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Laura Suffield

(b Bassiano, ?1450; d Venice, Feb 6, 1515).

Italian printer, publisher, teacher and translator. He studied in Rome and Ferrara and spent some time in Mirandola with Giovanni Pico (1463–94). In 1483 he was tutor to the Pio family. He formed a project to publish Greek texts and in 1489–90 moved to Venice, where soon afterwards he published the Musarum panegyris (1491). His Greek publications formed the core of his activities: he issued c. 30 first editions of literary and philosophical Greek texts including a five-volume Aristotle (1495–8). The first book printed with his own newly cut Greek type was the Erotemata (1495) by Constantine Lascaris (1434–?1501). Three further Aldine Greek types were developed, the last in 1502.

Manutius established a pre-eminent position in Venetian publishing and in 1495 entered into a formal partnership with Andrea Torresani, his future father-in-law, and Pierfrancesco Barbarigo. His total output has been estimated at 120,000 or more copies. One of his most significant innovations was the production of small-format editions of Classical texts, starting with those of Virgil in ...


(b Antwerp, April 29, 1920; d Brussels, Sept 19, 1993).

Belgian writer, painter, collagist, draughtsman and sculptor. He left school at the age of 14 and in 1937 met Magritte, and the Belgian writers Louis Scutenaire (1905–87) and Paul Nougé (1895–1967), through whom he soon became drawn into the Surrealist movement. Though largely involved with writing poetry and essays, like many Surrealists he also produced collages, such as La Traversée du rêve (1938–45; Paris, Gal. Isy Brachot). Also in 1937 he participated in his first Surrealist exhibition, Surrealist Objects and Poems, organized by E. L. T. Mesens at the London Gallery in London. From 1940 to 1941 he was held prisoner in Germany. On his return to Belgium he founded the publishing house L’Aiguille Aimantée, which issued Paul Eluard’s Moralité du sommeil in 1941. In 1943 he published the first monograph on Magritte and two years later took part in the important exhibition of Belgian Surrealism at the Galerie La Boëtie in Brussels. In ...


Juliann Wolfgram


(b 1686; d 1764).

Japanese print designer, painter, book illustrator and publisher. Although Masanobu’s artistic career spanned six decades, Edo-period (1600–1868) documents reveal little about his life. However, his prolific artistic output and technical innovations make him one of the leading figures of the early history of Japanese woodblock printing and ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’, see Japan §X 2., (iii)). He began his career in 1701 with a copy of an album of courtesans known as Keisei ehon (‘Yoshiwara picture book’; Chicago, IL, A. Inst.) by Torii Kiyonobu I (see Torii family, §1). His earliest sumizurie (‘black-and-white pictures’) were based on the subject-matter and style of the Torii school and were published in sets of 12 large prints (ōban) or in illustrated books (ehon). Masanobu illustrated no less than 19 novelettes and produced over 30 ehon (see Japan §X 2.). During the formative stage of his career, Masanobu also wrote popular fiction, which led him to develop a pictorial means of conveying literary wit and humour. Through the production of visual parodies of classical themes, known as ...


Christina Lodder


(b Nizhny Novgorod, 1861; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], Oct 14, 1934).

Russian painter, patron, musician, writer and publisher. He pursued a highly original line of artistic thought and practice and developed an organic perception of the world, deriving his inspiration from nature rather than machines, unlike many of his Russian Constructivist contemporaries.

Matyushin trained initially as a musician at the Moscow Conservatory (1878–81) and played the violin in the Court orchestra in St Petersburg from 1881 to 1913. In 1889 he began to attend the School of the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts in St Petersburg, where he studied painting with Yan Tsionglinsky (d 1914). In Tsionglinsky’s studio he met the artist and writer Yelena Guro, whom he married. Later (1906–8) he studied with the World of Art (Mir Iskusstva) painters Léon Bakst and Mstislav Dobuzhinsky at the Zvantseva School of Art in St Petersburg.

In 1909 Matyushin briefly joined the circle around Nikolay Kul’bin and the following year he founded the ...


Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(b Basle, April 4, 1737; d Berlin, Nov 4, 1817).

