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Thomas F. Hedin


French family of sculptors. Honoré Anguier (b Eu, fl c. 1570–80; d Eu, 1648) was a carpenter, wood-carver and small-scale entrepreneur in Eu, Normandy. Local church archives document his work on doors, frames, balustrades and retables. His eldest son, (1) François Anguier, became noted for his funerary sculpture but also contributed to decorative schemes for ecclesiastic and secular buildings. His younger son, (2) Michel Anguier, worked in Rome before returning to Paris where he enjoyed royal and aristocratic patronage and became a distinguished teacher and lecturer at the Académie Royale. Both François and Michel introduced a new Roman influence, helping to form the classical style in France. A third brother, Guillaume Anguier (1628–1708), was a successful decorative painter, working at various royal residences; one of his daughters married the sculptor Domenico Cucci. Catherine Anguier, sister of François, Michel and Guillaume, was the mother of the sculptor ...


Alberto Villar Movellán



[Annichini; Nichini; Nichino]

Italian family of gem-engravers. Francesco Anichini (b Bagnacavallo, fl 1449–1526; d ?1545), active in Ferrara, was highly praised by his contemporaries, including Vasari and Jacopo Tagliacarne (fl late 15th century). He was also criticized for being self-willed and slow-working. From 1492 to 1497 he is recorded as having worked for Isabella d’Este, Marchioness of Mantua, who referred to him in a letter as ‘il migliore maestro d’Italia’. Documents indicate that Francesco supplied her in 1492 with a turquoise Head of a Child, some rubies and a cameo, in 1494 with gems for rings and in 1496 with two turquoises with figures of Orpheus and Victory, after a design by the Marchioness, and a gem with a symbolic emblem (all untraced). For a physician from Ferrara, Francesco carved a glow-worm in lapis lazuli (untraced) in such a way that the natural gold veins of the stone appeared as the luminous parts of the insect’s body. In ...


Chika Okeke

(b Enugu, Jan 17, 1957).

Nigerian painter and sculptor. He was schooled at the Institute of Management and Technology (IMT), Enugu (1978–82), and taught at Oyo State College of Education, Ilesha. In 1983 he joined the staff at the Umoka Technical Secondary School, and he has taught sculpture in the art department of IMT, Enugu. He had several solo shows in the mid-1980s and showed with AKA, an artists’ group in Nsukka of which he was a founding member, from 1986 to 1990. He was influenced by the Nsukka school and their interest in cursive line, uli (see Nigeria, Federal Republic of §V). His early work was realistic, but in the early 1980s he began his abstract Live Wire series, using welded wires to create relief drawings, for which he quickly gained critical attention. In the mid 1980s he created mixed media sculptures combining metal and concrete: mass and weight, represented by concrete that was often worked to simulate marble and other stone, is countered by the linear quality of wire. The result is the same sensitive interplay of line and space evident in traditional ...


R. Ya. Abolina


(b Moscow, Oct 2, 1917; d May 17, 1997).

Russian sculptor. He studied (1935–41) at the Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in Leningrad (now St Petersburg), working under Aleksandr Matveyev, from whom he gained an unbiased attitude to nature and a well thought-out pictorial system to interpret it. He fought at the front during World War II and graduated from the Institute only in 1947, with his diploma work The Soldier–Victor (St Petersburg, Acad. A., Mus.), at the heart of which lay his impressions of the front. In 1949 he won the competition for a monument to Pushkin in Leningrad. Work on the realization of the monument overflowed into a series of portrait sculptures of Pushkin, both monumental and small-scale, in which the poet is represented at different ages and in a variety of emotional states, but always agitated and inspired (statue, 1952, Moscow U.; portrait bust, 1955, St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). These culminated in the monument, executed in a severe classical style, which was erected in ...


Philip Ward-Jackson

Term applied particularly to mid-19th-century French sculpture with animal subject-matter. The beginnings of this genre as a significant phenomenon may be located in 1831, when three sculptors, Antoine-Louis Barye, C. Fratin (1801–64) and A. Guionnet (fl 1831–53), all exhibited animal pieces at the Paris Salon. The popularity of such sculpture, and its commercial exploitability through the production of serial bronzes and plasters, induced some sculptors, such as Barye et Cie, to cast and market their own animal statuettes. Antecedents are numerous, but a comparable degree of concentration on animal subjects in sculpture is found only at the end of the 18th century, in the work of the English painter and sculptor George Garrard. Garrard’s animal pieces reflect contemporary concern with ‘improved’ stock-breeding, as well as the involvement with natural history of the encyclopedists. A much publicized debate in 1830 on comparative anatomy, between Etienne Geoffroy de Saint Hilaire and his pupil Georges Cuvier, stimulated widespread interest in zoology, as did the growth of the Paris Jardin des Plantes, where several generations of sculptors studied animals from life. They could observe dissections at the Musée National d’Histoire Naturelle, where Barye occupied the post of Professor of Zoological Drawing from ...


