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Rupert Featherstone

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Cartoon  

Shirley Millidge

Drawing, sometimes coloured, made specifically as a pattern for a painting, textile or stained-glass panel. It is produced on the same scale as the final work and is usually fairly detailed. The transfer of the image works best if the drawing in the cartoon is of a linear nature and if the composition has crisp, clear outlines.

In painting there are two methods of transferring a cartoon to the support, which may be a canvas, panel or wall. The first is similar to Tracing. The back of the cartoon is rubbed over with chalk; the paper is attached to the support; and the main lines are drawn over with a stylus, thus transferring the chalk from the back of the cartoon to the new support. In the second method, which is called Pouncing, the main lines of the cartoon are pricked through with a needle or stylus, the size and closeness of the holes varying according to the detail in the drawing. Sometimes in order to preserve the drawn cartoon, a supplementary cartoon or ...

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Ornamental tablet or shield bearing an inscription, monogram or heraldic arms framed in elaborate scrolls, shell-shaped volutes or similar devices. The term has been extended to include the lozenge-shaped frames inscribed with the names of pharaohs in Egyptian hieroglyphs. The cartouche was a minor ornament in the vocabulary of European Renaissance and Mannerist design. Used in both ecclesiastical and secular contexts, it adorned exterior and interior walls and furniture (e.g. cassone with shield cartouche flanked by putti, carved wood and gilt, Roman, mid-16th century; London, V&A). It also embellished manuscripts and prints, used as a motif to enclose titles and brief texts, notably in architectural elevations and maps (see Map).

The use of the cartouche developed more fully in the Baroque era, however, and in its more opulent 17th-century form it spread rapidly as a decorative device throughout Europe and eventually to the New World. It became the dramatic focus of pedimental designs above façades, doorframes and windows, as well as in chimney-pieces, keystones and balconies. Deeply carved in stone, marble and wood or in cast plaster or stucco, its commonly shared characteristics were lavish back or forward scrolls resembling parchment or a profusion of scrolling plant forms. Shields were frequently surmounted by crowns or mantled helmets and flanked by figures, animals or birds and heavy floral swags (e.g. shield cartouche flanked by ostriches, carved and painted wood, façade, ...

Article

G. Lloyd-Morgan

Sculpted female figure (equivalent to the male Atlantid) used in place of a column (see fig.). Caryatids first appeared in ancient Greek architecture around the mid-6th century bc; they were also used in Roman architecture, and these models were revived in the 18th and 19th centuries (see §2). Classical caryatids are always clothed; they may be dressed in the Ionic style and may have either a polos or a high-sided crown on their heads, or a wider drum representing a basket containing sacred objects. When dressed in Doric costume, however, caryatids bear the capital directly on their heads. Where hands survive, they may hold ceremonial religious vessels. Non-architectural caryatid figures occur as decorative elements in the minor arts of Greece, Etruria and Imperial Rome. The most notable are the stand supporting mirror-discs, usually dating from the 6th and 5th centuries bc. Caryatids were used in furniture decoration, often as bronze mounts, during the 18th and 19th centuries....

Article

Casein  

Jonathan Stephenson

Complex protein found in milk that may be used as a glue (see Adhesives §1, (i)) or as a binding medium for paint (see Paint, §I, 1). It exists in different forms, isolated from the milk and activated for use by various methods. There are significant differences in the properties of the casein obtained by each method of preparation. Casein was originally produced by reacting curd or skim milk directly with an alkali, originally lime and later ammonia. Monoamvonium caseinate is easier to employ and is generally of good quality, but a purer type of casein in powder form is now more widely used, and the convenient tube colours are most generally employed.

Lime casein, being practically insoluble in water and possessing great adhesive strength, has been important as a glue. Casein is likely to have been employed for bonding wood in ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome and perhaps also on the Indian subcontinent and in China. Firm evidence of its use in Europe is found from the Middle Ages; descriptions of its preparation from cheese, probably a reference to some form of purified curd, appear in several manuscripts, including ...

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Cast  

Tim Smare

Reproduction of a three-dimensional object produced by means of a mould.

While moulds can be fashioned directly, for example by carving wood or stone, both mould and cast are usually made in a pliable or amorphous material, such as plaster of Paris, wax or clay. The model is encased in the chosen material, so as to hold an impression of its shape and surface in negative: the mould is then carefully removed and the hollow interior filled to make the positive cast. A piece-mould, a mould constructed in numerous sections, is used to facilitate removal, the small sections sometimes held in place by an outer ‘case’ mould. The modern process of casting has been simplified by the use of synthetic rubbers that can be peeled away from undercut forms and reused. Other, less versatile, flexible materials for moulds include wax, gelatin and latex rubber (see Plastic, §1). Alternatively, a one-off cast can be made with a waste-mould. If the original form is modelled in soft clay, a plaster mould of few sections is easily removed, but if there are undercut forms the mould is ‘wasted’ or chipped away from the cast. ...

