rd centuries bc after assimilating the fertile lands of north-west Crimea. From the 3rd century bc, however, the expansion of the Scythian kingdom led to the contraction of the city’s territory. In the first centuries ad Chersonesos lost its independence, becoming subordinate to the neighbouring kingdom of the Bosporus and the administration of the Roman province of Lower Moesia; a garrison of Roman troops was stationed in the city. In the late 4th century ad Chersonesos became part of the Byzantine empire, and from the late 10th century it played an important part in the spread of Christianity in Kievan Russia. In the 13th century the city was destroyed by enemy attack....


Kirit Mankodi

Village 50 km east of Chamba (see Chamba) in Himachal Pradesh, India. It is renowned for a wooden temple of Shaktidevi, the nucleus of which dates to the 9th century ad. The original portions consist of the sanctum, 12-pillared hall and ceiling. The pillars have square shafts, pot-and-foliage capitals and brackets with flying figures; the doorframes are carved with representations of Hindu deities; and the compartmented ceiling is decorated with lotuses and flying celestials. The carving of the figures, characteristic of Chamba and Kashmir, shows pronounced pectoral muscles, deep navels and elongated trefoil crowns. The temple stands at the site of a 7th-century ad shrine built by Meruvarman of the Varman dynasty of Brahmaur. The inscribed image of Shaktidevi, commissioned by Meruvarman and cast by the artist Gugga (see Indian subcontinent, §V, 7, (ii)), was reinstated in the temple when it was reconstructed in the 9th century. Other metal and stone images, as well as fountain stones in the village, testify to continuous art activity at Chhatradi over many centuries....


Jeff Karl Kowalski

Site of Pre-Columbian Maya and Toltec city in the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico. It flourished during the Post-Classic period (c. ad 900–1521). Chichén Itzá (‘mouth of the well of the Itzá’) is named after its ‘Sacred Cenote’, a natural limestone sinkhole that served as a focus for pilgrimages and sacrificial offerings. Close artistic correspondences between Chichén Itzá and Tula in Hidalgo have suggested that the Central-Highland Mesoamericans invaded Yucatán and forced the local Maya to construct buildings and carve sculptures featuring their own forms and motifs. Central Mexican architectural elements include colonnaded structures, serpent columns, and balustrades, and walls with sloping base sections (see Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian, §III). Sculptures show a preference for serial group arrangements and narrative compositions. Warrior figures with ‘pillbox’ headdresses, butterfly pectorals, and atlatls (spearthrowers) are prominent, along with depictions of warrior animal totems (jaguars and eagles), chacmools (reclining offertory figures), and Central Mexican gods such as Tezcatlipoca and Tlalchitonatiuh (...



Jenny Albani and Margaret Lyttleton

[anc. Pityoussa]

Greek island lying 8 km off the coast of Turkey and 56 km south of Lesbos in the Eastern Sporades. One of the larger Greek islands, it is 48 km long north–south and 13–24 km wide east–west, with a mountain range running the length of the island; it has a population of nearly 100,000. Its most impressive architectural remains belong to the Early Christian, Byzantine and Genoese periods. The principal museums, in Chios city, are the Archaeological Museum, the Adamantios Korais Library and the Ethnological and Folklore Museum.

The earliest evidence of settlement is the Neolithic level uncovered by the British School at Athens during excavations (1952–5) of the harbour town of Emporio. According to tradition the island was colonized by the Ionians in the 11th century bc, and it is claimed to be the birthplace of Homer (c. 800 bc). In the 6th and 5th centuries ...


Joan K. Lingen

Pre-Columbian culture of the Isthmian region of Latin America (classed archaeologically as part of the Intermediate area; see South America, Pre-Columbian, §II). Due to the paucity of archaeological investigation, the full geographic extent of Chiriquí material culture is not known. Chiriquí materials have been found in western Panama in Chiriquí Province and part of Bocas del Toro Province, and in south-eastern Costa Rica in the Pacific coastal region of Diquís and parts of Puntarenas and San José provinces. Thus the northern extent may be defined by the Talamanca and central mountain ranges of Costa Rica and Panama. The western and eastern boundaries are uncertain: Chiriquí-like materials have been found almost as far west as Quepos in south-central Costa Rica and as far east as the Veraguas River (Río Tabasara) in central Panama. The territory thus defined is extremely varied, having jagged coastlines with peninsulas, gulfs, bays, and deltas, and mountain ranges up to 4000 m high. A range of wet and dry tropical and temperate climates provided numerous ecological niches in which cultures developed. The Spanish entered the region in the mid-16th century. By the 19th century large collections of Pre-Columbian pottery, carved stonework, and metalwork had been made, including the ...


Walter Smith

[Chitorgarh; anc. Citrakuta]

Fort and temple site in southern Rajasthan, India. The name possibly derives from that of its 7th-century ad founder, Chitrangada Maurya. The only artistic remains from this time are some late Gupta-style reliefs incorporated into the 14th-century Annapurna Temple. In the 8th century the Sisodia Rajputs established Chittaurgarh as the capital of Mewar. Of the 8th-century Surya Temple and contemporary structures only the foundations and lower walls remain; stylistically, these relate to the temples of Osian and the Teli ka Mandir of Gwalior. The fort, at the summit of a steep hill about 165 m high, also dates from the 8th century, with many subsequent additions and renovations. It is approached by a series of seven gates (with foundations dating from as early as 1100) leading up a precipitous path. The final gate, the Ram Pol, was built by Rana Kumbha (reg 1433–68) in 1459 and has a corbelled arch and flanking towers with traditional Hindu ornamentation; in form it resembles the early 12th-century gates at ...


John Lowden

Byzantine illuminated manuscript (Moscow, Hist. Mus. MS. D.29). It is a small Marginal Psalter (195×150 mm) of 169 folios, in which broad spaces were left blank on the outer edges of the pages to be filled with numerous unframed illustrations, glossing the biblical text in various ways (see Early Christian and Byzantine art, §V, 2, (iv), (f)). The original text and captions to the illustrations were elegantly written in a small uncial script around the mid-9th century ad. In the 12th century, however, most of the text was crudely overwritten in minuscule, giving the book a messy appearance. This evidence of continued use over a long period is also reflected in the state of the miniatures, many of which are heavily worn and flaked, yet the manuscript is still more complete than two other roughly contemporary Psalters (Paris, Bib. N., MS. grec 20; Mt Athos, Pantokrator Monastery, MS. 61)....



J. Marr


Dynasty in south India that was prominent until the 13th century ad. The Cholas, best known for their patronage of temple architecture, were one of the principal royal lineages of the Tamil country. They are mentioned in the edicts of Ashoka (3rd century bc) and figure in the earliest Tamil literature (1st–4th century ad). However, little archaeological evidence exists for the Cholas before the 9th century ad. The first ruler, Vijayalaya (reg c. 846–71), captured Thanjavur from his Pallava overlords. Aditya I (reg c. 871–907) annexed the Pallava kingdom in Tondaimandalam (now Tamil Nadu) in 903, and Parantaka I (reg c. 907–55) attacked and conquered the Pandya rulers of Madurai. The two greatest Chola rulers were Rajaraja I (reg 985–1014) and his son Rajendra I (reg 1012–44), made co-regent in 1012. Apart from their conquests, which extended from Sri Lanka to Sumatra, they were responsible for splendid temple buildings. That at Thanjavur, the ...