J.-P. Esther

(b Brussels, bapt Dec 3, 1687; d nr Aachen, June 30, 1752).

Flemish architect and sculptor. He was the son of the influential Brussels guild-master Frans Anneessens (1660–1719), who was beheaded for his part in the Popular Rebellion. In 1705 he was accepted into the Guild of the Vier Gekroonden (‘Four Crowned Ones’) as a master mason. On 26 January 1709 he married Françoise van Troen, a relative of the sculptor and architect Cornelis van Nerven (fl 1696–1717), who was in charge of the work on the new rear wing of the town hall in Brussels from 1708 to 1717. Anneessens provided drawings and models for two fountains for the inner courtyard of this wing in 1714. These comprised marble river gods representing the Scheldt and the Meuse surrounded by bronze tritons and dolphins; they were executed by Pieter-Denis Plumier in 1715–17. He also supervised the restoration of the abbot’s residence of the Norbertine abbey at Grimbergen, near Brussels, from ...


(b Nivelles, Sept 14, 1730; d ?Brussels, end 1771).

South Netherlandish sculptor. He served his apprenticeship at Nivelles with Laurent Delvaux, with whom he collaborated on a series of statues of Apostles in oak for the collegiate church of Ste Gertrude. Between c. 1757 and c. 1761 he made a monumental stone group of Neptune with Aeolus and Amphitrite, commissioned by Claude Lamoral II, Prince of Ligne (1685–1766), for the ornamental lake of the château of Beloeil, Hainaut. In 1761 Anrion was given the title of Court Sculptor by Charles of Lorraine (1712–80), the Austrian Governor of the Netherlands. From 1766 he worked under the direction of the architect Laurent-Benoît Dewez on the decoration of Charles’s new palace in Brussels. Anrion’s most important contribution to the work was 12 low reliefs of the Labours of Hercules (gilt-bronze; untraced) for the main staircase. During the same period he executed sculptures for the high altar of the Benedictine abbey church of Afflighem in Brabant, which was being renovated by Dewez. These included marble statues of ...


Renato Barilli

(b Borgofranco d’Ivrea, Piedmont, Aug 5, 1934).

Italian sculptor. After working as a painter from 1959 to 1964, he turned to conceptual art in 1965 and by 1968 was associated with the emergence of Arte Povera, of which he became one of the strictest and most coherent exponents. His limited output consisted largely of the staging of major physical processes whose long-term effects the audience was invited to imagine, in such a way that the non-material dimension of thought was brought to bear on bulky and spectacular physical phenomena. In Direction (150×500×800 mm, 1967–9; Paris, Pompidou), for instance, a magnetic compass is set within a circular recess of a slab of granite shaped like an arrowhead and displayed pointing north, thus proposing two different ways of expressing the concept alluded to by the title.

A consistent message in Anselmo’s work is that one should not entirely believe one’s eyes, since there is always a component that lies beyond appearances. In one sculpture, ...


Christine Verzar

(fl Milan, 1171).

Italian sculptor. He signed, with Girardus, the reliefs of the Porta Romana in Milan (now Milan, Castello Sforzesco); he is described as Dedalus alter, while Girardus is mentioned as pollice docto. The reliefs, dated 1171, show contemporary scenes of warfare between the Milanese and inhabitants of Brescia, Cremona and Bergamo. Fra Jacobo holds a crusading standard; St Ambrose is fighting the Arians and Jews. These sculptures, relating both to the patron saints of the city-state and to contemporary life, are typical of civic commissions. The narrative style depends somewhat on that of Nicholaus, but the reliefs also show influences from Provençal Romanesque and the school of Wiligelmo, seen in the monumentality of the figures, the classicizing facial features and the complex relief technique. The sculptors formed part of the larger school of Campionesi masters, and according to some scholars the Anselmus active in Milan should be identified with Anselmo da Campione, who worked at Modena Cathedral (...


Christine Verzar

(fl 1178–1233).

