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Joan Stanley-Baker

[Li Ch’eng; zi Xianxi; hao Yingqiu]

(b ad 919; d 967).

Chinese painter. His ancestors, members of the imperial clan, were natives of Chang’an (now Xi’an, Shaanxi Province), the Tang-dynasty (ad 618–907) capital. During disturbances at the end of the 9th century the clan split into two branches. Li’s grandfather, who settled in Qingzhou (now Shandong), and his father both held official posts. From 956 to 958 Li was in government service in Bianliang (now Kaifeng), at the invitation of his friend Wang Pu, then Commissioner of Military Affairs for Emperor Shizong (reg 944–54). Li came to know many important scholar–officials, but, despondent after the death of Wang, took to poetry, music, painting and drink. His paintings became sought after, but he remained at first socially aloof. Later he became a habitual wanderer, until, some time after 964, he accepted an invitation to live in Huaiyang (Henan Province), where he died of overindulgence in wine.

Li Cheng exemplifies the Chinese phenomenon of a profoundly admired artist whose true style was, within a century of his death, obscured by unreliable attributions, the relationships of which to the original can no longer be determined. His fame was established early in the Northern Song period (...



Mary S. Lawton

[Ch’eng-te; formerly Jehol]

Chinese city in Hebei Province, 250 km north-east of Beijing. In the 18th century Chengde became a second capital and summer resort of the Qing (1644–1911) emperors, who spent as much as six months of the year there. Located in a basin 350 m above sea level, Chengde is surrounded by mountains, forests and lakes. Its earlier name, Jehol, is derived from the name of the local river, the Rehe (Je-ho), a tributary of the Luan. The area was settled by Khitan (Qidan) around the 11th century. Chengde was an obscure town until 1703, when the Kangxi emperor (reg 1662–1722) began building his summer palace there. The Qianlong emperor (reg 1736–96) enlarged the palace, completing it in 1790.

The palace grounds, known as Bishu Shanzhuang (Mountain Village for Escaping the Heat), cover 590 ha and are bounded by a red wall 20 km in length. Within are four palaces. The Zhenggong (Front Palace) is the largest and contains the main throne-room. It is constructed of the finest, aromatic ...



Frances Wood


Capital city of Sichuan Province, China. It was first established in the Spring and Autumn period (722–481 bc), though its greatest glory came when it was capital of the state of Shu Han (ad 221–63) during the Three Kingdoms period (220–80). From the Han period (206 bcad 220) it was known for its production of lacquer, salt and silk brocade (its major river is still known as the Jin jiang or Brocade River).

Chengdu was first walled in 311 bc. Its heart was the square walled and moated enclosure of the old Ming (1368–1644) viceroy’s palace, which was demolished to make way for a department store during the Cultural Revolution (1966–76). Street maps still indicate the irregular rectangle of the former outer city with the small rectangle of the palace quarter, orientated along the north–south axis in the centre. During the late Tang (...


J. Edward Kidder jr

Japanese site in Shinbohon-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture. It flourished during the Jōmon period (c. 10,000–c. 300 bc). It is a wooden circle site and served as the centre of a vast residential area, apparently rebuilt for thousands of years and finally abandoned in the Latest or Final Jōmon period (c. 1000–c. 300 bc).

The Chikamori site lies on a plain near the Tedori River, 7 m above sea-level and 4.5 km south-west of the Kanazawa railway station. Other Middle (c. 3500–c. 2500 bc) to Late (c. 2500–c. 1000 bc) Jōmon sites are near by. The site was identified in 1909, partially dug in 1954 and surveyed fully in 1974. About 7000 sq. m were excavated by the archaeologist Hisakazu Minami in 1980. At the centre there was originally a circle of standing pillars (now restored to a height of 2 m), a row of paired pillars, and another, smaller, circle. The main circle remained consistently 6–7 m in diameter, ringed with about ten posts of old logs, each ...


Kōzō Sasaki

[Tanomura Kōzō; Chikuden; Chikuden Rōho; Chikuden Sonmin; Kujō Senshi]

(b Takeda, Bungo Prov. [now Ōita Prefect.], Kyushu, 1777; d Osaka, 1835).

