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Carl Van de Velde



Maria Concepción García Sáiz

Italian family of engineers and architects. They were active in Spain and Spanish America in the service of the Spanish Habsburgs from 1559 to 1650. The most prominent member of the family was Juan Bautista Antonelli the elder (b Gaeteo, Italy, c. 1530; d Madrid, 17 March 1588), who settled in Spain from 1559 while working in the employ of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Most of his fortification works were carried out in the coastal south-east of Spain, where several members of his family settled, although he also worked in Oran and particularly in Portugal as a strategist and engineer. Many of his projects were not realized, including the creation of a navigable river network throughout the Iberian peninsula to facilitate the transport of merchandise from the ports to the interior. Several fortification plans for the Magellan Straits also failed to materialize.

Bautista Antonelli (b Rimini, ...



Leonor Ferrão

(bapt Lisbon, Sept 30, 1643; d Lisbon, Nov 25, 1712).

Portuguese architect and master mason. He worked in the context of a national tradition marked by Mannerism and the Plain style (see Portugal, Republic of, §II, 2), but he also contributed to the progressive acceptance of new Baroque concepts of space in Portugal, as shown in the use of polygonal plans. He gave a festive and sumptuous treatment to the interiors of his buildings, using inlay of coloured jasper or marble, which is sometimes combined with carved and gilded woodwork (talha) and blue and white azulejos (glazed tiles). Antunes probably learnt these intarsia techniques from the examples of the decorations (c. 1665–92; destr. 1755) of the nave and chancel of the church of the convent of S Antão-o-Novo, Lisbon, and those (1668–c. 1707) of the sacristy of the convent church of S Vicente de Fora, Lisbon. In 1670 Antunes was admitted to the Irmandade de S José dos Carpinteiros e Pedreiros in Lisbon, which gave him professional status as master mason. In ...


Gordon Campbell

Small silver spoon, the handle of which ends with an apostle figure. Such spoons were manufactured in England and Germany from the late 15th century to the late 17th and were the usual present of sponsors at baptisms. When manufactured in sets of 13, the handle of the ‘master spoon’ was a figure of Jesus....


Gordon Campbell

Italian family of gunsmiths, active in the village of Bargi (near Bologna) from the mid-17th century, when Sebastiano Aqua Fresca was making guns, until 1809, when Pietro Antonio Aqua Fresca died. The most prominent member of the family was Matteo Aqua Fresca (1651–1738), a superb steel-chiseller and engraver who specialized in gun locks but also made steel snuff-boxes....


Juan Nicolau

[Arche, Jozef de]

(b ?Flanders; d Seville, 1666).

Flemish sculptor, active in Spain. He arrived in Seville sometime before 1637, having had experience of both the Flemish and the Italian Baroque traditions. He introduced important changes to Andalusian sculpture, which departed from the naturalism characteristic of early national Baroque to convey figures in movement, clothed in flowing robes, with wind-blown hair. Arce’s work in Seville led to a movement away from the imitative style of the pupils of Juan Martínez Montañés.

In 1637 Arce received an important commission for the principal altarpiece of the Carthusian monastery of Jerez de la Frontera, a retable composed of sculpture and paintings (1638–9) by Francisco de Zurbarán. The completed scheme must have been one of the most beautiful in 17th-century Spain. It was dismantled in the 19th century, when the paintings were dispersed to various museums and the large, richly polychromed figures by Arce, including the fine Twelve Apostles, were retained in the monastery....


Marcus Burke

(bapt Madrid, March 1, 1607; d after 1678).

Spanish collector and patron. He was a court functionary closely connected with commerce in precious objects, silver, gold and jewellery. His interesting picture collection indicates his decidedly Italianate taste and connoisseurship. It grew from a modest but select group of works in 1643 to a large collection in 1664 of tapestries, jewellery, objets d’art and over 200 paintings, including Diego de Velázquez’s ‘The Weavers’ (Fable of Arachne) (c. 1657; Madrid, Prado), first recorded in an inventory of Arce’s collection in 1664, and a Holy Trinity by Jusepe de Ribera (possibly the painting of 1632–6; Madrid, Prado). Arce was also a patron of the Italo-Spanish painter Angelo Nardi (he had five to eight works by 1657).

