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Lynette Bosch

[Pere Joan]

(fl 1477–92).

Spanish illuminator . He is known chiefly for his miniatures of Christ in Majesty (fol. 143v) and the Crucifixion (fol. 144r) in a Missal of Valencian use (Valencia, Archv Catedral, Cod. 97). This has been identified with a document of 1479 in which ‘Pere Joan’ was paid for his work on ‘la sede majestatis en el nuevo misal bisbal’. In the miniatures executed by him in this manuscript the Gothic style practised in Spain into the late 15th century has been abandoned in favour of a more naturalistic representational manner that incorporates Netherlandish elements. This more modern style has also been identified in other manuscripts attributed to Ballester. Among these are a Valencian Missal dated 1477 (London, BL, Add. MS. 34663) and a Missal of the use of Toledo (Toledo, Archv & Bib. Capitulares, MS. Res. 1). The latter was commissioned for Archbishop Alfonso Carrillo who died in ...


Marjorie Trusted

(b ?Palencia, 1488–93; d ?Palencia, after 1561).

Spanish sculptor. He is first recorded assisting Giralte de Bruselas (fl 1511–23) on the retable of the high altar of Oviedo Cathedral from 1516 to 1518 and is documented as carving one of the reliefs, the Incredulity of Thomas. In 1519 Balmaseda completed a Calvary group to surmount Felipe Vigarny’s retable in Palencia Cathedral. Late Gothic in style, the expressionistic figures are fine examples of the anti-classical tradition that continued late into the 16th century in Spanish sculpture. The angular folds of drapery and twisted locks of hair are characteristic of Balmaseda’s work. Connected to this group stylistically are a Crucifixion group completed for León Cathedral and a pair of figures of the Mater dolorosa and St John (Madrid, Mus. Lázaro Galdiano), for all of which no dates are known. In 1520 Balmaseda was in Burgos, where he was influenced by the work of Diego de Siloe, and where wooden reliefs on the doors of the Hospital del Rey have been attributed to him. Between about ...


Kirk Ambrose

(b Moscow, May 7, 1903; d Paris, Jan 25, 1988).

Lithuanian art historian, scholar of folklore and Egyptology, and diplomat of Russian birth. Son of the celebrated Lithuanian Symbolist poet of the same name, Jurgis Baltrušaitis II studied under Henri(-Joseph) Focillon at the Sorbonne and earned the PhD in 1931. The concerns of his mentor are evident in La stylistique ornementale dans la sculpture romane (1931), which reprises and extends arguments for the ‘law of the frame’ in Romanesque sculpture. Accordingly, the shapes of architectural members, such as capitals and tympana, determined the articulation of sculptural forms. This theory could account for the genesis of a wide array of monumental carvings, from foliate capitals to narrative reliefs, but ultimately it had a rather limited impact on the field of Romanesque sculptural studies. In a scathing critique, Schapiro argued that Baltrušaitis’s book—and by implication Focillon’s methods—robbed Romanesque sculptors of agency and neglected the religious and expressive meanings of this art form....


Richard K. Emmerson

Illuminated Ottonian manuscript (205×295 mm; Bamberg, Staatsbibl., MS. Bibl. 140) comprising 106 folios, divided into two halves, the first containing 50 miniatures illustrating the Book of Revelation, the second with 5 full-page miniatures illustrating Gospel readings from the Nativity to Pentecost. Separating the sections are two full-page images each with two registers. On the left St Peter and St Paul crown a young ruler, who is given obeisance by personifications of the four peoples of the empire, depicted below. They recall the personifications bringing gifts to the emperor in the Gospels of Otto III (Munich, Bayer. Staatsbib., Clm. 4453). Facing this imperial scene, on the right, Old Testament figures are paired with four personifications of the victorious virtues they model for the ruler: Abraham/Obedience, Moses/Purity, David/Repentance, and Job/Patience. The Apocalypse miniatures, of varying size and interspersed within the Latin text, are painted on gold grounds. Their iconography, descending from a Roman archetype, is related to the Carolingian Valenciennes Apocalypse (early 9th century; Valenciennes, Bib. Mun., MS. 99) and the contemporary Apocalypse fresco of Novara Baptistery. The vigorous colours and sumptuous execution of the miniatures, including an early detailed ...