Japanese poet, painter and theorist. He was born into a family of physicians in service to the Oka clan of Bungo Province. He first studied medicine, but later became an instructor in Confucian studies at the clan school, the Yūgakukan. In 1801–2 Chikuden studied the verse of China’s Song period (960–1279) in Edo (now Tokyo). During this time he was also painting landscapes in the style of Dong Qichang, a painter of the Ming period (1368–1644). From 1805 to 1807 he continued his literary training in Kyoto, where he befriended Uragami Gyokudō and Okada Beisanjin, who were exponents of literati painting (Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)), and from this time he was determined to establish himself as a literati poet and painter.

Chikuden continued painting after his arrival in Kyoto, and his style became more experimental as a result of his contact both with Japanese painters who copied Chinese painting and woodblock-printed books and with original works by Chinese artists. He executed portraits of beautiful women (...


Mary M. Tinti

(b Houston, TX, 1951).

American sculptor, installation and conceptual artist. His multimedia works investigate the pathology of contemporary culture. Mel Chin was born and raised in Houston, Texas to parents of Chinese birth and received his BA in 1975 from the Peabody College in Nashville, Tennessee. The works in Chin’s oeuvre are diverse in both medium and subject, but a consistent undercurrent of social, political, and environmental responsibility runs throughout. Whether a sculpture, film, video game, installation, public project or earthwork, Chin’s artworks consistently targeted a broad spectrum of pressing cultural and ecological interests and spread their message in subtle, if not viral ways.

In the 1980s, Chin produced a number of sculptures that set the stage for his ever-evocative artistic journey. The Extraction of Plenty from What Remains: 1823 (1988–9) is a frequently referenced piece from this period. It is a symbolic encapsulation of the effects of the Monroe Doctrine, referencing the complicated dealings between the US (represented by truncated replicas of White House columns) and Central America (represented by a cornucopia of mahogany branches, woven banana-tree fiber, and a surface layer of hardened blood, mud, and coffee grinds). From the 1990s, however, Chin moved away from strictly gallery-based installations and began creating works that directly engaged contemporary culture in a variety of physical and theoretical landscapes....


Gordon Campbell


Jessica Rawson, Zhou Lijun, William R. Sargent, Henrik H. Sørensen, Sheila S. Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom, Jerome Silbergeld, Peter Hardie, Haiyao Zheng, Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt, Puay-Peng Ho, Bent L. Pedersen, Tan Tanaka, Petra Klose, Frances Wood, Robert L. Thorp, Ann Paludan, Peter Wiedehage, Carol Michaelson, Stephen B. Little, Stephen J. Goldberg, Friedrich Zettl, James Cahill, Caroline Gyss-Vermande, Roderick Whitfield, Michael Sullivan, Susan H. Bush, James Robinson, Maggie Bickford, Robert E. Harrist jr, Richard Vinograd, Ellen Uitzinger, Ann Barrott Wicks, Colin Mackenzie, Robert W. Bagley, Li Xueqin, Jenny F. So, Nigel Wood, Margaret Medley, S. J. Vainker, Mary Tregear, Regina Krahl, Yutaka Mino, Laurence Chi-Sing Tam, Rose Kerr, Guy Raindre, Nicholas Pearce, John Guy, C. J. A. Jörg, Barry Till, Paula Swart, Rosemary Scott, Rosemary Ransome Wallis, Sarah Handler, John E. Vollmer, Albert E. Dien, Sören Edgren, Yang Boda, Joe Cribb, Verity Wilson, Jane Portal, Zhong Hong, Donald B. Wagner, Ho Chuimei, Bent Nielsen, B. V. Gyllensvärd, J. A. Marsh, Cordell D. K. Yee, F. Richard Stephenson, Keith Pratt, Henryk Jurkowski, Jan Chapman, Uta Lauer, Sarah Waldram, Richard Rutt, Mayching Kao, Chu-Tsing Li, Michel Beurdeley, Jessica Harrison-Hall, Basil Gray and Wang Tao

[Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo]

Located in eastern Asia, the third largest country in the world in area (9,562,904 sq. km) and the most populous (approx. 1.35 billion people, almost one fifth of the world’s population).

China’s highly developed material culture stretches back as early as the 7th millennium bc, when Neolithic (c. 6500–1600 bc) potters created forms and decorative schemes that would recur throughout the long continuity of Chinese art. The succeeding Bronze Age art of the Shang (c. 1600–c. 1050 bc) and Zhou (c. 1050–256 bc) periods, mostly in the form of cast bronze vessels and carved jades, developed those early decorative schemes into ritual items and potent motifs and carried the craft of bronze-casting, in particular, to the highest levels of technical sophistication. Even in these early periods, calligraphy, in the form of inscriptions on bronze ritual vessels and on oracle bones, played an integral part in Chinese ritual and art. Calligraphers and painters came into their own with the introduction of brush and ink, using composition, line and brushwork to express the emotions of the human spirit, as well as to record narratives of history and religion. Along with the art of poetry, painting and calligraphy were to become the most highly valued of the arts of China....