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Cavetto  

Article

Upper interior surface of a room. Many different types of ceiling are found in Islamic architecture, including Coffering, Artesonado, and Muqarnas. Only fragments survive from a few wooden ceilings in the early hypostyle mosques of the central and western Islamic lands. Beams from the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem (8th century; see Jerusalem §II 1., (iv)) are carved with a great variety of vegetal, geometric, and architectural motifs. The Mosque of Ibn Tulun (879) in Cairo (see Cairo §III 2.) had a flat wooden ceiling with a narrow wooden frieze nailed to the top of the arcades supporting the roof. Measuring almost 2 km Córdoba §3, (i) in length, the frieze was inscribed with verses from the Koran. The wooden ceiling from the Great Mosque of Córdoba (see) as extended in the 960s and 980s was dismantled in the early 18th century and later replaced. The ceiling comprised closely placed transverse beams supporting planks, the whole protected by a gabled roof covered with tile to allow an insulating layer of air between ceiling and roof to keep the interior cool. More than 50 fragments of the carved and painted beams from the original ceiling have survived in museums (e.g., Copenhagen, Davids Saml. 2/...

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Cella  

Article

Lynn T. Courtenay

formwork]

The support for the total dead load of an arch, vault or dome during construction. In its most primitive form, centering for vaults involved the use of tamped earth, but generally timber was the primary medium in historic buildings before the use of steel, comprising—structurally and economically—an essential component of masonry, brick or concrete structures. Thus, the precision of execution, rigidity and ease of removal of this temporary structure played a key role in overall stability. This framing, which also determined the profile of the soffit of the arch, remained in place until the arch or vault was completed by the closing of the keystone at its apex and could stand on its own. While in use, however, the wooden centering had to resist deformation as loads were applied. In large-scale construction, such as in Roman imperial architecture, powerfully built frames composed of large-sectioned timbers were necessary, proportional to the scale and particularly the span of the masonry....

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Painting method in which wax is used as the binding medium (see Encaustic painting). Wax engraving, also known as cerography, was a printing process used to make thousands of maps, technical drawings, business forms, and some works of art from the mid-19th century to the mid-20th century.

N. Purinton...

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Chalk  

Shirley Millidge

Drawing medium of natural, coloured earth or its synthetic or fabricated equivalent.

Natural chalks, available until the late 18th century and early 19th, were made from a relatively few types of coloured earth. The restricted number of suitable sources reflects the fact that to be a good drawing material, the chalk had to be dense and consistent in colour and value. Moreover, as Vasari wrote in 1550, it must be ‘soft enough to be easily sawn and reduced to a fine point suitable for marking on leaves of paper’. Until the introduction of manufactured chalks in the late 18th century, the colours of chalk were restricted to black, red and white.

Natural black chalk, a soft carbonaceous schist, has carbon and clay as its principal ingredients. Cennino Cennini described it thus in his technical manual of c. 1390:

Also for drawing, I have come across a certain black stone, which comes from Piedmont; this is a soft stone and it can be sharpened with a penknife, for it is soft. It is very black. And you can bring it to the same perfection as charcoal. And you can draw as you want to!...

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Chamber  

Francis Woodman

[Lat. camera: ‘small vaulted space’; Fr. chambre: ‘room’]

Term used particularly with reference to medieval domestic architecture in north-western Europe, to denote a living room, as opposed to a service room, that is not known by any other denomination. It is found in those regions where living was traditionally centred on a communal hall and where the notion of privacy is strong. The term was, however, used vaguely in the Middle Ages, often as an alternative to ‘hall’ or ‘solar’; in French, chambre applies to a room of any size, shape or use.

Before the Norman Conquest of 1066, the few private rooms that existed in England were called bowers, a term still occasionally employed after it. At the time of the Conquest the word chamber passed into the English language though the distinction between the Germanic ‘hall’, a communal living space, and the French ‘chamber’, as a more private room was to remain. A ‘King’s chamber’ was mentioned at ...

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Chancel  

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Chantry  

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Black pigment. It is a solid residue containing impure carbon produced by slowly heating animal and vegetable substances, such as wood, bone and nutshells, at high temperatures under reducing conditions to remove the volatile constituents.

Charcoal was probably discovered as a by-product of wood fires. Since prehistoric times it has been used and intentionally produced as a superior and very efficient fuel. Traces of charcoal have been found in the blackened hearths of caves occupied in Palaeolithic times. It was undoubtedly used for drawing on cave walls because of its convenience. Technical analysis has confirmed the presence of vegetable and wood charcoals in prehistoric cave paintings from, for example, Altamira and Niaux, along with other black pigments such as calcined bones and manganese oxide. Charcoal was probably used for drawing in Classical times; it is mentioned by Pliny the elder and has been found at Pompeii. Charcoal from grape twigs was one of the two standard medieval blacks. Vine-charcoal black ...

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Chariot  

J. H. Crouwel and Mary A. Littauer

Term applied properly to a light, fast, horse-drawn vehicle with two spoked wheels, which was used in ancient warfare, hunting, for parade and cult purposes and, in some cultures, for racing. Some four-wheelers have, incorrectly, been called chariots.

The earliest wheeled vehicles are attested by representations and models from Mesopotamia (late 4th–early 3rd millennium bc). These have two or four disc wheels and are drawn by asses or ass hybrids. Examples include a four-wheeled vehicle shown on a mosaic panel known as the ‘Royal Standard of Ur’ (London, BM), a fragmentary depiction on the ‘Stele of the Vultures’ from Telloh and a copper model of a two-wheeled vehicle with a four-horse team from Tell Asmar in the Diyala region (Baghdad, Iraq Mus.). Four-wheelers appear in military and cult contexts, two-wheelers were used for hunting, in rituals and probably for travel. Models and representations on cylinder seals (e.g. London, BM; Oxford, Ashmolean) show that the true chariot emerged in ...