Sheila Edmunds

[Baemler, Johann; Bemler, Hans]

(fl 1453–1504).

German illuminator and printer . He is listed in the Augsburg tax rolls from 1453 as a scribe and from 1477 as a printer. Bämler belonged to the guild of painters, glassmakers, woodcut-makers and goldbeaters, eventually achieving the rank of Zwollfer (director). Examples of his youthful work are two signed miniatures dated 1457 (New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M.45) and a signed historiated initial on a detached Antiphonal leaf (Philadelphia, PA, Free Lib., Lewis M 67:3). Between 1466 and 1468 he rubricated and decorated with calligraphic and painted ornament four books printed in Strasbourg: a Latin Bible (Wolfenbüttel, Herzog August Bib., Bibel-S.2°155), a copy of Thomas Aquinas’s Summa theologica (Munich, Bayer Staatsbib., 2° Inc. s.a.1146a) and two copies of St Augustine’s City of God (Chantilly, Mus. Condé, XXII.D.11, and Manchester, John Rylands U. Lib., no. 3218, Inc. 3A8).

Bämler’s knowledge of printing was probably acquired in Augsburg, in the shop of ...


(fl 1427–57).

Painter, probably of Swiss origin. He worked for the House of Savoy. In July 1427, after a three-month trip through Italy accompanying a Savoyard diplomatic mission, ‘Johannes Batheur de Friburgo’ (probably Swiss Fribourg) settled in Thonon, a principal seat of the House of Savoy. Ducal treasury rolls (Turin, Archv Stato) indicate that as part of his court duties Bapteur painted a statue of St Andrew (carved by ‘Monetus’) and an Apocalypse manuscript, made banners for parades, mummeries, banquets, and funerals, decorated carriages and litters, and designed tapestries, costumes, and masks. In the summer of 1432, assisted by ‘Dominico de Venise’ (?Domenico Veneziano), ‘Perenet lenlumineur’ (Peronet Lamy) and artists from Lausanne, Geneva, and Metz, Bapteur arranged lavish heraldic decoration in the new chapel and hall of the Château de Thonon for Amadeus VIII (reg 1391–1434), the 1st Duke of Savoy. Two years later at Seyssel, Bapteur, with his wife and five other painters, decorated the ships destined to take Amadeus’s daughter Margaret down the River Rhône to meet her prospective husband, Louis III of Anjou. The same year he painted and gilded a picture above a door at Ripaille, Amadeus’s hermitage on the south shore of Lake Geneva. In ...


Kay Davenport

(d 1316).

French bishop and patron . The Counts of Bar (later Dukes) held an independent fief, east of France, west of the empire, with their principal castle at Bar-le-Duc (Meuse). The fortunes of the house reached an apogee by the end of the 13th century when Count Henry III de Bar (d 1302) married Eleanor of England, the eldest daughter of King Edward I, at Bristol in 1293. Henry’s brother Renauld was for a brief period one of the great patrons of illuminated manuscripts and commissioned six volumes of the highest quality.

Renauld’s books were all liturgical, reflecting the particular circumstances of his career: he was head of the collegiate church of the Madeleine, Verdun, then bishop-elect at Metz, consecrated and ordained a priest at the same time, by 30 January 1303. The books thus required were a Breviary for the Cathedral and the Madeleine at Verdun, in two volumes (London, BL, Yates Thompson MS. 8; Verdun, Bib. Mun., MS. 107); a Missal for Verdun revised for use at Metz (Verdun, Bib. Mun., MS. 98); a Ritual (rites at which a priest officiates) for use at Metz (Metz, Bib. Mun., MS. 43; destr. ...


