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Deborah Edwards

(b Isle of Man, Nov 27, 1894; d Sydney, Nov 19, 1937).

Australian sculptor of British birth. He studied at Nottingham School of Art from 1910 to 1915 and again, after active service in World War I, in 1919. He then transferred to the Royal College of Art, London, and was awarded a diploma in sculpture in 1921. In 1922 he received a British School in Rome scholarship for study in Italy but cut this short and emigrated to Australia in May 1923 to become head teacher of the sculpture department at East Sydney Technical College.

Hoff’s work belongs to an inter-war classical revival and his sculptures attest to his absorption of the Paganist–Vitalist theories promoted in Australia in the 1920s and 1930s by his close associate Norman Lindsay. Hoff’s work was generally life-affirming and sexually adventurous for its period. His major paganist sculpture is the relief Deluge: Stampede of the Lower Gods (4.5 m wide; 1925–7; Canberra, N.G.), which depicts crowds of mermaids, dryads, tritons, satyrs and Australian Aborigines. The life-size ...

Article

Cynthia Goodman

(Georg Albert)

(b Weissenberg, Bavaria, March 21, 1880; d New York, Feb 17, 1966).

American painter, teacher and theorist of German birth. He moved with his family to Munich in 1886 and in 1896 left home to become assistant to the director of public works of the State of Bavaria; he distinguished himself with a number of inventions, including an electromagnetic comptometer, a radar device for ships, a sensitized light bulb and a portable freezer unit for military purposes. In spite of his parents’ strong objection and their hopes for his career as a scientist, in 1898 he enrolled in the art school run by Moritz Heymann (b 1870) in Munich. Hofmann subsequently studied with a succession of teachers and was particularly influenced by Willi Schwarz (b 1889), who familiarized him with French Impressionism, a style that affected his earliest known paintings, such as Self-portrait (1902; New York, Emmerich Gal., see Goodman, 1986, p. 14).

In 1903 Hofmann was introduced by Schwarz to ...

Article

Sheila O’Connell

(b London, Nov 10, 1697; d London, 25–26 Oct 1764).

English painter and engraver. He played a crucial part in establishing an English school of painting, both through the quality of his painting and through campaigns to improve the status of the artist in England. He also demonstrated that artists could become independent of wealthy patrons by publishing engravings after their own paintings. He is best remembered for the satirical engravings that gave the name ‘Hogarthian’ to low-life scenes of the period.

William Hogarth was born in St Bartholomew’s Close, London. His father, Richard Hogarth, was a Latin scholar and schoolmaster, who also became the proprietor of a coffee-house that failed; as a consequence, he was confined for four years (1708–12) as a debtor in the Fleet Prison. His misfortunes powerfully impressed Hogarth with the importance of maintaining financial independence. Having shown a talent for drawing, on 2 February 1713 he was apprenticed to Ellis Gamble, a silver-plate engraver of Blue Cross Street, Leicester Fields (now Leicester Square), London, and by ...

Article

Mária Szobor-Bernáth

(b Máramarossziget [now Sighet, Romania], Feb 2, 1857; d Técső [now Tyachiv, Ukraine], May 8, 1918).

Hungarian painter and teacher. He started studying painting in Budapest but received most of his artistic training (1878–82) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich. He then settled in Munich until 1895. The major work of his early period, Threshing Corn (1885; Budapest, N.G.), combines genre painting with carefully recorded naturalistic detail, very much in the spirit of Wilhelm Leibl and Jules Bastien-Lepage. He rebelled, however, against the academic tradition of history painting: in a small-scale sketch for Zrinyi Rides Forth (Esztergom, Mus. Christ.) the gentle style undermines the academic principles of the genre.

In 1886 Hollósy founded his own private school in Munich: his teaching methods were unrestricted by convention, and this drew a good many young artists to the school: Germans such as Otto Greiner as well as many Hungarians (István Csók, Károly Ferenczy and others). In 1896, with a group of young painters, he established a summer school for his students at ...

Article

Michael Spens

(b Fulpmes, Tyrol, March 27, 1886: d Salzburg, June 12, 1983).

Austrian teacher and architect. He was educated at the Technische Hochschule, Vienna, where he was made professor in 1919 at the early age of 32. Although he entered architectural practice in 1914, his reputation rests largely on an influential teaching career. After a period as professor at the Staatsgewerbeschule, Innsbruck, in 1924 he returned to Vienna, becoming professor and head of the master class in architecture at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. He held the professorship at the Kunstakademie, Düsseldorf, from 1928 to 1932, while retaining the Viennese post until he was forced to leave Austria in 1938. In 1940–49 he was a professor of architecture at the Technical School in Istanbul, Turkey, and resumed his professorial post at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, in 1954. The core of his teaching method derived from the master class system, which he pursued in each post he occupied. This was particularly effective at Vienna in the 1950s. His romantic–historical approach, involving emphasis on the geographical and historical context and allowing a degree of irrationality and sensuality in his students’ work, helped to lay the foundations for Austrian architecture in the 1970s and 1980s, when a new era of experimentation and innovation emerged....

Article

Wanda Kemp-Welch

(b Dorpat, Russia [now Tartu, Estonia], April 21, 1908; d Warsaw, Aug 25, 1988).

Polish architect, designer and teacher. He graduated in architecture from Warsaw Technical University (1936) and then received a scholarship to study in Italy. His work in the 1930s included the design of posters in the style of Tadeusz Gronowski (b 1894); he also designed two tourist hostels (1933–5; with Tadeusz Sieczkowski), in Czarnohora, Ukraine, and he won first prize in a competition (1935; with others) for the development of Pole Mokotowskie, the southern quarter of Warsaw, which was not executed. Other work included interior and exhibition design, for example the interior of the Polish pavilion (1939) at the World’s Fair, New York. In 1938 he began a long teaching career at Warsaw Technical University; he first taught architectural design under Rudolf Świerczyński and after 1945 he taught architectural history and industrial design there. In 1945 he also became Director of the urban planning studio at BOS, the Office for the Reconstruction of the Capital. One of his major works was the design (...

Article

[Friedrich; Fritz]

(b Vienna, Dec 15, 1928; d New Zealand, Feb 19, 2000).

Austrian painter and printmaker. Born to a Jewish mother, he foiled the Nazis and was able to shield some of his relatives for a time. During Nazi rule he studied in Vienna, at public schools and at the Montessori school before briefly attending the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. His floridly patterned works with their haunting and rich colours are dependent on the decorative tradition that produced Art Nouveau. The luxurious, sinuous forms and expressive distortions affiliate him to figurative artists such as Klimt and Schiele. Hundertwasser’s subject-matter modified these stylistic sources and was often influenced by his great interest in a sane environment expressed as a stable relationship between man, the built world and nature. He travelled widely and developed a pictorial vocabulary unspecific to any place or time. Hundertwasser made significant contributions to printing techniques with such works as the woodcut series Nana Hiakv Mizu (1973; with Japanese artists). The decorative and technical opulence of his work made him a controversial figure with the critics, while assuring him a large popular following....

Article

Shearer West

(b Kilbride, Western Isles, May 23, 1718; d London, March 30, 1783).

Scottish physician, patron, collector and museum founder. His father intended him for the Church, but Hunter’s desire to practise medicine took him in 1741 to London, where he was assistant to Dr James Douglas. From 1746 he gave public lectures on anatomy. He obtained his licence from the Royal College of Physicians in 1756 and became an FRS in 1768, when he was also appointed the first Professor of Anatomy at the Royal Academy. Johann Zoffany’s painting of Dr William Hunter Lecturing at the Royal Academy of Arts (c. 1773; London, Royal Coll. Physicians) reveals Hunter’s method of lecturing before écorché casts modelled from the corpses of criminals executed at Tyburn. Hunter’s interest in natural history combined with that in anatomy and dissection induced him to stress the minute study of nature—an emphasis that contrasted with Joshua Reynolds’s insistence on the generalized presentation of forms.

Hunter was an avid collector of paintings, books and manuscripts, as well as geological, ethnographic, zoological and anatomical objects. He began collecting at the sale of ...

Article

Evita Arapoglou

(b Mytilene, Lesbos, Jan 11, 1853; d Athens, Dec 13, 1932).