Italian sculptor and architect. After Wiligelmo and Nicholaus, Antelami was the last of the great northern Italian sculptors working in the cities of the central Po Valley in the 12th century. Although he is referred to in the inscriptions as a sculptor, it is probable that he was also an architect, and that he belonged originally, as his name implies, to the guild of civic builders known as the ‘Magistri Antelami’, active in the region of Como. He worked mainly in Parma and its surroundings, although his influence was widespread.

His earliest recorded commission is the signed and dated Deposition relief (1178), now set in the south transept of Parma Cathedral, which may originally have formed part of a choir-screen. Other fragments (a badly preserved relief showing Christ in Majesty, several capitals, atlantes and column-supporting lions) are located in the cathedral and in the Galleria Nazionale, Parma. The ...



Kim Richardson

(fl Athens, c. 530-c. 0510 bc).

Greek sculptor. A statue base signed by Antenor, son of Eumares, and indicating a dedication by Nearchos (perhaps the potter of that name who was working in the 560s bc) has been matched almost certainly with an outstanding kore found on the Acropolis of Athens in 1886 and hence called the Antenor Kore (h. incl. plinth 2.15 m; Athens, Acropolis Mus., 681). The kore is a conservative work of c.520 bc. Both arms are held unusually far from the body, which is powerfully modelled, the strong vertical folds of its himation (cloak) giving a columnar effect. Such features as the inlaid eyes and thin ankles betray a bronze worker: Pausanias (Guide to Greece I.viii.5) recorded that Antenor produced bronze statues of the tyrannicides Harmodios and Aristogeiton, which were carried off by Xerxes in 480/479 bc and replaced by Kritios Nesiotes’ famous group. The Antenor statues remained at Persepolis until Alexander the Great or one of his successors returned them to Athens, where they were placed in the Agora alongside the second group. A Roman head (London, BM) is perhaps a copy of Antenor’s ...


Dominik Bartmann

(b Heppenheim an der Bergstrasse, nr Bensheim, Oct 28, 1936).

German painter, sculptor and printmaker. He studied from 1957 to 1959 at the Staatliche Akademie für Bildende Künste in Karlsruhe, where he was taught by the figurative painter H. A. P. Grieshaber (b 1909). His early work, in which he favoured structures created from violently flung colour, was influenced by Art Informel and by Abstract Expressionism, particularly by the work of Willem de Kooning. Around 1960 he began to form such brushstrokes into a figure with firm contours that he referred to as the Kopffüssler because it consisted of only head and limbs with no torso; this image, which he used throughout his later work as a sign for the human form, was inspired in part by the Kachina dolls of the North American Pueblo Indians. Antes felt a spiritual bond with the Pueblo Indians and accepted the psychological interpretations made of his paintings; he was interested in particular in the visit made to the Pueblo Indians in New Mexico in the 1920s by the psychoanalysts Carl Gustav Jung and Hans Prinzhorn, and by the affinities that they outlined in Pueblo culture, in the subconscious and in aspects of Surrealism....


Steven F. Ostrow

[il Bresciano; Prospero da Brescia]

(b Brescia, 1555–65; d Rome, 1592).

Italian sculptor. According to Baglione, he went to Rome from his native Brescia as a youth. He studied anatomy and the art of ancient Rome, and he gained fame for his anatomical models and small bozzetti. His skill as a modeller resulted in several commissions from Gregory XIII, including stucco angels (1580–81) for the Pauline Chapel and the Scala Regia in the Vatican. The success of these elegant, classicizing figures led to the commission (after 1585) for the sculptural components of the tomb of Gregory XIII in St Peter’s, consisting of a seated statue of the Pope, allegorical figures of Charity, Faith, Religion and Justice, and two angels bearing the papal arms. The tomb has undergone numerous transformations and much of its sculpture has been lost; its original appearance is recorded, however, in several engravings and in a drawing by Ciro Ferri (Florence, Uffizi). The surviving stucco figures of ...



Charles Avery

[Alari-Bonacolsi, Pier Jacopo di Antonio]

(b Mantua, c. 1460; d Gazzuolo, 1528).

Italian sculptor. An expert in goldsmith work, bronze sculpture and medals, he earned his nickname ‘Antico’ because of his ‘astonishing penetration of antiquity’ (Nesselrath). He achieved lasting fame through his small-scale re-creations (often also reinterpretations) of famous, but often fragmentary, statues of antiquity (e.g. the Apollo Belvedere, Rome, Vatican, Mus. Pio-Clementino, and the Spinario, Rome, Mus. Conserv.). Most of these bronze statuettes were made for the Gonzaga family, notably for Ludovico, Bishop of Mantua, and for Isabella d’Este, wife of Francesco II Gonzaga, 4th Marchese of Mantua. Antico also restored ancient marble statues and acted as an adviser to collectors.

