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Article

David M. Jones

Archaeological zone in north-west Arizona. Pre-Columbian sites in Canyon de Chelly are attributed to the Anasazi culture (c. 200 bcc. ad 1350) and were built between the 12th and 14th centuries ad when the Anasazi began to abandon their scattered small hamlets on cliff tops for fewer but larger settlements of cliff dwellings. These were constructed in the steep-sided, stream-cut main and subsidiary canyons with numerous overhanging cliffs; on the shelves of such overhangs the Anasazi built blocks of apartment-like structures constructed of adobe bricks or stone blocks (e.g. White House ruins). The removal of the Anasazi from plateau dwellings to cliff dwellings may have been for defence as aggression increased between groups (see also Mesa Verde). The earliest rooms often became storage rooms as later dwellings were built above and in front of them. The blocks were multi-storey and terraced, with access between terraces by wooden ladders. Inter-storey floors–ceilings were made with log rafters. Walls had key-hole and trapezoidal doorways and in some cases square windows. Open spaces in front of the blocks were excavated and filled to create level ceremonial areas, and circular, semi-subterranean ...

Article

Rachel Hachlili

[Capharnaum, Kafarnaum; now Kefar Nahum]

Town located on the north-west shore of the Sea of Galilee (Lake Kinneret), Israel. Mentioned in the New Testament as a place visited by Jesus, it is traditionally held to have been the home of St Peter. Two synagogues have been identified in Capernaum, the second built on the remains of the first, as well as an octagonal area thought to be the site of a church of St Peter, built where his house was believed to have stood. The town was destroyed in the 7th century ad.

The earlier synagogue, dated to the 1st century ad, has been tentatively identified with the synagogue at Capernaum, the building of which is mentioned in Luke 7:5. Excavators have found a basalt cobbled pavement and several basalt walls, which run under the south wall and the east and west stylobates of the main hall of the later limestone synagogue. Benches along the walls are assumed, but no entrance has been found. The dating of the limestone synagogue is in dispute. In ...

Article

Capreae  

R. J. A. Wilson

[now Capri]

Island in the Bay of Naples, Italy. Its name is derived from the ancient Greek for ‘boar’. The island remained insignificant until the emperor Augustus (reg 30 bcad 14) visited it in 29 bc and fell in love with it; he and his successor, Tiberius (reg ad 14–37), who withdrew from public life to live there permanently between ad 27 and 31, constructed a number of villas there—12 if Tacitus is to be believed—of which there are substantial surviving remains of three. Least well preserved, but the favoured residence of Augustus, is the ‘Palazzo a Mare’ in the middle of the north coast, spread out on a series of terraces over a strip c. 800 m long and 200 m wide. The main residential block lies to the east with a bath suite immediately behind it; there is also an adjacent artificial harbour for ease of access....

Article

Caracol  

Arlen F. Chase and Diane Z. Chase

Site of one of the largest Pre-Columbian Maya cities, on the eastern edge of the Maya mountains in the Vaca Plateau, Belize. It was occupied from c. 300 bc to ad 1250 and remained active during the Maya hiatus of c. ad 550–650. Although some distance from water, it had easy access to resources in the Maya mountains. Caracol was discovered in 1938 and first explored by Linton Satterthwaite (University of Pennsylvania) and A. Hamilton Anderson (first archaeological commissioner of Belize) in the 1950s. The central part of the site was mapped, several buildings and tombs were excavated, and a series of carved stone monuments was discovered. The iconography of the monuments indicates that Caracol developed a distinct regional style during the Early Classic period (c. ad 250–c. 600); this style was subsequently adopted in much of the Maya region. A. F. Chase and D. Z. Chase have documented the dominance of Caracol during the so-called Maya hiatus of ...