Greek painter. He studied painting and sculpture at the School of Arts in Athens (1870–76) and in 1877 went to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich to continue his painting studies under Ludwig von Löfftz (1845–1910) and Wilhelm Lindenschmit the younger (1829–95). He remained in Munich, painting genre pictures, mythological scenes, and portraits. Influenced by German academic Realism, his most famous paintings were of children (e.g. First Steps, 1892; Athens, N.G.). In 1900 he was invited by the Greek government to return to Athens to head the National Gallery, and in 1904 he was appointed Director of the School of Fine Arts. In addition to genre paintings, mythological scenes, and some landscapes, at this time he produced formal portraits of eminent Greeks (e.g. King George I, 1914; Athens, N. Hist. Mus.). He did not adopt new artistic tendencies, including Impressionism and Expressionism, yet his late, rather decorative paintings of nudes, still-lifes, and flower compositions betray a form of reserved academic Impressionism (e.g. ...

Article

Patricia Condon

(b Montauban, Aug 29, 1780; d Paris, Jan 14, 1867).

French painter. He was the last grand champion of the French classical tradition of history painting. He was traditionally presented as the opposing force to Delacroix in the early 19th-century confrontation of Neo-classicism and Romanticism, but subsequent assessment has shown the degree to which Ingres, like Neo-classicism, is a manifestation of the Romantic spirit permeating the age. The chronology of Ingres’s work is complicated by his obsessive perfectionism, which resulted in multiple versions of a subject and revisions of the original. For this reason, all works cited in this article are identified by catalogue raisonné number: Wildenstein (w) for paintings; Naef (n) for portrait drawings; and Delaborde (d) for history drawings.

His father, Jean-Marie-Joseph Ingres (1755–1814), a decorative painter and sculptor as well as an amateur musician, taught him the basics of drawing and also the violin. In accord with contemporary academic practice, Ingres devoted much of his attention to copying from his father’s collection of prints after such masters as Raphael, Titian, Correggio, Rubens, Watteau and Boucher; none of these copies survives. The earliest known drawings, some signed ...

Article

Inkhuk  

John E. Bowlt

[Institut Khudozhestvennoy Kultury; Rus.: ‘Institute of Artistic Culture’]

Soviet institute for research in the arts that flourished from 1920 to 1926. Inkhuk was a dominant force in the development of Soviet art, architecture and design in the 1920s. Founded in Moscow in May 1920, with affiliations in Petrograd (now St Petersburg) and Vitebsk, it attracted many members of the avant-garde, especially Lyubov’ Popova and Aleksandr Rodchenko; its key administrative positions were occupied by Vasily Kandinsky (Moscow), Vladimir Tatlin (Petrograd) and Kazimir Malevich (Vitebsk). At one time Inkhuk maintained contact with Berlin (through El Lissitzky and the journal Veshch’/Gegenstand/Objet), the Netherlands, Hungary and Japan, although it never really had the chance to develop these international connections. One of the principal aims of Inkhuk was to reduce the modern movements such as Suprematism and Tatlin’s concept of the ‘culture of materials’ (see Tatlin, Vladimir) to a scientifically based programme that could be used for educational and research purposes—a development analogous to the initial endeavours of the Russian Formalist school of literary criticism, which attempted to analyse literature in terms of formal structures. In its aspiration to elaborate a rational basis for artistic practice, Inkhuk encouraged discussions on specific issues of artistic content and form, such as the debate on ‘composition versus construction’ in ...

Article

Anna Rowland

(b Südern-Linden, Nov 11, 1888; d Zurich, May 25, 1967).

Swiss painter, textile designer, teacher, writer and theorist. He trained first as a primary school teacher in Berne (1904–6), where he became familiar with progressive educational and psychoanalytical ideas. He was, however, interested in art and music, and in 1909 he decided to become a painter. He enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Geneva but was so disappointed that he returned to teacher training in Berne. He read widely and developed an interest in religion and mystic philosophy. After qualifying he returned to Geneva and greatly enjoyed the course on the geometric elements of art run by the Swiss painter Eugène Gilliard (1861–1921). After travelling in Europe, in 1913 Itten went to Stuttgart to study at the academy of Adolf Hölzel, a pioneer of abstraction who was also convinced of the importance of automatism in art. Greatly impressed, Itten absorbed his teaching on colour and contrast and his analyses of Old Masters paintings. Encouraged by Hölzel, he made abstract collages incorporating torn paper and cloth....