The extensive documents of Arce’s financial affairs offer a glimpse into Spanish middle-class life in the 17th century. Included are matters relating to his custody of the children of his first wife by a previous marriage; the elaborate arrangements separating his estate from those of his two wives, their children by him and by previous husbands, and other relatives; and the attempts of his son to enter the ranks of the lesser aristocracy....


Giorgio Tabarroni

Italian family of patrons and collectors. They were one of the wealthiest and most celebrated patrician families of Milan. The earliest records of them date from 1228, when they made lavish donations to the monastery of Chiaravalle, near Milan. Giuseppe Archinto (i) (d 1476), Chancellor under Duke Galeazzo Maria Sforza (reg 1466–76), added to the family’s wealth. His grandson Francesco Archinto (d 1551), a jurist, was the favoured commissary of Louis XII in the area of Chiavenna; a portrait of him, preserved by the family, is attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. Francesco’s cousin Filippo Archinto (1500–58) was appointed Senator by Duke Francesco Maria Sforza and in 1530 represented Milan at the coronation of the Emperor Charles V in Bologna. Filippo held various Imperial posts, including that of Ambassador to Rome, where Pope Paul III ordained him Bishop. In 1566 the Pope appointed him Archbishop of Milan, in which capacity his portrait (...


Françoise de la Moureyre

(b Cunq, Tarn, 1655; d Toulouse, Oct 26, 1739).

French sculptor. He trained in Toulouse, where he received his first official commission in 1677. This was for 30 terracotta busts representing famous men of Toulouse, together with a bust of Louis XIV for the Galerie des Illustres of the Capitole (Hôtel de Ville; 21 still in situ). From 1678 to 1688 Arcis was employed by the Bâtiments du Roi, collaborating on the sculptural decorations for the château of Versailles. These included a stone statue personifying Reason of State on the south wing, as well as a marble vase and term figure of Flora for the gardens (all in situ). In 1684 he was received (reçu) by the Académie Royale on presentation of a marble low relief of St Mark (Versailles, Notre-Dame). The following year the city of Toulouse commissioned a bronze equestrian statue of Louis XIV, raised on a high base with four low reliefs and four seated statues of slaves; this did not progress beyond a terracotta model (Toulouse, Mus. Augustins). In ...


Natividad Galindo

(b ?Madrid, ?1635; d Madrid, Aug 9, 1704).

Spanish painter. Born deaf and dumb, he was a pupil of Antonio de Pereda and was known as ‘el sordillo de Pereda’. He was a prolific artist, although his many signed works are of unequal quality, largely because in his mature years his wife frequently obtained commissions at a low price. These compositions were copied from prints in his studio and were then only retouched or signed by Arco. Other works of higher quality and excellent technique show Pereda’s influence, particularly in the treatment of still-life objects. The human figures that he portrayed, however, usually represent a characteristic type, with a triangular-shaped face and large, bulging eyes. He was a typical representative of the Madrid school and was also a good colourist.

Arco painted mainly in oil but also used tempera and fresco, e.g. his fresco decoration of the Camarín of the hermitage of La Virgen de la Oliva, Almonacid de Toledo, with scenes from the ...



(b Milan, before 1592; d after Oct 4, 1648).

Italian collector. He is best known for his collection of works by Leonardo da Vinci. He owned 12 small Leonardo notebooks as well as the Codex Atlanticus, which he donated to the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan, in 1637, and several cartoons, among them the Virgin and Child with St Anne, known as the Burlington House Cartoon (London, N.G.), and a standing Leda (untraced). Inventories of the Arconati collection and Edward Wright’s travel diary (1730) reveal that he had also owned the 11 coloured chalk drawings (e.g. Chapel Hill, U. NC, Ackland A. Mus.; Melbourne, N.G. Victoria) after Leonardo’s Last Supper (Milan, S Maria delle Grazie), attributed to Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio (Brown), and also paintings by Raphael and Andrea del Sarto. During the 1630s Arconati corresponded with Cassiano dal Pozzo, who was trying to procure Leonardo manuscripts for the Barberini library and to prepare compilations of Leonardo’s writings for publication. Passages on mechanics, hydraulics, light and shadow and perspective and additional chapters on painting were collected into ‘treatises’ by Arconati with the help of his son, ...


