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Article

Maria Elena Buszek

Interest in the subject of ‘craft’ in the contemporary art world grew at the start of the 21st century, as artists with conceptually oriented studio practices increasingly turned to media and processes associated with handicrafts or decorative arts, such as knitting, stitching, weaving, pottery, glass-blowing, and woodworking. In this so-called ‘information age’ the sensuous, tactile ‘information’ of craft media spoke of a direct connection to an endangered humanity, or at least to a humanity being rapidly reconfigured in a technologically saturated world. Many artists returned to old-fashioned, handmade materials, images, and objects seeking balance in a high-tech world. Others were drawn to the familiarity of utilitarian media such as cloth, ceramics, glass, or wood, which are often invisible due to their ubiquity in our everyday lives; they made work that directs audiences’ attention to the extraordinary potential of these seemingly ordinary craft materials and techniques. In all cases, these artists entered into a dialogue over the distinctions between ‘art’ and ‘craft’ that have been debated since the early modern era....

Article

Crêpe  

Gordon Campbell

Thin transparent gauze-like fabric, plain woven, without any twill, of highly twisted raw silk or other staple, and mechanically embossed, so as to have a crisped or minutely wrinkled surface. In France this material, formerly known in English as crape, is called crêpe anglais. Crêpe de chine...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Ornamental edging on a piece of furniture, mainly the decorated top of a mirror or frame; in medieval furniture it often consists of a repeated foliate motif.

Article

Gordon Campbell

Strong fabric of hempen warp and linen weft; it was stronger than Chintz, which it displaced in the mid-19th century. In England the term denotes a strong unglazed cotton cloth printed on one or both sides with a pattern in colours, and used for chair covers and curtains; cretonne was first manufactured in England in the 1860s....

Article

Crewel  

Gordon Campbell

Thin worsted yarn used from the late 17th century for bedhangings, curtains, embroidery, fringes, hosiery, laces, tapestry and vestments. ‘Crewel-work’ is a type of embroidery (popular from the 1860s) in which a design is worked in crewel on a background of linen or cloth.

S. Amor...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Stiff cloth made with a warp of cotton or linen thread and a woof of horse-hair (Fr. crin). It was originally used for shoes and half-boots (bottines), and in the early 19th century for dresses and bonnets; from the mid-19th century it was primarily used for hooped petticoats, which came to be known as crinolines....

Article

Crochet  

Gordon Campbell

Type of knitting or lacework done with a single hooked needle, usually with cotton or wool thread. The basic structure is the chain, on which stitches and patterns are built. Filet crochet consists of a groundwork of square mesh in which each square is made from two chain stitches with a triple stitch at each end; it is sometimes darned with a pattern....

Article

Nina Weibull

Swedish painter, sculptor, printmaker and weaver. She began her studies in 1958 at the Konstfackskolan, Stockholm, continuing from 1959 to 1960 at the Kungliga Akademien för de Fria Konsterna, Stockholm. Cronqvist’s main subject-matter was the human figure. She first attracted attention for her sensuous use of bright, fleshy colours, evoking an air of humorous absurdity by distorting form and perspective. Although adhering to traditional forms and themes, such as landscape, still-life and self-portrait, her continuous dialogue with tradition led her to question the latter’s implicitly patriarchal function and to dispute its representation of women as objects. In ...

Article

Cutwork  

Gordon Campbell

Openwork linen fabric made by cutting away portions of the fabric and filling the gaps with ornamental designs made with needle and thread. The technique was evolved prior to that of Lace, of which it is an early form, and cutwork clothing became fashionable in 16th-century Italy. The most important designer of cutwork patterns was Matio Pagano....

Article

Fabric with a moiré or water pattern.

Article

Gordon Campbell

Loose network of knotted threads on which a pattern is darned

Article

Martine Reid

Native American Haida sculptor, metalworker, printmaker and blanket-maker. He was the grandson of the Haida blanket- and basket-maker Florence Davidson (1895–1993), and great-grandson of the Haida wood-carver Charles Edenshaw. He began carving argillite as a teenager in Masset, and in 1966 he met ...

Article

Joellen Secondo

English designer and writer. He was educated in France and Germany, but his interest in design was provided by visits to the South Kensington Museum, London (now the Victoria & Albert Museum). In 1865 he entered the office of Lavers & Barraud, glass painters and designers. Some time later he became keeper of cartoons at ...

Article

Dominique Vautier

Belgian painter, designer and printmaker. The son of the painter and architect, Pierre-François De Noter the elder (1747–1830), and brother of Jean-Baptiste De Noter (1786–1855), a painter of architectural views, he had an early grounding in the arts. He was taught by ...

Article

A. Ziffer

German designer, painter, teacher and theorist. A self-taught artist, he made several study trips to Italy and the Tyrol. In painting he found inspiration in late German Romanticism, before turning to the English Arts and Crafts Movement. His designs were exhibited in 1899 at the exhibition of the Bayerische Kunstgewerbeverein (Munich, Glaspal.) and in ...

Article

Nele Bernheim

Belgian fashion designer. Ann Demeulemeester studied at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Antwerp (1977-81). In 1982 she won the first-ever Gouden Spoel (Golden Spindle) award. She created the company bvba ‘32’ in 1985 with her photographer husband, Patrick Robyn, in Antwerp. Her breakthrough came with her first women’s collection as a member of the informal group known as ‘The Antwerp Six’ at London’s British Designer Show in ...

Article

Alberto Cernuschi

French painter, printmaker, stage designer, illustrator and tapestry designer. He was encouraged to study art by Emile-Antoine Bourdelle, to whom he showed his drawings at the age of 16, and was taught by him at the Ecole de Dessin à la Manufacture des Gobelins. From ...

Article

Ann Poulson

Greek fashion designer based in Paris. Dessès was born in Egypt to Greek parents and arrived in Paris in the 1920s to study law and diplomacy. By 1925 he had changed his mind and was employed as a designer for Maison Jane. He left Maison Jane to open his own couture house in ...

Article

Dhurrie  

Gordon Campbell

Cotton flatweave carpet made in India; see also Indian subcontinent, §VIII, 4, (iii), §VIII, 4(iii).

N. Chaldecott: Dhurries: History, Pattern, Technique, Identification (New York, 2003)

Article

Gordon Campbell

Medieval term for a patterned silk weave in which the pattern and ground are distinguished by texture rather than colour.

D. King: ‘Sur la signification de “diasprum”’, Collected Textile Studies, ed. A. Muthesius and M. King (London, 2002), pp. 71–6