Roberto Coroneo and Vittorio Natale

Roberto Coroneo

Italian family of patrons and painters. They were prominent in northern central Italy between the 14th and 16th centuries. The merchant and statesman Andrea Bardi (fl Florence, 1332; d 1368) became involved in the Florentine conspiracy of 1340 and was twice exiled. He returned to Florence in 1346 and was the city’s ambassador to Avignon in 1351. He was buried in the Bardi family chapel of S Silvestro (Florence, Santa Croce), which contains Giotto’s frescoes depicting scenes from the Life of St Francis (c. 1320; see fig.). Bartolomeo Bardi (d Spoleto, 1349) was appointed Bishop of Spoleto in 1320 and initiated the restoration of S Pietro, Spoleto, from 1329, at about which date, in his capacity as papal governor, he is supposed to have promoted the construction of the aqueduct known as the Acqua Bardesca, near Terni.

The works of the painter (1) ...


David A. Walsh

(fl 1179).

Italian sculptor. Three pairs of bronze doors made from a common set of moulds are identified with the maker Barisanus of Trani: the doors of the west portals of the cathedrals of Ravello (Campania) and Trani (Apulia) and the north portal of Monreale Cathedral in Sicily. The door at Ravello is dated 1179; analysis of the use and reuse of moulds shows this composition to be the earliest of the three. Each of the three doors is composed of a series of panels cast in low relief. The junctures between the panels are covered by strips, which act as ornamental borders, all of the cast components of the assembly being fastened to a wooden core.

The doors display an extensive series of subjects. Although restoration and rearrangement of the panels make a precise determination of the original compositions difficult, it is nonetheless possible to suggest the intended arrangement. The selection of subjects of the earliest doors, at Ravello, best approaches a programme. At the top of this composition, ...


Stefano D’Ovidio

[Lat. Baruli, Barulum]

City in Apulia, southern Italy. Situated south of the River Ofanto, it was the port for the neighbouring Roman city of Canne. It featured in the Tabula Peutingeriana as Bardulum, and a basilica was built there in the 6th century. An important Norman stronghold, it was a major trade centre, attracting inhabitants from nearby cities and various ethnic groups. Its crucial position on routes to the Holy Land meant that several knightly orders had houses there. Frederick II proclaimed the Sixth Crusade here in 1228. Its heyday was in the Angevin era (1266–1383), with local noble families coming to prominence. The scene of a bloody conflict during the Italian Wars, known as the Challenge of Barletta (1503), it subsequently declined during the Spanish domination of southern Italy (1503–1707), with signs of recovery during the 19th century. Since 2004 Barletta, Andria, and Trani have become the administrative centres of the province of Barletta....



H. B. J. Maginnis

[Berna] (da Siena)

(fl c.1330–50).

Italian painter. According to I commentari, written by Lorenzo Ghiberti towards the end of his life, a Sienese painter named Barna painted several works in Tuscany, including many stories from the Old Testament in San Gimignano. Giorgio Vasari, in the first edition of his Vite (1550), listed a number of works by the Sienese painter ‘Berna’, including frescoed Old Testament scenes in the ‘Pieve’ of San Gimignano, but in the second edition (1568) he referred only to New Testament scenes in that church, dating them to the very end of Barna’s life, apparently to 1381. On the basis of Vasari’s second text a fresco cycle of the Infancy and Passion of Christ in the Collegiata of San Gimignano has been traditionally attributed to Barna da Siena, and it has been used as a departure point for attributing panel paintings to the artist.

Four major problems attend the ‘Barna question’. The first derives from the combined testimony of Ghiberti and Vasari. The brief account of the artist in the first edition of Vasari’s ...


Giuseppe Antonio Guazzelli

(b Sora, nr. Frosinone, Oct 30, 1538; d Rome, Jun 30, 1607).