(b Rome, ?1575; d Rome, 1635).

Italian painter and architect. He was a courtier–artist in the service of Cardinal Camillo Borghese, whose patronage he had the misfortune to abandon just before the latter’s election as Pope Paul V in 1605. Arconio remained in the town of Cori, of which he was governor, during most of the pontificate but returned to Rome in 1620 and submitted a design (unexecuted) for a new house and oratory for the Congregation of the Oratory. He painted a fresco over the door of the church of S Maria in Campo Carleo (destr. 1862), finished the convent and high altar of S Isidoro begun by Felice Antonio Casone (1559–1634), decorated the Cappella Merenda in S Maria della Vittoria (c. 1630), the portal of S Eufemia (destr. early 19th century), restored S Urbano ai Pantani (1634) and built the adjacent convent (destr.) under the patronage of Cardinal ...


Joseph Connors

(b ?Sigillo, nr Nocera; d Rome, ?Feb 6, 1667).

Italian architect. He is representative of the conservative and decorative current in 17th-century Roman architecture that co-existed with the spatial innovations of the Baroque masters. Early in his career, in 1652, he replaced Borromini as the architect of the Casa dei Filippini in Rome, rebuilding the high altar of the Oratory (1653–64) and completing the long residential wing of the building (1659–62), more or less following Borromini’s plans. The ornate marble revetment of this altar and some of the elaborate mouldings in the main staircase in this wing reflect Arcucci’s decorative style, as does the campanile built to his design (1666) for the Oratorian church S Maria in Vallicella (the Chiesa Nuova). His major commissions for the Roman aristocracy are the Palazzo Gottifredi-Grazioli and the façade of the Palazzo Pio di Carpi near the Campo dei Fiori, both presumably built during the pontificate of Alexander VII (...


(b Madrid, 1664; d Madrid, Feb 15, 1726).

Spanish architect, painter and writer. He was trained in architecture by the Jesuits and in painting by Claudio Coello and worked mainly as an architect. Two overdoors showing multiple allegorical scenes of the Battle of Lepanto (1721; Madrid, Pal. Arzobisp.) and a St Barbara (1723; Madrid, Mus. Lázaro Galdiano) reveal Ardemans as a talented painter working in the tradition of Francisco Rizi, Juan Carreño de Miranda and Francisco de Herrera the younger, and partially influenced by Luca Giordano. His debt to Coello is apparent in a ceiling fresco attributed to him in the Capilla del Cristo de los Dolores of the Venerable Orden Tercera de San Francisco, Madrid, which shows St Francis riding in a chariot of fire with figures watching from a balcony. Also attributed to Ardemans is the portrait of Pedro Atanasio Bocanegra (c. 1689; Granada, Pal. Arzobisp.)

As an architect, Ardemans belongs to a period of transition, continuing into the 18th century the Baroque tradition of the Madrid school. He worked in Granada (...


William B. Jordan

(b Santorcaz, bapt Aug 3, 1614; d Madrid, Oct 13, 1676).

Spanish painter. He was the pre-eminent painter of flower-pieces in 17th-century Spain. Although Spaniards of the previous generation had painted such works, it was the inspiration of Flemish and Italian examples in Madrid that from c. 1650 encouraged Arellano’s success as a specialist in this genre. According to Palomino, who moved to the Court shortly after the artist’s death and befriended many painters who had known him, Arellano began to paint flowers only in his thirties after a beginning that showed little promise. When asked why he devoted himself to flower-pieces and had abandoned figures, he replied that it was because with them he worked less and earned more (Palomino).

Arellano was apprenticed at a very early age to an unknown painter in Alcalá de Henares until around the age of 16, when he went to Madrid and entered the studio of Juan de Solís. He emerged from this training a competent but undistinguished figure painter, as is seen in two signed but undated religious pictures (Santorcaz, parish church). His earliest signed and dated work is ...


