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John-Paul Stonard

[Höllinger, Waltraud]

(b Linz, 1940).

Austrian film maker, video artist, photographer and performance artist. After studies in Linz and Vienna (1955–64) and work as a script girl, film editor and film extra (1965–8), she signalled her decision to follow a career as an artist by changing her name to Valie Export (a combination of the abbreviated form of her forename and a reference to a popular brand of cheap Austrian cigarettes, ‘Austria Export’). The provocative and politically engaged stance she then developed in her work constituted a relentless exploration of feminist issues and a wish for direct social change as a result of her activities as an artist. In one of her best-known earlier works, Genital Panic (1969), originally an impromptu performance in a Munich cinema, she confronted audience members wearing trousers exposing her genitals. This work was later made into a photographic poster depicting the artist wearing the same confrontational apparel, sporting a wild hair-do and holding a gun. Agitational erotic interaction had also featured in a well-known street performance of the same year, ...


Annette Faber

(fl Leipzig, 1592; d after 1617).

German painter, illustrator and printmaker. In 1592 he was granted the freedom of Leipzig, where he worked mainly as an illustrator for the publisher Henning Gross. He specialized in views and plans of towns, including Moscow, Wrocław, Venice, Istanbul and Jerusalem. His etchings illustrated the Persianische Reise (Leipzig, 1609) by ...


Erika Billeter

(b Buenos Aires, April 18, 1932).

Argentine photographer and publisher. She trained as a painter at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires (1947–53), and took up photography only in the late 1950s. She studied in Buenos Aires first in the studio of Luis d’Amico and then in 1960 under Annemarie Heinrich. In 1960 she opened a studio in Buenos Aires with the Argentine photographer Alicia D’Amico (1933–2001). She contributed to La Nación and Autoclub, and in 1973, together with María Cristina Orive, she co-founded La Azotea, a publishing house specializing in Latin American photography. She was primarily a documentary photographer, whose reputation did not depend on the recording of sensational events. Her photographs were realistic portrayals of the Argentine way of life; they were taken using natural light and were not modified in the laboratory.

Orive, María Cristina

Facio, Sara Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires, 1968)Retratos y autorretratos...


[Jeremiasz; Jeremij]

(b ?Gdańsk, c. 1610; d Gdańsk, 1677).

Polish engraver. Between 1639 and 1645 he worked in Paris for the publishers Justus van Egmont, Justus Leblond, François Langlois and Pierre-Jean Mariette, producing a series of engraved allegories, for example the Five Senses, the Four Seasons, the Twelve Months and the Four Elements. He engraved portraits of Louis XIII and his family and surroundings, after paintings by van Egmont, while for the Leblond print publishers he produced portraits of actors in the manner of Jacques Callot.

Falck was active in Gdańsk from 1646, producing engravings of the triumphal arches erected for the entry of Queen Marie Louise de Gonzague in 1646 (plates, Gdańsk, Lib. Pol. Acad. Sci.) and drawings (1648–9; Gdańsk, N. Mus.) of the sculptures by Peter Ringering (1612–50) on the Golden Gate in Gdańsk. In 1646–55 Falck engraved his mature portraits of Swedish and Polish dignitaries and magnates and of Gdańsk scholars and patricians, which were based on paintings by David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl and Daniel Schultz, among others. Falck used the oval-framed, bust-length format he had developed during the years he had worked in Paris; the background was made up of concentric lines, the shading giving an illusion of depth, and at the bottom of each engraving was a tablet-form inscription. He occasionally alluded to his origins by signing himself ...


Temma Balducci

American art journal founded in 1972 by Cindy Nemser, Pat Mainardi and Irene Moss. The journal was published quarterly until 1978, with Nemser becoming the sole editor in 1973 and her husband joining her as co-editor in 1975. The goals of the original editors, stated in the first issue, were to be the voice of women artists, to improve the status of women artists and to expose sexist exploitation and discrimination. In the editorial statement in that same issue, Nemser dramatically quoted the British suffragist Christabel Pankhurst: “Do not appeal, do not beg, do not grovel. Take courage, join hands, stand beside us, fight with us.” In her own words, Nemser further exhorted her readers: “Women artists, we now have our own place to be our own selves in print. The battle has begun.” As these statements indicate, Feminist Art Journal was one of the first journals devoted to women artists and it was intent on carving out a place for them in the early years of the feminist movement....


Kristin Lohse Belkin

(b Heidelberg, 1527–8; d Frankfurt am Main, 1590).

German publisher and woodblock-cutter. He was the son of the painter and blockcutter Ägidius Feyerabend and his wife, Anna Brentlein (d 1568), daughter of a rabbi in Mainz. After an apprenticeship with Jörg Breu (ii) in Augsburg, begun on 19 July 1540, Feyerabend spent some time in Italy and perhaps also in Mainz. In 1559 he settled in Frankfurt am Main, where he married the same year and acquired citizenship in 1560. After working as a block cutter and possibly also as a designer of book illustrations, he soon turned to the business side of publishing, which he managed with considerable success and, judging from numerous lawsuits, with shrewdness. He employed almost all the printers in Frankfurt am Main and attracted the best book illustrators in the country, foremost among them Virgil Solis from Nuremberg and Jost Amman from Zurich. One of his most successful collaborations with Solis resulted in a magnificent picture Bible in Martin Luther’s translation (...


Christine van Mulders



Stephen Bann

(b Nassau, Bahamas, Oct 28, 1925; d Dunsyre, Scotland, March 27, 2006).

Scottish sculptor, graphic artist and poet. Brought up in Scotland, he briefly attended Glasgow School of Art and first made his reputation as a writer, publishing short stories and plays in the 1950s. In 1961 he founded the Wild Hawthorn Press with Jessie McGuffie and within a few years had established himself internationally as Britain’s foremost concrete poet (see Concrete poetry). His publications also played an important role in the initial dissemination of his work as a visual artist. As a sculptor, he has worked collaboratively in a wide range of materials, having his designs executed as stone-carvings, as constructed objects and even in the form of neon lighting.

In 1966 Finlay and his wife, Sue, moved to the hillside farm of Stonypath, south-west of Edinburgh, and began to transform the surrounding acres into a unique garden, which he named Little Sparta. He revived the traditional notion of the poet’s garden, arranging ponds, trees and vegetation to provide a responsive environment for sundials, inscriptions, columns and garden temples. As the proponent of a rigorous classicism and as the defender of Little Sparta against the intrusions of local bureaucracy, he insisted on the role of the artist as a moralist who comments sharply on cultural affairs. The esteem won by Finlay’s artistic stance and style is attested by many important large-scale projects undertaken throughout the world. The ‘Sacred Grove’, created between ...


(b Corenc, nr Grenoble, July 9, 1871; d Corenc, May 1947).

French painter, printmaker and draughtsman. While still at the Lycée de Grenoble he took courses in drawing and modelling. Abandoning his baccalauréat he joined a firm of printers in Grenoble in 1889 where he learnt the techniques of lithography while continuing his other art courses. Having done his military service he moved to Paris in 1893 and enrolled at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, which he attended during 1894. Late in 1894 he also enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts where, impressed by his ability, Gustave Moreau took him into his studio in 1895 even before he had passed the entrance examination. He remained there until Moreau’s death in 1898 and also received encouragement and advice from Pierre Puvis de Chavannes at this time.

Flandrin first exhibited in 1896, at the Salon du Champ de Mars in Paris, with a number of paintings and lithographs. After becoming an associate member of the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in ...


Margaret Kelly


(b New York, Aug 19, 1919; d Feb 24, 1990).

American publisher and collector. In his position as Chairman and Editor-in-chief of the fortnightly American business magazine Forbes, he established one of the oldest corporate art collections in America in the 1950s when he began to acquire objets d’art created by Peter Carl Fabergé: the collection contains over 300 pieces, including 12 Imperial Easter eggs. A man of eclectic tastes, and spurred by fond childhood memories, Forbes assembled a collection of 100,000 lead soldiers and over 500 tin clockwork toy boats. The Fabergé works and selected toys are displayed at the Forbes Magazine Galleries in New York with American presidential manuscripts and related historical memorabilia that Forbes believed ‘better depict each [president] than the likenesses that abounded in their time’. Numbering over 3000 pieces, the collection is the finest of its kind in private hands.

The Forbes picture collection, predominantly conservative in flavour, features works by French 19th-century military painters, Victorian artists, Kinetic artists, American Realists and 19th- and 20th-century photographers. Forbes established the ...


(b Bayreuth, Oct 8, 1799; d Gleichenberg, June 16, 1863).

Austrian architect, publisher and teacher. In 1818 he went to Vienna to study at the academy. Although Förster pursued an academic career at the academy, as a lecturer (1820–26) and professor of architecture (1842–5), his influence was due mainly to his great ability as a publisher and his untiring work on the urban reorganization of Vienna. In 1836 he founded the Allgemeine Bauzeitung (1836), one of the earliest 19th-century architectural journals. Given the rigid spirit of politics and the arts in Vienna at that time, the Bauzeitung was a bold enterprise, but it succeeded in establishing a long-desired contact with architectural trends in western Europe and in introducing historicist architecture in Vienna and throughout the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Förster’s contribution to the planning of the expansion of Vienna also began in 1836, when he presented his first design. He continued to produce proposals for Vienna until the international competition in ...


David Tatham

(bapt Dorchester, MA, Dec 10, 1648; d Dorchester, Sept 9, 1681).

American printer and printmaker. He was the son of early settlers in Massachusetts and graduated from Harvard College in 1667; he then taught in Dorchester (now South Boston) and about 1670 began making the earliest pictorial woodcuts in English-speaking North America. In 1675 he became the first letterpress printer in Boston and the second in New England. Foster’s woodcut Richard Mather (c. 1670; Cambridge, MA, Harvard U., Houghton Lib.) is among the earliest of American portraits and perhaps the first in any medium by an artist born in English-speaking America. His Map of New-England, ‘White Hills’ version (1677; Boston, MA Hist. Soc.), which he adapted from a manuscript source (untraced), was the first map to be cut, printed and published north of Mexico. Despite their primitive quality, Foster’s prints are strongly designed and show a keen awareness of Baroque style in the graphic arts. In addition to his work as a printer and printmaker, Foster took an interest in medicine, music, astronomy, meteorology, mathematics and possibly painting....


David Rodgers

(b Glasgow, April 20, 1707; d Edinburgh, June 2, 1776).

Scottish printer and educator. He was of humble origin, but determined to become a printer. In 1739 he went to Paris where he purchased fine and rare books that he sold in London for a profit. Two years later he had established a bookshop in Glasgow and began to print with such success that in 1743 he was appointed printer to the university. Foulis’s Iliad (1757) and Odyssey (1758) are among the finest examples of 18th-century typography. From 1751–3 he travelled in France and the Netherlands purchasing prints and over 350 paintings to provide the nucleus of the teaching collection of an academy of fine arts that he intended to establish in Glasgow on his return. The Foulis Academy (founded 1753) was housed in the university and financed by loans from Glasgow merchants. Tuition was free and the academy was the first to award scholarships for foreign study. It also held the first public art exhibition in ...


Laura Suffield

(b Paris, Sept 15, 1712; d Paris, