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M.-E. Hellyer

(fl 1759–70; d after Jan 16, 1773).

French draughtsman and painter. Most of the biographical information about him comes from the writings of his friend, the painter Jean-Antoine Julien, who established in his autobiography that Ango was already in Rome in November 1760; he also described Ango as a painter, although only drawings by him survive. In 1772, in correspondence with the Belgian painter Andries Cornelis Lens, Julien referred to an attack of apoplexy that had left Ango half-paralyzed and reduced to living on charity. Julien’s last mention of him is on 16 January 1773. Dated drawings known to be by Ango are from the period 1759–70. Most of the surviving drawings are of paintings and decoration in Roman churches and palaces, but some attest to a knowledge of Naples, and it is recorded that on 18 March 1761 Ango and Jean-Honoré Fragonard were given permission to draw copies of the paintings in the gallery of Capodimonte there. Many of Ango’s drawings are copies after Old Masters such as ...

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(fl 1708; d Paris, 1747).

French courtier, soldier and collector. Despite a Jansenist education, he entered whole-heartedly into the life of the royal court and won the favour of Philippe II, Duc d’Orléans. He developed his love of art through his maternal uncle, Du Vivier, who bequeathed him his remarkable collection, rich in curiosities, East Asian porcelain and paintings, which Angran augmented, not hesitating to resell in order to acquire the finest pieces. At his death, his collection was dispersed in sales between December 1747 and March 1748. It comprised fine landscapes, including works by Paul Bril, Jan Breughel I, Claude Lorrain and François Boucher, and numerous Flemish and Dutch genre scenes by such masters as Adriaen van Ostade, Gerrit Dou and Gabriel Metsu, which reflect the contemporary predilection for the Northern painters. The collection included such outstanding works as Breughel’s Abraham Sacrificing Isaac (Geneva, Mus. A. & Hist.), Claude Lorrain’s Judgement of Paris (...

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[Anhalt, Duke of]

(b Dessau, Aug 10, 1740; reg 1756–1817; d Dessau, Aug 9, 1817).

German ruler and garden designer. After leaving the Prussian Army in 1757, he devoted himself to governing Dessau, instituting provision for the poor, public health and education. He made four journeys to England (1763–85) with Friedrich Wilhelm Erdmannsdorff, with whom he also travelled through Italy (1765–6). He studied for six months with Johann Joachim Winckelmann, whose ‘mimetic theory of the Ancients’ he realized in his garden designs. With Erdmannsdorff and his planters, he created gardens at Luisium (1774) and Sieglitzer Berg (1777) and most notably at Wörlitz (1764–1810), based on such English models as The Leasowes (Worcs), Stowe (Bucks), Kew Gardens (London) and Stourhead (Wilts). He was acquainted with William Chambers, Henry Holland, Sir William Hamilton (i) and possibly also Henry Flitcroft and ‘Capability’ Brown. As well as introducing the English landscape garden and Palladian country house to the Continent, the Prince also transplanted the Gothic Revival. The ‘Country House’ and ‘Gothic House’ at ...

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J.-P. Esther

(b Brussels, bapt Dec 3, 1687; d nr Aachen, June 30, 1752).

Flemish architect and sculptor. He was the son of the influential Brussels guild-master Frans Anneessens (1660–1719), who was beheaded for his part in the Popular Rebellion. In 1705 he was accepted into the Guild of the Vier Gekroonden (‘Four Crowned Ones’) as a master mason. On 26 January 1709 he married Françoise van Troen, a relative of the sculptor and architect Cornelis van Nerven (fl 1696–1717), who was in charge of the work on the new rear wing of the town hall in Brussels from 1708 to 1717. Anneessens provided drawings and models for two fountains for the inner courtyard of this wing in 1714. These comprised marble river gods representing the Scheldt and the Meuse surrounded by bronze tritons and dolphins; they were executed by Pieter-Denis Plumier in 1715–17. He also supervised the restoration of the abbot’s residence of the Norbertine abbey at Grimbergen, near Brussels, from ...