Swiss engraver, publisher and dealer, active in France and Germany. Although he was apprenticed in 1753 to the engraver Georg Daniel Heumann (1691–1759) in Nuremberg, his friendship with the brothers Johann Justin Preissler (1698–1771) and Georg Martin Preissler (1700–1754) was of greater importance. He continued his education (1755–7) with Johann Georg Pintz (1697–1767) in Augsburg, then went to Paris in 1757, to the academy of Jean-Georges Wille, who not only nurtured his taste for realistic representation of a landscape but also transformed him into a courtier and shrewd businessman. From 1760 to 1764 Mechel ran his own engraving studio in Paris, printing and distributing his own work and that of such engravers as L. de Montigny, Elie Mesnil (b 1728), Joseph Jean Halle (1740–1805), Jean-Baptiste de Lorraine (b 1731) and Antoine Louis Romanet (...


(b Brussels, Nov 27, 1903; d Brussels, May 13, 1971).

Belgian writer, exhibition organizer, collagist and composer. As a young composer he was influenced by Erik Satie. He collaborated on Dadaist-inspired journals and published, with René Magritte, Œsophage (1925), the only issue of which, containing the poems of Hans Arp, Tristan Tzara and Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes, remained faithful to the Dada spirit. In 1926 Marie, a ‘journal bi-mensuel pour la belle jeunesse’, published under his direction, pursued the same vein; it only had two issues. Mesens was involved in the establishment of a Surrealist movement (see Surrealism), which was strongly permeated with Dadaism in Belgium. In 1927 he became Director of the Galerie L’Epoque and in 1931 of the Galerie Mesens, both in Brussels. Miró, Magritte and Max Ernst all exhibited with him. He founded the Editions Nicolas Flamel, which published the Surrealists’ collective homage to a parricide, Violette Nozières (Brussels, 1933), André Breton’s lecture ‘Qu’est-ce que le surréalisme’, held on the occasion of the first international Surrealist exhibition organized in Brussels by Mesens under the auspices of ...


Peter Stansky

(b Walthamstow [now in London], March 24, 1834; d London, Oct 3, 1896).

English designer, writer and activist. His importance as both a designer and propagandist for the arts cannot easily be overestimated, and his influence has continued to be felt throughout the 20th century. He was a committed Socialist whose aim was that, as in the Middle Ages, art should be for the people and by the people, a view expressed in several of his writings. After abandoning his training as an architect, he studied painting among members of the Pre-Raphaelites. In 1861 he founded his own firm, Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. (from 1875 Morris & Co.), which produced stained glass, furniture, wallpaper and fabrics (see §3 below). Morris’s interests constantly led him into new activities such as his last enterprise, the Kelmscott Press (see §5 below). In 1950 his home at Walthamstow became the William Morris Gallery. The William Morris Society was founded in 1956, and it publishes a biannual journal and quarterly newsletter....



Linda Whiteley

(fl Paris, 1825–38). French dealer and print-publisher. From 1825 to 1838 he conducted business at his premises at 5, Rue de l’Université, Paris. The first artist with whom he was particularly associated was Jean-Augustin Franquelin (1798–1839), who was also admired by the art historian and collector Alexandre du Sommerard. In 1827 Moyon sent two genre subjects by Franquelin to the Salon and in 1831 he sent four, one of which (untraced) was a scene from Pierre-Augustin de Beaumarchais’s play Le Mariage de Figaro depicting Comtesse Almaviva drying Chérubin’s tears. Such other dealers as François-Simon-Alphonse Giroux, Amédée Susse, Jean Marie Fortuné Durand-Ruel, Louis-Auguste Asse and P. Souty followed suit in buying these pleasant and undemanding works and in the 1830s regularly submitted Franquelin’s paintings to the Salons. Moyon, however, continued to send the largest number of Franquelin’s works, some of which reappeared in his closing sale; this suggests, in view of their evident popularity, that he had not intended them for sale but rather for hire, probably for the purposes of copying. Several landscapes, which were also a specialization of his gallery, were certainly intended for this purpose. He owned almost the entire oeuvre of ...


Angela Lohrey

(b Nuremberg, Aug 6, 1733; d Nuremberg, April 8, 1811).

German publisher, writer and art historian. After obtaining a doctorate in law from the University of Altdorf, he travelled (1756–7) to Strasbourg, the Netherlands and England, where he met well-known figures in science, art and politics. In 1758 he set off again from Nuremberg to Vienna and northern Italy. Besides his employment as a Nuremberg weighmaster and customs official from 1760, Murr wrote about German art history and culture. He also published various magazines such as the weekly Der Zufriedene (Nuremberg, 1763–4), the Journal zur Kunstgeschichte und zur allgemeine Litteratur (Nuremberg, 1775–89) and the Neues Journal zur Literatur und Kunstgeschichte (Nuremberg, 1798–9). Stimulated by his wide-ranging correspondence with leading figures within and outside Europe, these contained many articles on the art history and culture of other countries. His work also encompassed linguistic surveys, political and historical subjects and writings about the Jesuit order. He was the author of 82 titles, though his own literary experiments remained insignificant. Murr became a member of the Königliches Historisches Institut, Göttingen, in ...


