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Article

Kaija Koskimies

(Fredrik)

(b Helsinki, Oct 24, 1854; d April 9, 1895).

Finnish painter and illustrator. He studied under Adolf von Becker (1831–1909) at the drawing school of the Finnish Art Association in 1869 and in the drawing class of Helsinki University from 1872 to 1875, also studying privately with E. J. Löfgren (1825–84) and Bernhard Reinhold (1824–92). In 1876 Berndtson was awarded a scholarship to Paris, and he spent most of his time there studying at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Jean-Léon Gérôme, whose influence can be seen in such works as Berndtson’s Game of Chess (1878; Mänttä, Serlachius A. Mus.). Berndtson was also much influenced by the detailed genre and costume paintings of Ernest Meissonier, as seen for example in Art Lovers in the Louvre (1879; Mänttä, Serlachius A. Mus.), shown at the Salon of 1879, which reveals his technical skill and accuracy in the treatment of costume and interiors. The Bride’s Song...

Article

Jure Mikuž

(b Gunclje, nr Ljubljana, Sept 6, 1933).

Slovenian painter, printmaker, sculptor, illustrator and poet. He graduated from the Academy of Fine Arts, Ljubljana, in 1955 and later received his MFA in painting and engraving. He continued his studies in 1959 with Johnny Friedlaender in Paris. After 1970 he taught painting at the Ljubljana Academy. He was one of the most outstanding Yugoslav artists after the early 1960s and won several major international awards, including the Grand Prix of the Tokyo, Ljubljana and São Paulo biennales of graphic art.

Bernik’s early works, such as his series of flat picture surfaces, Magmas, Quarries and Burnt Soil, were influenced by Art informel. In the mid-1960s Bernik was an important exponent of the type of European painting based on the use of words. The Great Letter (1964; Ljubljana, Gal. Mod. A.) combines the devices and texture of Art informel with evocations of Byzantine religious texts. At the same time he was also painting pictures with sensually explicit, almost sculpturally or haptically modelled traditional iconographic objects such as the apple, table and cloth, or bread, or pictures in which a written-out word with its meaning was a substitute for a certain object. Here he was responding to European Nouveau Réalisme, Pop art and conceptualism, and the work of Francis Bacon. In the late 1970s Bernik again dispensed with the object in his pictures, producing a series of abstract paintings entitled ...

Article

Hans Georg Gmelin

(b ?Minden, fl 1367; d Hamburg, between Feb 20, 1414 and May 13, 1415).

German painter, illuminator, and wood-carver. His major work, the Grabow Altarpiece (Hamburg, Ksthalle), a combination of carved figures and painted scenes, is one of the high points of late 14th-century north German art. In the many documentary references to him in Hamburg, he is referred to as ‘painter’, although he was also responsible for colouring statues. At least the designs of the sculpture of some of his altars have been attributed to him. His lively narrative style, with expressive and forceful gestures, made him one of the most influential of early German artists.

Probably originally from Minden in Westphalia, Bertram is mentioned for the first time in the Hamburg city accounts of 1367, when he was paid for painting a Virgin (untraced), restoring a sculpted angel and painting a letter case. Sixty documents relate to him from his lifetime, an astounding number for a 14th-century artist, and before 1487 he was the only painter mentioned by name in the Hamburg records. In ...

Article

Mariana Katzarova

(b Dolni Dŭbnik, nr Pleven, July 24, 1901; d Sofia, Jan 23, 1958).

Bulgarian cartoonist, illustrator, draughtsman, painter, teacher, editor and critic. In 1926 he studied painting at the Academy of Art, Sofia, and although he was later known for his paintings, he achieved greater fame as a political and social cartoonist and newspaper and magazine illustrator. His early cartoons are courageous commentaries on political events in Bulgaria from 1925 to 1934, wittily satirizing the monarchy and dictatorships. He also mocked the machinations of the various bourgeois political parties as they fought for power. Among his most celebrated cartoons are the Kidnapping of the Constitution and the Tsar’s Family, published in the Sofia newspapers Zemedelsko Zname and Sturetz, as well as Suvremennik and other left-wing publications. He also illustrated the series Spanish Chronicle (1936). In 1940 he began freelancing for the anti-Fascist satirical newspaper Sturshel (Sofia) and in 1941 became its editor. During World War II he executed many political cartoons opposing Fascism and Nazism (e.g. ...

Article

(fl 1388; d after 1450).

Italian painter and illuminator. Milanese writers from the humanist Uberto Decembrio (1350–1427) to Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo in the 16th century described Michelino as the greatest artist of his time. He was especially praised for his skill and prodigious talent in the naturalistic portrayal of animals and birds. Records of payments made in 1388 to a ‘Michelino pictore’ who painted scenes from the Life of St Augustine in the second cloister of the Augustinian convent of S Pietro in Ciel d’Oro, Pavia, are thought to be the earliest references to the artist. He was still resident in Pavia in 1404, when the Fabbrica (Cathedral Works) of Milan Cathedral decided to consult him as ‘the greatest in the arts of painting and design’. The frescoes in S Pietro in Ciel d’Oro and a panel by Michelino dated 1394 that was in S Mustiola, Pavia, in the 17th century have not survived, but two of the manuscripts with illumination firmly attributed to Michelino date from his time in Pavia: St Augustine’s ...

Article

Robert G. Calkins

Book that describes and draws Christian moralizations from the characteristics and habits of animals, birds, fish, reptiles, and even minerals, real and imaginary. It was especially popular during the Middle Ages in western Europe. Its core early Christian text, partly informed by Indian, Hebrew, and Egyptian legends and known as the Physiologus (often translated as ‘The Naturalist’ or ‘Natural Historian’, but perhaps more appropriately understood as the ‘Philosopher of Natural History’), was originally composed in Greek, probably in Alexandria during the first half of the 2nd century AD. Ethiopian, Syrian, and Armenian translations of the Greek text appeared by the 5th century. A Latin translation, possibly available in the 4th century, was circulating by the early 6th. A fragmentary Old English poetic text dates from the first half of the 8th century. In the earliest Latin Bestiaries (12th century), the Physiologus text is interpolated with excerpts from the De animalibus...

Article

Biba  

M. B. Whitaker

British fashion boutique. Established in 1963 by fashion illustrator Barbara Hulanicki (b 1936) as a mail-order catalogue, Biba swiftly evolved into a popular London boutique, and finally, from 1973 to 1975, a short-lived department store. Biba offered eclectic and affordable clothing, accessories, cosmetics and other products to students and teenagers, consequently becoming a fundamental driving force behind street fashion during the 1960s and 1970s (see fig.).

Barbara Hulanicki, born in Warsaw, worked as a fashion illustrator in London for a variety of magazines in the late 1950s and early 1960s. This introduced her to the privileged and dictatorial world of haute couture, which turned her away from high fashion. With the encouragement of her husband, Steven Fitz-Simon, she began designing and started the Biba Postal Boutique in 1963. This mail-order catalogue, named after her sister, was a quick success. Her most popular design for the catalogue was a gingham frock and kerchief that later became a staple of the Biba shop (...

Article

Bible  

Don Denny, Karen Gould, M. Heinlen, Gerhard Schmidt, Nigel J. Morgan and Thérèse Metzger

Term meaning ‘the books’, derived via Latin from Greek, used to refer to the sacred writings of Judaism and Christianity. The Bible is composed of two parts: the Hebrew scriptures or Old Testament, written originally in Hebrew (with some parts in Aramaic), which consists of the writings of the Jewish people; and the New Testament, composed in Greek, which records the story of Jesus and the beginnings of Christianity. The stories, moral teachings, and theological doctrines in the Judeo-Christian Bible have provided subjects for an immense body of visual art. Although predominantly a Christian art form (see §I below), a significant body of Jewish imagery has been inspired by the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament (see §II below). For Christians, a canon of biblical books was established in the Early Christian period, although many apocryphal books continued to circulate; from the late medieval period onwards poetic and dramatic reinterpretations of biblical narratives were popular. Much of this extra-canonical literature contributed to the development of such important subjects in Christian art as the ...

Article

Charles M. Rosenberg

Italian illuminated manuscript, made in Ferrara between 1455 and 1461. The manuscript (Modena, Bib. Estense, MS. V.G. 12–13, lat. 422–3) consists of two full-folio volumes of 311 and 293 leaves respectively and contains more than 1000 individual illuminations; it has been termed an encylopedia of 15th-century Ferrarese illumination. The text is written in two columns in a fine Renaissance hand by the Bolognese scribe Pietro Paolo Marone. The contract for illumination of the Bible was given to Taddeo Crivelli and Franco dei Russi in 1455. Two rates of payment were specified, one for normal pages and one for ‘principii’ or incipits. The contract, known from two 18th-century copies, also stipulated that the incipits should be ‘as magnificent as the manuscript deserves’, a phrase that seems to reflect the aesthetic ambitions of the patron, Borso d’Este. On every page of the manuscript is at least one figurative illumination as well as dense border decorations. The incipits for each book of the Bible are much more elaborately illuminated, with larger and more numerous miniatures. At the beginning of the project Taddeo and Franco were lent a French Bible, probably the ...

Article

Joachim E. Gaehde

[Bible of San Callisto]

Illuminated manuscript (Rome, S Paolo fuori le mura), probably made at Reims c. 870. It is the most extensively illustrated of all extant Carolingian Bibles. A dedicatory poem by Ingobertus referens et scriba fidelis and the verses accompanying an image of a ruler establish that it was made for a King Charles, now identified as Charles the Bald, who when he was crowned Emperor in Rome in 875 probably gave it to Pope John VIII, and that the text was written by an otherwise unidentified scribe named Ingobert. The Bible has been in Rome (S Paolo fuori le mura) since the papacy of Gregory VII (1073–85).

The manuscript contains 337 parchment folios measuring 448×355 mm. The decoration consists of 92 initials, of which 36 occupy full pages, 4 canon tables, and 24 frontispiece miniatures. The initials represent the finest work in the calligraphy of the Reims school and are, despite their variety, of one cast. The miniatures, however, show variations in style and technique in which it is possible to distinguish the work of three separate artists who reassembled and translated shared pictorial sources into their own idioms. These sources were a mid-9th century Tours Bible and Gospel Book (untraced) and a cycle of Bible illustrations from an imperial atelier at Constantinople of the later 4th to the mid-5th century. Of the three artists, the so-called ...

Article

Lee Sorensen

Term applied to the compilation of the literature on an art subject; it can also refer to the study of art historiography or to the study of artistic book production (such as livres d’artistes). Art bibliographies usually take the form of sources cited at the end of scholarly treatises or of such lists presented as books or other formats (e.g. computer disk, optical disk or microform). This article is restricted to the intellectual compilation and classification of printed material about art. Art bibliography differs fundamentally from bibliography in the other humanities, such as music or literature. In these fields bibliography includes both the description and study of the primary texts, such as manuscripts or first editions, and the classification of the secondary sources. The first of these, the descriptive level, is almost absent from the bibliography of art. There the primary document is the work of art, which, other than manuscripts, ...

Article

Bihzad  

Priscilla P. Soucek

[Kamāl al-Dīn Bihzād; Behzad]

(b c. 1450; d Tabriz, 1535–6).

Persian illustrator. The most famous master of Persian painting, he is important both for the paintings he executed and for the wider influence of the style associated with his name. Evidently orphaned at a young age, Bihzad is said to have been raised and trained by Mirak, a painter and calligrapher employed in Herat by Sultan Husayn (see Timurid family §II, (8) and Islamic art, §III, 4(v)(d)) and his minister ‛Alishir Nava’i. The earliest literary reference to Bihzad’s work is contained in the Khulāṣat al-akḥbār (‘Essences of the eminent’), a history of the Timurid dynasty composed by Khwandamir in 1499–1500 but recounting events before 1471. Khwandamir described Bihzad as one of several skilled painters associated with these two patrons. The senior artist among them was Bihzad’s teacher, Mirak, but greatest praise was reserved for another painter, Qasim ‛Ali. By 1524, when Khwandamir completed his general history, Habīb al-siyar...