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Gordon Campbell

Austrian family of porcelain painters active also in Italy. Johann Karl Wendelin Anreiter von Zirnfeld (1702–57) moved to Vienna where he worked as a Hausmaler until 1737, when he moved to the newly established Doccia Porcelain Factory as its principal painter. His son Anton (c. 1725–1801) trained under his father in Doccia, and then moved in ...

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(b Nivelles, Sept 14, 1730; d ?Brussels, end 1771).

South Netherlandish sculptor. He served his apprenticeship at Nivelles with Laurent Delvaux, with whom he collaborated on a series of statues of Apostles in oak for the collegiate church of Ste Gertrude. Between c. 1757 and c. 1761 he made a monumental stone group of Neptune with Aeolus and Amphitrite, commissioned by Claude Lamoral II, Prince of Ligne (1685–1766), for the ornamental lake of the château of Beloeil, Hainaut. In 1761 Anrion was given the title of Court Sculptor by Charles of Lorraine (1712–80), the Austrian Governor of the Netherlands. From 1766 he worked under the direction of the architect Laurent-Benoît Dewez on the decoration of Charles’s new palace in Brussels. Anrion’s most important contribution to the work was 12 low reliefs of the Labours of Hercules (gilt-bronze; untraced) for the main staircase. During the same period he executed sculptures for the high altar of the Benedictine abbey church of Afflighem in Brabant, which was being renovated by Dewez. These included marble statues of ...

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Janet Southorn

(b Pescia, nr Lucca, Feb 12, 1734; d Pescia, Feb 16, 1816).

Italian painter and writer. His family came from Voltri, near Genoa, and his ancestors included the painter Andrea Ansaldo. He studied drawing at the Accademia Fiorentina and in November 1754 went to Rome, where he trained with the artist Agostino Masucci. In 1759 Ansaldi returned to Pescia to work with a local painter, Padre Alberico da Vellano. During the 1760s he made visits to Florence, Bologna, Genoa, Padua, Venice and Naples and in addition to looking at paintings, spent time studying history and classical mythology. He also published a book on art in Pescia, the Descrizione delle sculture, pitture ed architettura della città e diocesi di Pescia (Bologna, 1772). In 1772 he returned to Rome, where he studied the work of Raphael, Michelangelo and Annibale Carracci, among others, acquired some proficiency in architecture and became friendly with the German painter Anton Raphael Mengs. Ten years later Ansaldi returned to Pescia, where he enjoyed a modestly successful career. His training and inclination led him towards a classicizing, academic style of painting of the kind exemplified by Mengs, and his works decorate several of the local churches....

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Ansbach  

Walter Spiegl

German town in Bavaria, c. 40 km south-east of Nuremberg. Ansbach is known particularly as a centre of ceramics production. A faience factory was established by Matthias Baur and Johann Caspar Ripp in Ansbach c. 1708–10. Wares included jugs and tankards at first decorated in blue and later in the famille verte (green, yellow, iron-red, blue and purple) palette. In 1757 a porcelain factory was established beside the faience factory at the behest of Margrave Karl Alexander (d 1806), who in 1763 transferred it to Schloss Bruckberg. The secret formula for porcelain was brought to Ansbach by Johann Friedrich Kändler (1734–91), a nephew of the Meissen Modellmeister Johann Joachim Kändler, who had worked at the factory of Wilhelm Caspar Wegely (1714–64) in Berlin, as had the superb miniaturist and colour specialist Johann Carl Gerlach (1723–86) and the modeller Carl Gottlob Laut (...

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Deborah J. Haynes

[Frigyes]

(b Budapest, Dec 21, 1887;d London, April 4, 1954).

Hungarian art historian. He studied art history in Vienna with Max Dvořák and wrote a thesis on French Neo-classical and early Romantic painting. After residing for brief periods in Budapest, Florence, Vienna and Berlin, he settled in London in 1933. He never held a regular teaching position but lectured occasionally at the Courtauld Institute of Art. He wrote on Florentine painting in relation to its social setting, on the origins and evolution of Mannerism and on the interaction of Romanticism and Classicism from the French Revolution to the death of Gericault. His interpretative stance, as set forth in ‘Remarks on the Method of Art History’ (1949), was Marxist. Style, for Antal, was not restricted to formal features but included subject-matter and the social, political and economic context of the artist and work of art. His outlook enabled him to give such artists as Hogarth and Fuseli, who had previously been considered of only limited interest, a context in art history. For instance, he demonstrated how Hogarth’s thematically and formally innovative art revealed the views and tastes of a broad cross-section of English society. He followed Aby Warburg in his rejection of a view that valued ‘art for art’s sake’....

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Antefix  

Nancy A. Winter

[antefixum; pl. antefixes, antefixa]. Plaque closing the outer end of the final cover tile in each row of overlapping cover tiles running down from the ridge to the eaves of a sloped roof on Classical Greek and Roman and on Neo-classical buildings. Its practical functions were to prevent rain from penetrating below the cover tile and seeping through the opening between the adjacent pan tiles beneath, and to prevent wind from dislodging the row of cover tiles. Although functional in origin, the antefix soon also became a decorative element adorned with relief and/or painted decoration. The size and shape of early examples was determined by that of the cover tile, but by c. 550–525 bc the plaque had become larger than its tile in order to accommodate more decoration.

The earliest antefixes, from the first half of the 7th century bc, apparently formed part of undecorated terracotta roofs in the Corinthia of ...

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Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1753; d 1805).

German silhouettist and military historian. Anthing entered Russian military service, rising to the rank of colonel. While at the imperial court and travelling around Russia, he made silhouette portraits of notable persons; he visited London in 1789, and there made silhouettes of the Prince of Wales, the Duke of York and the Duchess of Devonshire. In ...

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Olivier Michel

[Gondrin, Antoine-Louis de Pardaillan de]

(b Paris, Nov 5, 1665; d Paris, Nov 2, 1736).

French administrator and patron. He was the son of the Marquis de Montespan, whose wife, Françoise Athénais de Mortemart, became one of the mistresses of Louis XIV. During the prominence of her successor Mme de Maintenon, d’Antin pursued an undistinguished military career, and it was only after his mother’s death in 1707 that his gifts as a courtier were rewarded with the post of governor of the Orléanais and, in 1708, with that of Directeur-Général des Bâtiments du Roi (see Maison du Roi, §II). His predecessor, Jules Hardouin Mansart, had been termed Surintendant; d’Antin held this amplified title from 1716 to 1726, but thereafter returned to his initial designation. His dukedom was from 1710. He inherited the châteaux of Bellegarde (Loiret), Oiron (Deux-Sèvres) and Petit-Bourg near Fontainebleau, and considerably embellished them.

As Directeur-Général, d’Antin’s authority extended over all artists nominally attached to the royal household, over the Imprimerie Royale, the Mint, the Gobelins, the Observatoire and all the academies except the Académie des Sciences. During the last years of Louis XIV financial difficulties inhibited state patronage of the arts, but after his death in ...

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An antiquary (Lat. antiquarius) is a lover, collector and student of ancient learning, traditions and remains. Antiquarianism originated from the revived interest in Classical antiquity during the Renaissance and became a scientific and historical method in the 17th century. The difference between literary and non-literary sources distinguishes humanism from antiquarianism, the latter being based on those tangible remains of antiquity (inscriptions, coins and ruins) related to literary sources. From the 16th century new attitudes towards antiquity were discussed in antiquarian circles, later giving rise to antiquarian societies. Thereafter, antiquarianism was firmly linked to archaeological excavations and to the study and collecting of ancient art. It was also linked to the search for a national identity in the arts and for the origins of Western culture and was sustained by a curiosity about civilizations outside Europe. Antiquarianism, in fact, was associated with the Grand Tour and with travel more generally. Antiquaries and artist–antiquaries were responsible for producing numerous drawings, prints and illustrated volumes. High-quality illustrations of archaeological sites and ancient sculpture contributed to the growth of art history as an autonomous discipline. They also contributed to the popularization of the Antique and to the transformation of commercial dealing in objects associated with antiquarian interests (...

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Bruno Tollon

In