Madeleine Rocher-Jauneau

(b Lyon, Feb 12, 1756; d Lyon, June 20, 1813).

French sculptor. He was the son of a silk merchant and trained under the painter Donat Nonotte at the Ecole Royale de Dessin in Lyon. He then worked with the local sculptor Barthélemy Blaise (1738–1819). In 1772 he assisted Blaise with the restoration of the sculptures on the façade of the Hôtel de Ville. By 1780 he was working independently and received a commission from the canons of St Paul for chalk statues of St Paul, St Sacerdos and the Four Evangelists (all destr. 1793–4). He subsequently made stone statues of St Bruno and St John the Baptist (partially destr.) for the Charterhouse at Selignac, near Bourg-en-Bresse. In 1784, thanks to the patronage of the Lyonnais official Jean-Marie Delafont de Juis, Chinard was able to go to Rome, where he remained until 1787. There he studied the art of antiquity but seems not to have had any contact with Antonio Canova, the most influential Neo-classical sculptor in the city. In ...


(Chinese Academy of Art)

Artists’ club formed in 1926 in San Francisco’s Chinatown. The club was composed of Guangdong immigrants in their late teens and early 20s. Its headquarters, which also served as a studio, teaching center, exhibition space and quite possibly a shared bedroom, was located in an upper room at 150 Wetmore Place, an alley on Chinatown’s western fringe. The exact membership is unknown—probably a dozen members at any given time—and its composition fluctuated greatly during its 15 or so years of existence. Its most famous members were Yun Gee, a co-founder and leader, and Eva Fong Chan (1897–1991), who was granted membership in the early 1930s and was the only woman known to belong. Unlike Fong, a former beauty queen who was a piano teacher married to a prominent Catholic businessman and privileged with an education, the young men were working-class and probably held the menial jobs reserved for most Chinese of their era, as servants, cooks, dishwashers and launderers....


Patrick Conner

(b London, Jan 7, 1774; d Macao, May 30, 1852).

English painter. Although long rumoured to be Irish, Chinnery was brought up in London, where he showed a precocious talent as a portrait painter in the traditions of Romney and Cosway. His grandfather, the calligrapher William Chinnery sr, was the author of Writing and Drawing Made Easy, Amusing and Instructive (London, 1750); his father, William jr, was also a writing master, and exhibited portraits at the Free Society of Artists. George entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1792, and by 1795 had exhibited 20 portraits at the Academy.

In 1796 Chinnery moved to Dublin. There he married his landlord’s daughter, Marianne Vigne, who gave birth to his two legitimate children. He was active in the Royal Dublin Society and in 1798 was Secretary and Treasurer of its Exhibition of Painting and Sculpture. He experimented in several styles and media, to considerable critical acclaim; in July 1801 he received a silver palette ‘in Testimony of his Exertions in promoting the Fine Arts in Ireland’ … from ‘the Artists of Dublin’....


Monique Riccardi-Cubitt

Term derived from chinois (Fr.: ‘Chinese’) denoting a type of European art dominated by Chinese or pseudo-Chinese ornamental motifs. The term is most often applied to decorative arts produced from the second half of the 17th century to the early 19th, when trading contacts between Europe and East Asia were at their height.

Although overland and sea routes had brought a steady supply of Asian spices, silk, furs, ivory and other commodities to the ancient world, it was Marco Polo who first fired the imagination of the West with his description of his travels and experiences at Kublai Khan’s court that he published after his return to Venice in 1295. Other travellers also recorded their tales, the most famous being the pseudonymous ‘Sir John Mandeville’ whose Travels was published in Lyons in 1480. Its fairy-tale evocation of the Near East and East Asia was translated into every European language and fuelled a longing for ‘Cathay’. This romantic vision, taking the various forms of Chinoiserie, ...


Burglind Jungmann

[cha Simang; ho Yŏnggok]

(b 1533; d after 1593).

Korean painter. The son of a scholar–official, he passed the chinsa (literary licentiate) examination in 1576 and took up a civil service career. He was famous for painting grapes and is frequently equated with the bamboo painter Yi Chŏng (i) and the plum-blossom painter Ŏ Mong-nyŏng. In Korea, unlike in China, there is a long-standing tradition of painting grapes that reaches back possibly as far as the Koryŏ period (968–1392). The earliest surviving examples, however, date from the 16th century.