(b London, April 16, 1808; d London, April 2, 1892).

English publisher and writer. He was the son of the publisher John Murray II (1778–1843) and was educated at Charterhouse School, London, and, for one year (1827), at Edinburgh University. In 1829 he made the first of many trips to the Continent, visiting Holland, Belgium and northern Germany, during which he became aware of the need for a guide book to aid English tourists. He set about gathering relevant information: in 1830 he visited northern and central France, in 1831 Milan, Venice, Salzburg, Munich and elsewhere, and in 1836 he travelled down the Danube to the borders of Turkey and Wallachia. The result of his travels was the famous series of Murray handbooks, in their distinctive red covers. The first title was A Handbook for Travellers on the Continent: Being a Guide through Holland, Belgium, Prussia and Northern Germany, and along the Rhine, from Holland to Switzerland...


Malcolm Gee

[Israel Ber]

(b Skole, Ukraine, March 2, 1887; d Rye, NY, April 28, 1961).

German dealer and publisher, active in the USA. Israel Ber Neumann, known as J. B. Neumann, opened his first print gallery in Berlin in 1911, exhibiting work by Edvard Munch and members of Brücke, Die. In 1913 he exhibited the complete prints of Munch in three shows and in 1915–16 was secretary to the Berlin Secession. After World War I Neumann, like other dealers in Expressionist art, initially met favourable conditions, with widespread demand for the work of such artists as Max Beckmann, who signed an exclusive contract with Neumann in 1921. This was a close but difficult relationship on both the personal and the commercial level. The deterioration of the German economic and political situation led Neumann to attempt to break into the American market, becoming permanently based in New York from 1923. He entrusted his Berlin gallery to Karl Nierendorf and the Munich one to Günther Franke. In ...


Gordon Campbell


(b c. 1430–40; d 1512).

German printer. Neumeister may have been a pupil of Johann Gutenberg in Mainz. He worked from 1470 to 1474 in Foligno (near Assisi), where he published the first edition of Dante’s Divine Comedy (1472; see Dante Alighieri). He subsequently worked in Mainz (1479) and then moved to France, first living in Albi, north-east of Toulouse (...


Valerie Holman

(b Vienna, Oct 1, 1903; d London, Sept 26, 1967).

British publisher of Austrian birth. He studied art history and philosophy in Vienna, where he established his reputation as a publisher before fleeing to England on the annexation of Austria in 1938. Neurath was a pioneer of book packaging and he worked as production director of Adprint Ltd, for whom he created illustrated series such as Britain in Pictures, published by William Collins and disseminated by the Ministry of Information. In 1949 he founded his own company in London, which he called Thames & Hudson, after the rivers of London and New York, to signify his vision of an international enterprise. His first book, and his first major success, was English Cathedrals, by Martin Hürlimann, published in 1950. Other notable publications from the 1950s were The National Gallery (1955), with 100 colour plates, The Tate Gallery (1958), an English translation by Francis Scarfe of Picasso by ...


Eberhard Ruhmer

German family of publishers. In 1620 the family was in Liège and in 1784 moved to Cologne. The earliest significant member is Marcus DuMont (1784–1831) who ran the publishing firm from 1805 to 1831. Shortly after 1805 he married Katharina Schauberg (1779–1845) who came from a printing and publishing concern in Cologne dating back to 1736, and from then on the publishing house bore the name ‘DuMont Schauberg’. A later family member, Christine DuMont (1836–1903), married August Libert Neven (b Cologne, 13 Aug 1832; d Hohwald bei Schlettstadt, 7 Sept 1896) in 1856, and he took over and successfully ran the publishing house, from which date it was called Neven DuMont. Their sons, Josef Neven DuMont (b Cologne, 13 Aug 1857; d Cologne, 30 Oct 1915) and Alfred Neven DuMont (b Cologne, 20 Feb 1868; d Cologne, 8 Dec 1940...


Howard Caygill

(b Berlin, March 18, 1733; d Berlin, Jan 8, 1811).