Article

Caria  

Ancient country in south-west Asia Minor (now Turkey), south of the Maeander (Menderes) River and west of modern Fethiye (excepting the coastal cities of Ionia). The Carians claimed to be an indigenous people of mainland Asia Minor, though in Greek tradition they were originally islanders. Until the 4th century bc they lived mainly in mountain villages organized into local federations and grouped around sanctuaries such as that of Carian Zeus at Mylasa (Milas). The Carian language is imperfectly understood, owing to a paucity of surviving inscriptions. The script is alphabetic, and some forms are the same as Greek letters, but surviving fragments are virtually unintelligible, and it is not even certain that the language is Indo-European.

Minoan, Mycenaean and Greek colonization of the region touched only the coasts, leaving the interior Carian until the arrival of the Romans. At Muskebi, near Halikarnassos (Bodrum), there is evidence of Mycenaean settlement, possibly refugees from the upheavals of the Greek mainland at the end of the Bronze Age; Minoan imports found at ...

Article

Simon P. Ellis

Ruined city on the North African coast at the end of a narrow peninsula pointing into the Bay of Tunis. Now an archaeological site at the edge of Tunis itself, Carthage was founded, according to legend, by the Phoenician queen Elyssa in 814 bc. It became a major Mediterranean power until its destruction by the Romans in 146 bc. Carthage flourished as a Roman city, Christianity reaching it by the 2nd century ad. The city was revived by Emperor Justinian, but it was finally destroyed by the Arabs in ad 698.

For later history see Tunis.

In the 6th and 5th centuries bc the city’s interventions in disputes between the Greek and Phoenician city states of Sicily made Carthage the leading western Phoenician colony, and it formed a close alliance with the Etruscans. From the 5th century bc the Carthaginians spread into the African hinterland, eventually controlling the area that is today the northern half of Tunisia. They also concluded three alliances with the newly emergent power of Rome. Further conflict in Sicily, however, precipitated (...

Article

Susanne Juliane Warma

(Rome)

Susanne Juliane Warma

Mausoleum of Hadrian erected on the right bank of the Tiber opposite the Campus Martius (see fig.). It was begun by Hadrian in ad 130 and completed in ad 139, the year after his death, by his successor, Antoninus Pius, who dedicated it to the deified Emperor. It served as a sepulchre for Hadrian and Sabina, their adopted son L. Aelius Caesar, the Antonines until Commodus, and Caracalla, who in ad 217 became the final emperor entombed here. The original appearance of the tumulus-shaped building can be reconstructed from ancient descriptions and Renaissance drawings (which indicate that the sculptural decorations were influenced by those of the Temple of Venus and Rome, ad 135) as well as modern archaeology. Constructed of concrete and travertine and faced with marble, it consisted of a square podium-like base that supported the main drum, the top of which was planted with cypress trees. Above the drum’s centre rose a smaller base and drum crowned with statuary, probably Hadrian in a four-horse chariot. The building was surrounded by a pedestrian pavement and enclosed by a low wall with a gilt railing, which was supported by marble pillars topped with gilt peacocks. A bridge, the Pons Aelius (ded. ...

Article

John Osborne

(Rome)

Subterranean cemeteries outside the walls of Rome, which were in continuous use from the 2nd to the 6th centuries ce (see also Catacomb). The soft volcanic tufa of the region lends itself well to excavation, and when Roman burial practice shifted from cremation to inhumation in the 2nd century ce, the need for more space led to the extension of cemeteries underground. Approximately 40 catacombs are known, ranging in size from a single burial chamber (cubiculum) for the use of one family to vast multi-level networks of underground passages and cubicula. Although such cemeteries were used by the adherents of many faiths that practiced inhumation, the majority can be identified as Christian, particularly in the years following the legitimization of Christianity by Emperor Constantine I in 313. One of the oldest and largest catacombs is that of St Calixtus on the Via Appia Antica. Named after the future pope, who as a deacon was charged with overseeing the Christian cemeteries in the time of Pope Zephyrinus (...

Article

J. V. S. Megaw and M. Ruth Megaw

Style of European Iron Age art (see also Prehistoric Europe, §VI). The term is used to describe the distinctive art produced by the La Tène culture (named after the site of La Tène in Switzerland), which flourished c. 450–c. 50 bc in temperate continental Europe, extending to c. ad 600 in Britain and Ireland. (The Iron Age or Celto-Iberian art of Spain and Portugal is not considered here; see Iberian art.) The term Celtic art is also sometimes considered to include the later phase of the Hallstatt culture (c. 750–c. 450 bc) and the much later Early Christian art of Britain and Ireland (c. ad 450 onwards), which was greatly influenced by prehistoric La Tène art (see Insular art).

The Celts, according to Greek and Roman writers, were one of the great barbarian peoples of Europe. They cannot be easily defined on a racial or linguistic basis; indeed, the very name Keltoi was imposed on them by outsiders and not generally used by themselves. Although it is usually assumed that the material culture of the ...

Article

M. Guardia

Early Christian mausoleum in Catalonia, Spain, with an outstanding 4th-century mosaic cycle. It is situated 5 km north of Tarragona, which, as Tarraco, was the capital of the Hispano-Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis. Excavations between 1959 and 1970 by Schlunk and Hauschild revealed that it was built within the living quarters of a Roman suburban villa, which was extensively remodelled during the 4th century. An adjacent room may also have been a mausoleum. Its ground-plan comprises a double-shell design, consisting of a circular core (diam. 10.7 m) and a quadrangular outer shell with an apse at each corner. A stairway leads down from the mausoleum’s centre to a barrel-vaulted burial crypt and sub-crypt or chamber, which insulated the crypt from the damp subsoil. The mausoleum is built in brick and concrete and has a domed roof 13.6 m high; the construction of the dome has parallels in eastern Roman architecture. It is lit by two windows in the mausoleum’s north and south sides and by the main northern entrance....

Article

Chach  

Yu. F. Buryakov

[Sogdian-Pers. Chach, Chachstan; Arab. Shāsh; Chin. Shi, Chzheshi]

Ancient state centred on the Tashkent Oasis on the north bank of the Syr River in Uzbekistan. From medieval times its chief city has been known increasingly as Tashkent. Although the small domain of Chach was assimilated by a semi-nomadic state in the first centuries bc, the name Chach is first attested in the Sasanian inscription at Naqsh-i Rustam (ad 262) near Persepolis and subsequently found at Dunhuang (4th century), Afrasiab (Old Samarkand; 7th century) and in Chinese and Arabic sources. From the 3rd to the 7th century Chach was a small but powerful kingdom of farmers and herders linked to the nomads of the steppe. Agriculture was made possible by an advanced irrigation system comprising more than 50 canals. Gold, silver, copper and turquoise were mined in the mountain and steppe regions, and 13 mountain communities dating from antiquity have been discovered as well as 30 from the medieval period. In the northern regions the economy developed along the great Silk Route....

Article

Robert J. Sharer

Pre-Columbian Maya site in the south-western Maya Highlands of El Salvador, c. 120 km south-east of Kaminaljuyú. Set at an altitude of c. 700 m, Chalchuapa comprises four main architectural groups—El Trapiche, Casa Blanca, Pampe, and Tazumal—in addition to other areas of ancient remains covering a total area of c. 3 sq. km. Initial excavation and restoration of the Tazumal group was conducted by S. H. Boggs in 1950, and the entire site was investigated by Robert Sharer on behalf of the Chalchuapa Project of the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, in 1966–70. The latter project documented sedentary occupation at Chalchuapa from c. 1200 bc to the Spanish Conquest of 1521, with a severe decline following the Ilopango volcanic eruption of c. ad 200. Major architectural and sculptural development began in the Middle Pre-Classic period (c. 1000–c. 300 bc) and culminated by the end of the Late Pre-Classic period (...