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Leningrad, July 3, 1929).

Russian curator and historian of Islamic art. He studied and taught at the University of Leningrad in the late 1940s and 1950s and received his Ph.D. in 1972 from the Institute of Archaeology there. From 1956 he worked in the Oriental Department at the Hermitage Museum, serving as Keeper from 1984. A specialist in the arts of Iran, he wrote many articles on metalwares and manuscript painting for such journals as Epigrafika Vostoka (Epigraphy of the East), Soobshcheniya Gosudarstvennogo Ermitazha (the journal about the Hermitage collections) and Iran (the bulletin of the British Institute of Persian Studies). He contributed essays and entries to such important catalogues as Masterpieces of Islamic Art in the Hermitage Museum (Kuwait, Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah; 1990), Heavenly Art, Earthly Beauty: Art of Islam (Amsterdam, Nieuw Kerk; 1999–2000); Iran v Ermitazkhe: Formirovanie Kollektsii [Iran in the Hermitage: The Formation of the Collection] (St. Petersburg, Hermitage; ...

Article

Edward McParland

(b ?Cork, c. 1732; d Dublin, Dec 1786).

Irish architect. He was, with Thomas Cooley, the most prominent architect in Dublin in the 1770s. His importance possibly derived less from his buildings than from his post as master of the Dublin Society’s School of Architectural Drawing, where from the early 1760s to his death he instructed many craftsmen and designers in architectural drawing and the rudiments of classical composition.

Ivory’s most important buildings are Kilcarty (c. 1770–80), Co. Meath, and the Bluecoat School (King’s Hospital; begun 1773) and Newcomen’s Bank (c. 1781), both in Dublin. His partly executed designs for the Bluecoat School in the British Library are among the most beautiful Irish architectural drawings of the 18th century. They reveal Ivory’s conservative, even old-fashioned approach, for here, as late as 1773, he proposed a Palladian composition enlivened with Baroque flourishes.

Never reluctant to repeat his designs, Ivory used the same basic layout in the Bluecoat drawings and at Kilcarty, a sophisticated and subtle farmhouse that he self-consciously refused to turn into a villa. The Bluecoat elevations reappear in flawless Neo-classical guise in Newcomen’s Bank, described by Maurice Craig as ‘the only building in Dublin which looks as though it might have been designed by one of the Adams’. Ivory was no innovator but a sensitive exponent of conservative taste. In the 1770s he was upstaged by Thomas Cooley and eclipsed after ...

Article

American experimental music class held by John Cage in New York. Although Cage had been faculty at the New School for Social Research (called the University in Exile in the period of and immediately after World War II, and subsequently, The New School University) since the early 1950s, team-teaching with his early mentor Henry Cowell (1897–1965), his critical tenure there was 1956–1960. It was in these years that his own work was hitting its greatest strides, and his dynamic classes reflected as much. The class focused on Cage’s most exploratory moves in music, not only his own trajectory—informed by Marcel Duchamp, Zen, and the international postwar avant-garde scene—but also new developments at Darmstadt (whether he was for them or against them), the world epicenter for exploratory musical work, which was driven by a younger generation mostly engaged with new sound technology.

Cage’s pedagogical modus operandi was surprising, in part due to his strikingly “low-tech” means. He was known for exemplifying the spatialization of sound, and its capacity for constant change, by such methods as placing a pencil—rubber eraser pointing down—between the strings of the New School classroom piano, to show students how, via direct alterations to the source, sound could be ...

Article

Paul Von Blum

(Mailou)

(b Boston, MA, Nov 3, 1905; d Washington, DC, June 9, 1998).

African American painter and art educator. During her artistic career of more than 70 years, Jones powerfully extended the tradition of African American visual art, while overcoming severe barriers of race and gender. Her parents encouraged her artistic inclinations while she was growing up in Boston and after graduating from the High School of Practical Arts she studied at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, receiving a diploma in design in 1927. After additional studies in art, including a summer school at Harvard University, Jones accepted a position to develop an art programme at the Palmer Memorial Institute in North Carolina, a preparatory school for African Americans. In 1930 she joined the Howard University faculty in Washington, DC, where she trained generations of young artists until her retirement in 1977. Teaching design and watercolour painting, she exerted a durable influence on 20th-century African American art education....