Mario Buhagiar

[il Romano]

(b c. 1633; d 1719).

Italian painter, active in Malta. He worked exclusively in Malta, moving in the circle of Mattia Preti. Contemporary documents refer to him as ‘il Romano’, suggesting that he was of Roman origin. He was in Malta by 1666, the year in which he married. Certain of his paintings, such as St Sebastian before the Pope (Valletta, St John’s Mus.), reveal some knowledge of the work of Guercino. His output was prolific, but with a few notable exceptions his compositions are dull and his drawing weak. The Adoration of the Magi (Valletta, church of the Carmine) and the Virgin of the Rosary (Spinola Bay, church of the Immaculate Conception) are among his best works but his supreme achievement is the Last Supper (Gozo Cathedral), his last documented work. It shows him in complete control of the Baroque idiom, exploiting its theatrical possibilities, while nonetheless conveying genuine religious feeling, which is Roman rather than Neapolitan in its sobriety. D’Arena enjoyed considerable prestige and was received into the Order of St John as a lay brother. In old age he became blind. There are works by him in most Maltese churches....


Torbjörn Fulton

(fl Sweden, 1608–55).

Dutch painter, active in Sweden. The son of the painter Arendt Lambrechts (fl 1585; d 1623), he is best known for his copies of a 16th-century series of portraits of Swedish monarchs of the House of Vasa, which he was commissioned to do in the 1620s; their location, the mansion of Bysta in Närke, caused him to be known as the Bysta Master before he was identified (Steneberg, 1935). The finest of the portraits is that of Gustav I, King of Sweden, showing him as ponderous, suspicious and bad-tempered, playing irritably with his gold chain; this picture is a psychological study, although forced into the formal stiffness of state-portrait style. As Arendtz was also a portrait painter in his own right, he may have improved on the series of pictures that he took as his models. Notable among his own works are his portraits of Carl Bonde...


Mario di Giampaolo

(bapt Bologna, Sept 1, 1549; d Bologna, Oct 4, 1612).

Italian painter. His early training was influenced by Bagnacavallo and Venetian painters. His earliest known work, the altarpiece of St Bartholomew Worshipping the Virgin (1570–75; Bologna, S Bartolomeo), is in a Mannerist style, with clear references to the work of Bartolomeo Passarotti, Lorenzo Sabatini and Orazio Samacchini. The austerity of the early Counter-Reformation, introduced in Bologna by Cardinal Gabriele Paleotti, is reflected in the slightly later Crucifixion with the Virgin and Saints (Bologna, Santa Trinità). From c. 1576 he collaborated with Giovanni Battista Fiorini (d after 1599) on such projects as the frescoes of Christ Giving the Keys to St Peter (1579; Bologna, Metropolitana S Pietro) and the Coronation of the Virgin (1588; Bologna, S Michele in Bosco). Also with Fiorini he painted numerous altarpieces for churches in Bologna, including the Birth of the Virgin (1577–82; S Giovanni in Monte), the Miraculous Procession of St Gregory the Great...


Alfonso E. Pérez Sánchez

(b Madrid, c. 1614; d Madrid, 1684).

Spanish painter. He trained in Madrid with Pedro de las Cuevas, an excellent teacher who instructed many contemporary painters. Arias was a precocious artist; he painted the altarpiece (destr.) of the Carmelitas Calzados in Toledo at the age of 14. In 1639 he collaborated with other painters of his generation in the decoration of the salón grande, or Sala de las Comedias, in the Alcázar, Madrid. His painting of Charles V and Philip II, Kings of Spain (1639; Madrid, Prado, on dep. U. Granada) shows his individual style, which is sculptural, with firmly drawn outlines and broad areas of light colours, all of which is archaic in character.

Arias Fernández established a studio in Madrid in 1645 and began accepting apprentices. His most important works belong to this decade, including the Tribute Money (1646; Madrid, Prado), which exemplifies his best qualities: precise outlines, angular drapery, light colouring in the predominantly cool tones reminiscent of Juan Bautista Maino and intensely naturalistic detail. The ...