Article

Erberto F. Lo Bue

[Cāṅgū Nārāyaṇa; Newari Cāṅguṃ; Skt Dolādri, Dolagīri, Dolāśikhara: ‘Hill of the Palanquin’]

Temple site at Changu Village, Bagmati Province, Nepal. Changu Narayan is the earliest and most famous of four Vishnu temples that, according to tradition, protect the Kathmandu Valley. It is mentioned in a long panegyric inscribed on the stone victory pillar erected in front of its main doorway in ad 464. The temple was destroyed by earthquake and fire, and rebuilt and restored several times. The gilt copper portraits of King Bhupalendra Malla of Kathmandu and of the Queen Mother Riddhilakshmi, who reconstructed it in 1694, are enshrined opposite the main doorway. The present structure was completed in 1708, after a fire had destroyed the temple six years earlier, and was restored again after the earthquake of 1934. Its two storeys are supported by wooden struts carved with figures of Vaishnavite gods and masters. The upper roof was covered with gilt copper slabs in 1834. There are four triple doorways opening in the brick walls, and elaborately carved frameworks, brackets and panels surrounding them. Those on the western side are covered with gilt copper sheets over the wood-carvings....

Article

(fl c. 300 bc).

Greek sculptor. A pupil of Lysippos, he was best known for the bronze Colossus that stood by the harbour in the main town on Rhodes (it probably did not straddle the harbour, as was believed in the Middle Ages). The statue was paid for by the sale of siege machinery left behind by Demetrios Poliorcetes when he unsuccessfully besieged the town in 305–304 bc. Little is known about the Colossus, though it is briefly described by Pliny (Natural History XXXIV.xviii.41) and Philo (On the Seven Wonders of the World IV). It stood over 100 feet high and represented Helios, the sun god, with a radiate crown. Having taken more than 12 years to complete, the statue appears to have stood for less than a century; an earthquake overturned it in 227–226 bc, and the remains were plundered in the Middle Ages, carried away to Edessa in Turkey. The head of the statue may be reproduced on Rhodian Helios coins of the 4th and 3rd centuries ...

Article

E. Errington

[Chārsada; anc. Pushkalavati]

Town at the confluence of the Kabul and Swat rivers, some 27 km north-east of Peshawar, Pakistan. Pushkalavati, a capital of the ancient region of Gandhara, is mentioned in the Rāmāyaṇa epic as having been founded at the same time as Taxila. In 327 bc the city surrendered after a short siege to part of Alexander the Great’s army under Hephaistion and was garrisoned by Macedonian troops. The site associated with these events is Bala Hisar, a large settlement mound (about 241×201×17.5 m) of the 6th–1st century bc, to the north-west of Charsadda. The Indo-Greek city at Shaikhan Dheri, north of Bala Hisar, flourished c. 150 bcad 150. Flooding forced a move eastwards across the Swat River to Shahr-i-napursan. This extensive, largely unexcavated site is the probable location of the city visited by the Chinese pilgrims Songyun (ad 519–20) and Xuanzang (632), for superficial investigations suggest that occupation continued until the 10th century....

Article

T. W. Potter

[Phoen. Iol; Lat. Caesarea; Fr. Charachel]

Algerian seaport with a sheltered anchorage and a hinterland of fertile valleys, set amid high mountains. It was settled at least as early as 600 bc, probably by Carthaginians, who called it Iol. It rapidly grew into a prosperous trading post that had town defences by 200 bc. Its most illustrious ruler was Juba II of Mauretania (reg 25 bcad 23), who, educated in Rome and a friend of Augustus, sought to make his city as Greco-Roman in appearance as possible. Iol was renamed Caesarea, and, with the help of imported craftsmen, many public buildings of Roman type were built, including a theatre, an amphitheatre, a forum, a palace and huge town walls. Juba also acquired much fine Classical sculpture (Cherchel, Mus. Archéol.) and some ancient Egyptian objects.

In ad 40 Caesarea was made capital of the province of Mauretania Caesariensis, and under Claudius (reg ad 41–54) it was awarded colonial rank. Its continued prosperity is attested by the remains of a 45 km-long aqueduct, probably built in Hadrian’s reign (...