Article

Alexander Koutamanis

(b Thessaloniki, 1811; d Athens, Oct 5, 1886).

Greek architect and teacher. He studied at the Accademia di Belle Arti, Rome (1826–36), and in 1833 he was awarded the first prize in the architectural competition for the design of the Università di Milano. In 1838, after two years in France, he returned to Greece to live in Athens. He exhibited his designs and projects there, among them the monument to the Heroes of the War of Independence of 1821 (unexecuted), for which he had won an award at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. After a period in Turkey (1839–43), he was appointed Director of the Royal School of Fine Arts in Athens in 1844 (later the National Technical University). He was promoted by the wealthiest and most influential of the Greek bourgeoisie, the expatriate merchants who financed most public projects. He contributed enormously to the development of the University and the establishment of Neo-classicism in Greece, both as an ideology and as a viable form of architecture. The austerity and rigour of the Greek version of Neo-classicism corresponded well with his attachment to the classical canon, which he used effectively to create an urban morphology of rhythmical volumes and regulatory grids, an orderly environment that would represent the freedom and progress of modern Greece....

Article

John Turpin

[Céitinn, Seān]

(b Limerick, Sept 29, 1889; d Dublin, Dec 21, 1977).

Irish painter. He studied drawing at the Technical School in Limerick; in 1911 he moved to the Metropolitan School of Art in Dublin on a scholarship and became a pupil of William Orpen, moving to London as his assistant in 1915. The following year he returned to Dublin; in 1919 he was appointed a teacher of painting at the Metropolitan School of Art, becoming Professor of painting from 1936 until his retirement in 1954. He was a regular exhibitor at the Royal Hibernian Academy, becoming a full member in 1919 and President from 1948 to 1962. He held his first one-man show in 1921 and was commissioned during the 1920s to paint a series of pictures depicting the building of the Shannon hydroelectric scheme (Dublin, Electricity Supply Board). During the 1930s he exhibited in the Victor Waddington Gallery in Dublin and at international exhibitions abroad. He favoured an idealized, heroic interpretation of Ireland, evident in ...

Article

Roy R. Behrens

(b Selyp, Oct 4, 1906; d Cambridge, MA, Dec 29, 2001).

Hungarian designer, painter, photographer, teacher and writer, active also in the USA. After secondary school, he studied painting at the Budapest Academy of Fine Arts (1925–8). Turning to design, photography and filmmaking, he worked in Budapest, then in Berlin, where in 1932 he designed the cover of the first German edition of Film als Kunst by Gestalt psychologist Rudolf Arnheim. He moved to London in 1936 where he joined the studio of fellow Hungarian and former Bauhaus master László Moholy-Nagy. That year he also met his wife, the artist Juliet Appleby (d 1999). In 1937 he followed Moholy-Nagy to Chicago, when the latter was appointed director of the New Bauhaus, which was later re-established as the Institute of Design. Kepes taught and directed the Light and Color Department there for six years. In 1946 he was hired as Professor of Visual Design at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where 20 years later he founded the Center for Advanced Visual Studies. A life-long advocate of cross-disciplinary experimentation between the arts and sciences, his influence came about through the publication of a number of innovative books, the first of which, ...

Article

W. Eugene Kleinbauer

(b Munich, Dec 12, 1912; d Poughkeepsie, NY, Jan 22, 2003).

German art historian of late antiquity, Byzantium and Norman Sicily, active also in the USA. Kitzinger was a prominent medievalist who went to Rome in 1931 to begin doctoral work in medieval art history under the supervision of Wilhelm Pinder. Within three years he earned his PhD at the University of Munich. His dissertation, Roman Painting from the Beginning of the Seventh to the Middle of the Eighth Century, analysed the style of mosaics and frescoes in church buildings and catacombs, and convincingly demonstrated that no linear development can be traced in this period in part because different ‘styles’ can sometimes be shown to have coexisted. He effectively refuted the thesis advanced by Charles Rufus Morey of Princeton University that the Greek Hellenistic style had been transplanted by Alexandrian refugees to Rome in the earliest Middle Ages. Kitzinger pursued this research in major papers—his exacting analysis of texts related to the cult of images before Iconoclasm (...