All that remains of Hwang Chip-jung’s work are a few small album leaves, which might only be fragments of larger compositions. In Grapevine (album leaf, ink and colour on paper; Seoul, Cent. Stud. Kor. A., Kansong A. Mus.), which bears an inscription dated 1593 and the signature Yŏnggok, the fruit has nearly all fallen so that the bare stalks show through, partly concealed by a large vine leaf. At the tip of the vine other, smaller leaves seem to sway in a light breeze. Together with the softly blowing tendrils they lend an airy and natural feeling to the painting. The ink tones are finely harmonized, particularly in the representation of the fruit. Two other album leaves attributed to Hwang Chip-jung, ...


Brenda G. Jordan

(fl c. 1780–early 1800s).

Japanese painter and woodblock-print designer. He is thought to have studied under Toriyama Sekien (1712–88), the teacher of Kitagawa Utamaro. Chōki specialized in compositions of beautiful women (bijinga), sometimes with little or no background but more often with atmospheric backgrounds in which there is a limited sense of depth. He was influenced by Utamaro, Torii Kiyonaga (see Torii family §(8)) and Tōshūsai Sharaku, but developed his own style of tall, slender figure. He left a number of superbly printed designs. Chōki was particularly skilful at depicting half-length figures; many of his best designs are compositions of two such half-length figures. Examples include the colour woodblock-print Girl with an Umbrella and a Servant (c. mid-1790s; e.g. Tokyo, N. Mus.), with a background of falling snow and, in the foreground, a girl holding an umbrella and leaning on the back of her manservant as he bends to (presumably) clear the snow from her sandal. In ...


Burglind Jungmann

[cha Konggan ; ho Naong, among others]

(b 1578; d 1607).

Korean painter . Active during the middle of the Chosŏn period, he came from a family of painters extending back to his great-grandfather. His grandfather, Yi Pae-ryŏn, is nowadays commonly identified with the court painter Yi Sang-chwa, while landscape paintings survive from both his father, Yi Sung-hyo (b 1536), who died at an early age, and his uncle, Yi Hŭng-hyo (1537–93), who brought him up. Yi Chŏng’s talent for painting manifested itself in his childhood. In 1589 he went to the Kumgang Mountains in central Korea, where he painted landscapes and heavenly kings on the walls of Changan Temple two years later. A farewell poem written by his teacher Ch’oe Ip (1539–1612) indicates that Yi Chŏng had also travelled to China. The painter died after a heavy drinking session before he had reached the age of thirty.

A small Landscape (album leaf, ink on paper, 345×230 mm; Seoul, N. Mus.) bears the seal ‘...


[cha Chungsǒp ; ho T’anun ]

(b 1541; d after 1625).

Korean painter. Active during the middle of the Chosŏn period, he was a great-great-grandson of King Sejong and bore the noble title Sŏgyang-jŏng. His work consists primarily of monochrome bamboo paintings. This genre was cultivated fairly early in Korea, mainly under the influence of the Chinese literati painters of the Northern Song period ( see China, People’s Republic of, §V, 4, (ii) ). From the beginning of the Chosŏn period bamboo constituted the most important examination subject for the Bureau of Painting (Tohwasŏ). Yi Chŏng’s early paintings display the influence of painters of the Chinese Yuan period (1279–1368), such as Li Kan. Soon, however, elements of contemporary Ming (1368–1644) painting, especially in the style of the Zhe school, as exemplified by Zhu Duan, also appeared in his work. For instance, Yi Chŏng moved the subject in a similar way from the centre to the side of his painting and combined the bamboo motif with freely drawn sketches of boulders. In contrast to his Chinese models, he joined the bamboo leaves into bundles, which he spread out rhythmically over the entire surface of the picture. Consequently, the stems in the background with light ink tones were strongly set off from the darker ones in the foreground, making them appear as shadows and producing an effective expansion in depth (...


[ho Ch’usa, among others]

(b Yesan, Ch’ungch’ŏng Province, 1786; d Kwach’on, Kyŏnggi Province, 1856).

Korean calligrapher, painter, scholar and poet. He was also a lay Buddhist. Born into a family related by marriage to the imperial household, from an early age he showed his talent for calligraphy, studying with Pak Che-ga. Kim had an extremely successful civil service career before being exiled in 1840 and again in 1848.