Article

Yu. P. Kalashnik

[now Khersmes]

Site on the south-west of the Crimean peninsula, near Sevastopol’. Its position on the Black Sea trade routes determined its commercial importance. It was founded by the people of Herakleia Pontica jointly with the Delians c. 422/421 bc and became an important state in the 4th and 3rd centuries bc after assimilating the fertile lands of north-west Crimea. From the 3rd century bc, however, the expansion of the Scythian kingdom led to the contraction of the city’s territory. In the first centuries ad Chersonesos lost its independence, becoming subordinate to the neighbouring kingdom of the Bosporus and the administration of the Roman province of Lower Moesia; a garrison of Roman troops was stationed in the city. In the late 4th century ad Chersonesos became part of the Byzantine empire, and from the late 10th century it played an important part in the spread of Christianity in Kievan Russia. In the 13th century the city was destroyed by enemy attack....

Article

Walter Smith

[Cezerla]

Temple site in south-eastern Andhra Pradesh, India. Tools dating to the Palaeolithic period (c. 600,000–c. 50,000 bp) have been found here, but Chezarla is best known for the Kapoteshvara Temple, an apsidal brick structure with a corbelled vault measuring about 7.0×3.5 m (see Indian subcontinent, §III, 4, (ii), (c)). Excavations conducted from the 1970s have revealed a moulded plinth comparable to examples at Nagarjunakonda and related sites of the 3rd or 4th century ad. A prevalent opinion has been that the temple was first built as a Buddhist prayer-hall (Skt caitya) and converted to Shaiva usage in the 5th or 6th century ad. However, since recent excavations have revealed no Buddhist relics or images, the temple may have originally been Shaiva; if so, it is one of India’s earliest surviving temples with this dedication. By the 5th–6th century various additions had been made to the temple, including an entrance corridor, an audience hall and a porch preceded by a small pavilion containing an image of Shiva’s vehicle, the bull Nandi. The Kapoteshvara is the main shrine in a walled compound containing about 25 smaller temples of varying dates, along with open-air platforms with ...

Article

Cholula  

David M. Jones and Jaime Litvak King

Pre-Columbian site in Mexico, about 10 km south-west of the city of Puebla in north-central Puebla State. A huge Mesoamerican city and place of religious pilgrimage, it flourished throughout the Classic and Post-Classic periods (c. ad 250–1521). Its period of continuous occupation was one of the longest among sites in central Mexico, although there may have been a short hiatus in the Early Post-Classic period (c. ad 900–c. 1200). Pre-Columbian occupation in the vicinity began c. 600 bc and continued to the Spanish Conquest, after which Cholula became an important colonial city. The major period of monumental construction was between the 1st century ad and the 8th century. The city described and conquered by Cortés in 1519 was to the north-east of the Great Pyramid.

The Great Pyramid appears today as a large hill. It was surveyed in 1847 by the American Robert E. Lee and excavated by ...

Article

Muriel Porter-Weaver

Pre-Columbian site in Mexico, formerly on the Lerma River in southern Guanajuato, c. 129 km north-west of Mexico City. It gives its name to a distinctive ceramic style that flourished in the region during the Late Pre-Classic period (c. 300 bcc. ad 250). For many years large quantities of brightly coloured ceramics and human figurines were found in the region by pot-hunters and sold commercially. In 1946–7 the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia conducted excavations near Chupícuaro village at the confluence of the Lerma River and a small tributary. When the Solís Dam was completed in 1949, the village and excavated hilltop were flooded by the newly formed lake. Archaeological remains are still reported occasionally from the general area.

Chupícuaro was a farming community with a ceramic industry. Its art style spread to central and western Mexico along the Lerma River and to the north, perhaps as far as the south-western USA. Fragments of burnt adobe floors, fire-pits (Náhuatl ...