Italian cardinal and church historian. A disciple of St. Filippo Neri and among the early and more influential members of the Congregation of the Oratory (Oratorians) established in Rome by Neri, as church historian, Baronio was involved in relevant projects promoted by the Roman Curia after the closure of the Council of Trent. As early as 1580 he collaborated on revising the Martyrologium Romanum, one of the post-Tridentine liturgical books, and then added to the same Martyrologium a general introduction and an extensive analytical commentary (respectively the Tractatio de Martyrologio Romano and the Notationes, both first published in 1586). Between 1588 and 1607 he published the Annales Ecclesiastici, in twelve volumes, where he dealt with church history from the birth of Christ down to 1198: such monumental erudite work was the main Catholic response to the Protestant Magdeburg Centuries (published 1559–1574). Different aspects of Baronio’s scholarly work are deeply linked. In his ...


(fl c. 1326; bur before 1362).

Italian painter. The only secure basis for reconstructing his oeuvre is the polyptych (1.43×2.21 m; Urbino, Pal. Ducale), inscribed anno dni millo cccxl. qto tpe clementis pp oc opus fecit johannes barontius de arimino, from the Convent of the Friars Minor, Macerata Feltria, the Marches. Four scenes from the Life of Christ and seven pinnacles with figures or narratives frame the central group of the Virgin and Child with SS Francis and Louis of Toulouse and Two Angels. This work shows Baronzio to have been a competent craftsman who worked with a delicate range of colours and followed established Riminese iconography. Unsuccessful attempts to indicate volume, such as the solid, thinly draped cone of the Virgin’s body, suggest an uneasy awareness of Giotto’s concerns, only superficially shared by an artist still solidly anchored in Veneto-Byzantine modes (see fig.). Baronzio’s attention to detail, disciplined chromatic effects and fondness for decorative patterns all define him as a diligent transmitter of the ossified traditions of the local school in its later stages. He seems to have been one of the painters, although not the designer, of the three fresco cycles in the chapel of S Nicola (...


Rosa Barovier Mentasti

Italian family of glassmakers. The family are recorded as working in Murano, Venice, as early as 1324, when Iacobello Barovier and his sons Antonio Barovier and Bartolomeo Barovier (b Murano, ?1315; d Murano, ?1380) were working there as glassmakers. The line of descent through Viviano Barovier (b Murano, ?1345; d Murano, 1399) to Iacobo Barovier (b Murano, ?1380; d Murano, 1457) led to the more noteworthy Barovier family members of the Renaissance. Iacobo was responsible for public commissions in Murano from 1425 to 1450. From as early as 1420 he was a kiln overseer, with a determining influence on the fortunes of the Barovier family.

During the 15th century Iacobo’s sons, notably Angelo Barovier (b Murano, ?1400; d Murano, 1460), and his sons Giovanni Barovier, Maria Barovier, and Marino Barovier (b Murano, before 1431; d Murano, 1485) were important glassmakers. From as early as ...


David Blisset and Colin Cunningham

English family of architects (1) Sir Charles Barry most admired ancient Greek architecture but is best remembered as the architect of the New Palace of Westminster (from 1834) in London, executed in the Gothic style with the help of A. W. N. Pugin (see London, §V, 3, (iii); see also Pugin family, §2). He was one of the most thoroughly professional, conscientious and successful of early 19th-century English architects. His five sons and two daughters included the architects Charles Barry the younger (1823–1900) and (2) E. M. Barry. Although eclipsed by his father, E. M. Barry (1830–80) was a respected and successful architect, who worked in an eclectic range of styles, but his premature death prevented his full potential being realised.

David Blisset

(b London, May 23, 1795; d London, May 12, 1860).

He was responsible for over 60 executed schemes and he hastened and popularized the reintroduction of a chaste Italianate architecture to Britain in the late 1820s. Though able to design convincingly in many styles and often labelled as one of the founders of 19th-century eclecticism, he was for most of his working life an advocate of Grecian ideals. His buildings are always beautifully planned and some, such as the New Palace of Westminster, are exquisite in their contrivance of plan and section....


Gaudenz Freuler



(fl 1277–95).

Catalan sculptor . He is documented as working on the west portal of Tarragona Cathedral between 1277 and 1282, and his activity there has traditionally been identified with the main, central portal of the façade, although the documents could equally well refer to the lateral, Adoration of the Magi portal. The sculpture of the central doorway (the trumeau Virgin and Child, various Apostles on the embrasures, the corbel angels and other related sculpture; reorganized by the Cascalls workshop from 1375) is executed in a refined and elegant Gothic style showing both Italian and French influences, with reminiscences of classicizing sculpture at Reims Cathedral. This work is stylistically related to the tomb of Bishop Bernat de Olivella (d 1287), the prelate who commissioned the portal, in S Tecla la Vella, Tarragona, and to a series of works in the region of Girona (Sp. Gerona): a Calvary (Girona, Mus. A.), some historiated capitals (Perelada, Mus. Castillo-Pal.), the ...


Robert G. Calkins

[Fr.: ‘bottom of the page’]

The area of an illuminated manuscript page beneath the block of text, containing figures or scenes, usually framed by border decoration but sometimes occupying the entire bottom margin of the page. The bas-de-page first appeared in Psalters, Books of Hours, and other manuscripts for personal devotion in the second half of the 13th century and became a frequently used field for the antics of lively creatures or fanciful hybrid animals in the 14th century. Sometimes the activities of these grotesques or drolleries refer to the subject-matter of a miniature or the content of the text on the same folio, but often they depict humorous or satirical secular themes. In the Belleville Breviary (1323–6; Paris, Bib. N., MSS lat. 10483–4), the bas-de-pages of the calendar are used to develop intricate iconographical themes of the triumph of the Church and the fall of the Synagogue over the 12-month sequence, while the ...


James Bugslag


(fl ?1363; d Paris, 1398–9).

French tapestry-weaver and textile dealer. He was one of the most successful of several French luxury textile merchants based mainly in Paris and Arras during the late 14th century and the only one whose work is known to have survived. He was a citizen of Paris and is referred to variously as a weaver of high-warp tapestries, a merchant of tapis sarrazinois, and, more generally, a merchant. His second wife, Marguerite de Verdun, who came from a family of weavers in Troyes, continued his business after his death with his son Jean (b c. 1371). Bataille worked for some of the most distinguished aristocratic clients of the French court from at least 1373 (and perhaps as early as 1363). References to his workshop are few, however, and the range and scope of his activities make it clear that he more commonly acted as a middleman, negotiating often sizable commissions (sometimes involving extended payment schedules), farming out work to individual workshops, buying textiles from as far away as Arras and Caen, and occasionally delivering goods as far away as Bruges. He became rich and, at least by ...



Lucília Verdelho da Costa

Former Dominican priory, dedicated to S Maria da Vitória, c. 10 km south of Leiria, Portugal. Founded by John I (reg 1385–1433), the first king of the Aviz dynasty, to celebrate the Battle of Aljubarrota (1385), it is the most representative and important example of Late Gothic architecture in Portugal. It marks the highest point of the movement that began at Alcobaça Abbey and such buildings as Évora Cathedral and the chevet of Lisbon Cathedral, in which the national tradition of Gothic architecture is combined with a verticality that has few parallels in northern Europe (see Gothic, §II, 2). Although the decoration shows influences from French Flamboyant and English Perpendicular, its originality and the Portuguese style are unmistakable. The exterior of this vast cloistered complex, which the King presented to the Dominicans in 1388, has a strong horizontal emphasis in which the traceried outlines of parapets, pinnacles, steeples, and buttresses stand out in the mass of limestone. The west front is divided into three by narrow pilasters and buttresses, and the projecting doorway has a tympanum and archivolts richly carved with Old Testament kings, angels, and prophets; the façade is also pierced by a fine Flamboyant window. As at Alcobaça Abbey the interior is narrow (22 m) in proportion to its height (32.46 m). Two-bay transepts open off the crossing, and to the east is a row of five apsidal chapels, the central one projecting. The chancel, transepts, and nave are all the same height. The vaults, which are supported on compound piers, have ornamented keystones and both longitudinal and transverse ridge ribs. The interior is lit by the clerestory and tall aisle windows, and the apse has two rows of lancets, making ten windows in all (...