A birth date of 1460 has been calculated on the basis of Antico’s earliest recorded commission (1479), and he is presumed to have been born in Mantua because his father, a butcher, owned a house there and he himself was granted the privilege of owning a stall in the meat market by Federico I Gonzaga, 3rd Marchese of Mantua. A training as a goldsmith is inferred from the fact that he began as a medallist in relief and in intaglio. In addition, he is documented (see below) as the maker of a pair of silver gilt vases and later demonstrated great skill at casting and chasing bronze statuettes, and at gilding and inlaying them with silver. His restoration of antique marble statues also implies an expertise in working that material, but nothing is known of how he acquired this skill....


Thorsten Opper

Source of a group of Roman and Greek works of art, in particular a group of Greek bronze sculptures and statuettes. In 1900 sponge-divers discovered the remains of an ancient shipwreck in the sea off the Greek island of Antikythera. In one of the first operations of this kind, they salvaged some its cargo. A new investigation of the wreck site took place in 1976 and succeeded in recovering many further objects, as well as (still unpublished) remains of the hull. All the finds are now in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. The ship, which must have foundered in the second quarter of the 1st century bc, carried a mixed cargo of ‘antique’ and contemporary bronze and marble statuary, as well as luxury products such as bronze furniture attachments, rare and expensive types of glass, gold ingots etc. It also contained the so-called Antikythera Mechanism, an elaborate type of astrolabe....


Thorsten Opper

(b Claudiopolis [Bithynion] c. ad 110; d Egypt, October ad 130).

Greek youth from north-western Asia Minor who became the companion and lover of the Roman emperor Hadrian (reg ad 117–138) until his mysterious death in the Nile in October ad 130. The bereaved emperor gave orders for Antinous to be deified as Antinous-Osiris and founded a new city, Antinoöpolis, close to the spot where Antinous had died. From there, his cult spread rapidly over the empire, especially the Greek-speaking areas, where festivals in his honour were established and an astounding number of images dedicated. Most remarkable (apart from preserved representations on coins, gems etc, and paintings attested in literary sources) were his sculptured portraits, frequently likened to gods of the Classical Pantheon, of which nearly 100 have survived—a number surpassed only by the portraits of the emperors Augustus and Hadrian. Their ubiquity and often high quality made them icons of ancient art, highly influential and frequently copied from the Renaissance onwards....


Gail L. Hoffman

(fl c. 414–c. 369 bc).

Greek sculptor of the Argive school, student of Periklytos (who was himself a pupil of Polykleitos), teacher of Kleon of Sikyon, and thus in the circle of the elder Polykleitos (Pausanias: V.xvii.3). With no preserved sculpture, knowledge of Antiphanes derives entirely from Pausanias’ description (X.ix) of three Delphic monuments and three signatures: first, a bronze Trojan Horse dedicated by the Argives for a battle over Thyrea, probably the battle of 414 bc referred to by Thucydides (VI.xcv); also a Dioskouroi dedicated by Sparta as spoils from the battle of Aigospotamoi (405 bc; Dittenberger, no. 115); and finally, statues of Elatos, Apheidas and Erasos, which Pausanias claimed were part of the Tegean spoils from a battle with Sparta. A 4th-century bc inscription on a black limestone base may indicate that the dedicants were Arcadians, not just Tegeans, and thus that the battle was the devastation of Lakonia in 369 bc...



Sergey Androssov


(b Vil’no [now Vilnius], Lithuania, Nov 2, 1843; d Bad-Homburg, July 9, 1902).

Russian sculptor of Lithuanian birth. He was the son of an innkeeper of modest means. From 1862 he studied under Nikolay Pimenov (1812–64) as an occasional student at the Academy of Arts (Akademiya Khudozhestv) in St Petersburg. While still a student he produced two high relief sculptures, which attracted attention for their realism and which were awarded silver medals: the Jewish Tailor (wood, 1864) and The Miser (wood and ivory, 1865; both St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). In 1871 Antokol’sky left Russia for health reasons. He worked first in Rome and then, from 1877, in Paris. He gained fame in Europe mainly through a number of monumental statues on subjects drawn from Russian history: Ivan the Terrible (marble, 1875; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), Nestor the Chronicler (marble, 1890) and Yermak (bronze, 1891; both St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), and also on subjects connected with the history of religion and philosophy: ...