German writer and publisher. As an apprentice bookseller in Frankfurt an der Oder in the late 1740s, he attended Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s lectures on aesthetics. His first and only important critical work, Briefe über den jetzigen Zustand der schönen Wissenschaften in Deutschland (Berlin, 1755), earned him the friendship of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Moses Mendelssohn for its irenic posture in the controversy over aesthetics between Joachim Christoph Gottsched and the Zurich School. However, Nicolai is significant less for his own writings than for publishing some of the most influential critical journals of the German Enlightenment. The Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften und freien Künste (1757–62), Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffdend (1759–65) and Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek (1765–1806) printed the aesthetic and critical writings of Lessing and Mendelssohn, among other leading philosophers and critics. Nicolai’s own chief contributions to art history are his pioneering texts on art and artists in Berlin. The ...


Ebba Krull

(b Augsburg, bapt Nov 2, 1721; d Augsburg, April 11, 1788).

German miniature painter, draughtsman, engraver and print publisher. He was trained in painting miniatures by his parents, Rosina Barbara Nilson (c. 1691–1763) and Andreas Nilson (c. 1690–1751), as well as by Hieronymus Sperling (1695–1777), and in copper engraving by Johann Lorenz Haid. After his father’s death Johann inherited his artist’s rights and founded a printing house in 1751, where he published some 70 series of prints after his own and other people’s designs (e.g. by Johann Evangelist Holzer, Boucher, Johann Elias Ridinger and Georg Philipp Rugendas), engraved by himself and others. He was appointed to the Prussian court in 1752 and received a commission for miniature portraits of the first 12 Brandenburg Electors (Berlin, Kstbib. & Mus.; Munich, Staatl. Graph. Samml.; Augsburg, Maximilianmus.). His marriage to a pastor’s daughter in 1755 aided his ascent from craftsman status: in 1761 he was appointed court painter to ...


Paolo Costantini

(b Venice, July 18, 1842; d St Moritz, Aug 21, 1911).

Italian publisher. He was first an employee and later the manager of the Münster bookshop in the Piazza San Marco, Venice. From 1877 he was involved in an extraordinary series of 43 publications about Venetian art history, which made liberal use of photography. In these works he employed, and was among the very first to do so in Italy, the new ...


(b Basle, Jan 25, 1507; d Basle, July 6, 1568).

Swiss humanist printer. He studied Greek in Strasbourg and then returned to Basle as a teacher of Greek and as an editor for the publisher Johann Froben. He eventually established his own press, specializing in editions of scientific works and Classical authors. His press published a Latin translation of the ...


(b Lyon, Sept 1802; d Paris, Jan 25, 1862).

French draughtsman, lithographer, journalist and publisher. In 1820 he went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris where he studied under Antoine-Jean Gros. However, he was soon recalled to Lyon by his father, who wished him to work in the family business; it was not until 1823 that he was allowed to return to Paris, where he established himself permanently.

From 1827 to 1830 Philipon produced rather mediocre satirical lithographs, which were published in Paris. After the July Revolution of 1830 he began to work as a journalist and editor, and at this juncture he found his true vocation. He founded the weekly journal La Caricature, which was devoted entirely to politics; among its many contributors were Honoré Daumier and the caricaturists Joseph Traviès and J. J. Grandville. It lasted from 1830 to 1835, when it closed after a flood of legal actions.

In 1832 Charles Philipon founded Le Charivari...



Mónica Martí Cotarelo

[Gahona, Gabriel Vicente ]

(b Mérida, Apr 5, 1828; d Mérida, Mar 1, 1899).

Mexican engraver. In 1846 he went to study painting in Europe, where he almost certainly encountered the widely published lithographs of Gustave Doré, Honoré Daumier, and Paul Gavarni, which probably inspired his own work. On returning from Europe he founded, with some friends in Mérida, the periodical Don Bullebulle (1847), which satirized with grace and irony social customs, politics, and contemporary fashion. During its year-long life he illustrated the periodical with a total of 86 wood-engravings that he signed with the pseudonym Picheta. He achieved a sharpness of line that emphasized his draughtsmanship (e.g. The Clerk, 1847; Mexico City, Mus. N. Est.). When Don Bullebulle’s critical attitude forced the periodical to close, Picheta’s artistic career came to an end. Nevertheless, his work is greatly admired for its historical significance, especially in view of the lack of successful wood-engravers in Mexico during the 19th century.

Orosa Díaz, J....