In 1809 he accompanied his father on a mission to China and went to Beijing, where he met such eminent scholars as Wen Fanggang (1733–1818) and Ruan Yuan. The scholarship of the Qing period (1644–1911), in particular the northern stele school of calligraphy (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (vii), (b)), which chose as its calligraphic models the stelae of the Han (206 bcad 220) and Northern Wei (ad 386–534) dynasties, made a deep impression on Kim. His own style of calligraphy was characterized by vigorous strokes with a strong contrast between thick and thin lines. This style, known as the Ch’usa (i.e. Kim Chŏng-hŭi) style, was highly influential in Korea and well respected in China (...


Henrik H. Sørensen

[cha Hyŏngun; ho Hongje; Mangi]

(b 1752; reg 1777–1800; d 1800).

Korean King and painter. He was the most able of the Korean kings of the 18th century and successfully reasserted the power of the monarchy over the striving political factions within the central government. Chŏngjo differed from most of the Chosŏn-dynasty kings in several points, perhaps most in his religious sentiment, which was chiefly Buddhist. This sympathy may be seen in the many temples he renovated and sponsored. He was also interested in military affairs and literature and established the royal library, the famous Kyujanggak in the Royal Palace. He was equally interested in the fine arts and backed several projects related to painting and calligraphy. He was himself a painter of flowers and plants. A few of his works survive, most being rather inconspicuous monochrome ink paintings in the boneless style. Among these is Plantain (hanging scroll, ink on paper, 846×515 mm; Seoul, Tongguk U. Mus.; see 1984 exh. cat., fig., p. 216), which shows a plantain and a rock in an imaginary garden. The leaves are rendered in dark washes with the ribs indicated in dark strokes while the rock is composed of sketchy contour strokes and overlaid washes in different shades. It shows a fine control of the ink washes but is otherwise rather plain. The subject and style of the painting as well as the composition are typical of the bland, almost impersonal type of literati painting (...



Henrik H. Sørensen

[’phyongs rgyas; Qonggyai]

Site at the north-eastern end of the Chongye Valley south of the town of Tsetang (Zêtang) on the southern bank of the Tsangpo River (Yarlung Zangbo) in south-east Tibet. It is the setting for the royal tombs of the Yarlung dynasty (mid-7th century adc. 9th century).

Estimates of the number of tombs vary between ten and thirteen. Buried on this site were Songtsen Gampo (reg c. 620–49), Mangsong Mangtsen (reg 649–76), Tride Tsugten (reg 704–55), Trisong Detsen (reg 755–c. 794), Mune Tsenpo (reg 797–800), Tride Songtsen (reg c. 800–15), Ralpachen (reg 815–36), Langdarma (reg 836–42), Ö Sung (843–905), Lhe bön (d 739) and Chögyi Gyalpo. Trisong Detsen’s tomb lies away from the other tumuli behind a low ridge to the north. The tombs consist of massive mounds of earth. Songtsen Gampo’s and Mangsong Mangtsen’s are huge: the former, which dominates the site, rises to a height of more than 15 m and has rectangular sides measuring 250×70 m. The other tumuli are considerably smaller, although Ralpachen’s tomb is also on an impressive scale. None of the tombs has been fully excavated, but a reconstruction of ...


Tadashi Kobayashi

[Chōzaemon; Shunkyōkudō]

(b Miyagawa, Owari Prov. [now Aichi Prefect.], 1682; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1752).

Japanese painter. He went to Edo from his native Owari to study the traditional painting styles of the Kanō and Tosa schools but quickly came under the influence of ukiyoe (‘pictures of the floating world’) artists Hishikawa Moronobu and Kaigetsudō Ando (see Kaigetsudō family §(1); see also Japan §VI 4., (iv), (b)). Unlike other followers of Moronobu, Chōshun was exclusively a painter; he never designed single-sheet woodblock prints or book illustrations. He is primarily known as a painter of bijin (‘beautiful women’), whom he depicted with a fine brushwork technique and a rich, dark palette. His representative painting in the bijin genre is Yūjo monkōzu (‘Courtesan smelling incense’). He also painted several genre paintings (fūzokuga; see Japan §VI 4., (iv), (a)), including Fūzoku zukan (‘Picture scroll of manners and customs’; Tokyo, N. Mus.) and Edo fūzoku zukan (‘Picture scroll of manners and customs in Edo’; London, BM)....