Article

Michael D. Willis

(b Ormskirk, Lancs, Oct 17, 1879; d Vancouver, Oct 15, 1957).

Canadian painter and illustrator of English birth. She briefly attended the Liverpool Art School, the Lambeth School of Art, London, and finally, from 1900, the Slade School of Art, London, where she studied with Henry Tonks and others. From 1901 Biller was a successful illustrator of children’s magazines, books and Christmas annuals, chiefly for T. C. & E. C. Jack of London. Many titles were translated into German, and they enjoyed wide circulation in Europe. After marrying John Biller (1912), she emigrated to Canada. While her commercial work virtually ceased there, she never stopped illustrating her life and surroundings in letters and sketchbooks. After her husband’s death in World War I, Biller settled with her two children on James Island (near Victoria) in 1919. In 1927 she moved to Victoria, where she was an active member of the (Vancouver) Island Arts and Crafts Society, founded by Josephine Crease. Biller’s watercolours often appeared in the Society’s exhibitions. Relocation to Vancouver in ...

Article

Xu Bing  

Melissa Chiu

(b Chongqing, 1955).

Chinese installation artist . Xu Bing spent much of his childhood in Beijing where his parents were professors at Beijing University. He said that being surrounded by books during this formative period in his life gave him an intense interest in them. Xu studied printmaking at the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing (1987). One of Xu’s most memorable early works is Tian Shu ( A Book from the Sky , 1987–91), which was created during the 1985 New Wave Movement in China—a period of new-found freedom for artistic experimentation. Tian Shu consisted of reams of paper printed with Chinese characters, each one in some way incorrect, so that the cumulative effect is a library of nonsensical words. The labour needed to create this art work was substantial, taking the artist nearly four years to complete carving the individual characters into woodblocks. The reams of printed paper were exhibited in three different ways: as traditional hand-bound books, suspended large scrolls, and wall posters. ...

Article

Elizabeth F. Bennett

revised by Lei Xue

[I Ping-shou; zi Zisi; hao Moqing]

(b Ninghua, Fujian Province, 1754; d Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1815).

Chinese calligrapher, minor painter, and seal-carver. He passed the civil service examination to become a jinshi in 1789. He then had a series of official posts, serving on the Board of Justice, as an examiner, and as a prefectural magistrate first at Huizhou in Guangdong Province and then at Yangzhou in Jiangsu Province. Yi is generally recognized as a pioneering figure in the stele studies (beixue) movement in calligraphy (see China, §IV 2., (vii)). He occasionally painted landscapes, few of which are extant. His writings on calligraphy can be found in his Collected Poems of the Lingering Spring Thatched Hall (Liuchun caotang shichao).

Yi shared contemporary antiquarian interest and owned a large collection of rubbings from ancient inscriptions. In calligraphy Yi is best known for his clerical script (lishu), a modern reinterpretation of the style of Han dynasty stone steles. He also developed distinctive style in running script (...

Article

Richard Humphreys

(b Lancaster, Aug 10, 1869; d Reading, March 10, 1943).

English writer and critic. He studied Classics at Trinity College, Oxford. From 1893 he worked at the British Museum, London, first in the Department of Printed Books and later in the Department of Prints and Drawings. Throughout his life he worked as both a poet and art historian. At the turn of the century he was part of a group of intellectuals and artists who met at the Wiener Cafe in New Oxford Street; among them were William Rothenstein, Charles Ricketts, Charles Shannon, Lucien Pissarro, Edmund Dulac (1882–1953) and Walter Sickert. Many of Binyon’s poetic works were illustrated by artists, and his play Attila (1907) had sets by Ricketts. Rothenstein and William Strang painted portraits of him, and Dulac produced a fine caricature of him dressed as a Japanese actor.

Binyon produced major scholarly catalogues for the British Museum, as well as popular books on Botticelli and on Dutch and British art; his work on William Blake and his followers was particularly extensive. By ...

Article

[Giampietrino]

(fl c. 1471/4–1513).

Italian illuminator and engraver. In 1894 he was tentatively associated with his principal work, the Hours of Bona Sforza (London, BL, Add. MSS 34294, 45722 and 62997), and became known as the Master of the Sforza Book of Hours or the Pseudo-Antonio da Monza; in 1956 he was conclusively identified by his signature psbr io petr biragvs ft on the frontispiece of a copy (Warsaw, N. Lib., Inc. F. 1347) of Giovanni Simonetta’s life of Francesco Sforza, the Sforziada, published first in Latin and then in Italian translation at Milan in 1490.

Three choir-books from Brescia Cathedral dated c. 1471–4 (Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio-Martinengo, nos 22, 23 and 25) are the earliest known works signed by Birago. It has been suggested that he was active in Venice during the 1480s. Miniatures attributed to him appear in a Breviary of the Venetian Barozzo family, printed on parchment by Nicolas Jenson at Venice in ...

Article

Sarit Shalev-Eyni

Earliest surviving illuminated Ashkenazi Haggadah (Jerusalem, Israel Mus., Ms. 180/57), copied around 1300 for an unknown patron by a scribe named Menahem. The style of the figures depicted against the bare parchment and designed in unified contrasting colours is paralleled in manuscripts of the early 14th century Upper Rhine region. The programme of decoration focuses on text illustrations, including ritual and biblical scenes, dispersed along the outer margins. They are arranged in several narrative clusters and some of them bear polemic meanings. Full-page miniatures appear at the beginning and end of the manuscript: the master of the house seated with his wife at the festive Seder table opens the Haggadah (fol. 1v), while an image of the heavenly Jerusalem fills the last page (fol. 47r), in direct association with the concluding phrase, ‘Next Year in Jerusalem’, written in large letters on the opposite folio. Birds’ beaks are assigned to most of the human figures in the Haggadah, sometimes with the addition of pigs’ ears, a combination giving them the appearance of griffins. Bird- and animal-headed figures are a phenomenon typical of 13th- and 14th-century Ashkenazi illumination whose meaning has yet to be fully understood....

Article

M. N. Sokolov

(Spiridonovich)

(b Sevastopol, June 27, 1925).

Russian illustrator and printmaker. He studied at the Polygraphic Institute in Moscow (1947–52). From the 1960s he was counted as one of the leading Soviet book illustrators. He combined in his work both keen attention to the techniques of 20th-century foreign graphic artists and the tradition of the Russian school of book design. He was particularly impressed by the style of the Taller de la Gráfica Popular founded in Mexico by Leopoldo Méndez. In his book illustrations Bisti combined expressive succinctness in the use of image and symbol, rough emotionalism and a perfection of rhythm, achieving a fine understanding of the poetic style of the authors he illustrated. Among his best works are the woodcut illustrations to Vladimir Mayakovsky’s poem V. I. Lenin (Moscow, 1967) and to the Iliad (Moscow, 1978). Bisti also made independent prints.

Bisti, DmitryD. S. Bisti: Grafika [D. S. Bisti: graphics], text by ...

Article

A. C. de la Mare

(b ?Florence, c. 1421; bur Florence, July 1498).

Italian bookseller, stationer (cartolaio) and writer. He was one of six children of Filippo (d 1426), a wool chandler, the eldest of whom, Jacopo (d 1468), became a successful doctor after partnering Bernardo Cennini (b 1415) as a goldsmith until c. 1446. Vespasiano himself recorded that he had no formal education in Latin; by 1434 he was already working for the stationer and binder Michele Guarducci, whose double shop was on the corner of the Via del Proconsolo, the centre of the Florentine book trade, opposite the Palazzo del Podestà (now the Bargello). Humanists such as Niccolò Niccoli, the avid book collector, frequented the shop and encouraged Vespasiano in his studies. By the 1440s he was acting as a bookseller in his own right, although he did not become a partner in the shop until shortly before Guarducci’s death in 1451. He exploited the commercial possibilities of manuscripts, especially of the classics and the Church Fathers, written and decorated in the new ‘humanistic’ style developed in Florence by Niccoli, Poggio Bracciolini and their circle. This was the result of having seen how much demand there had been for such books among the dignitaries and scholars who had assembled in Florence from all over Europe for the Council of Reunion between ...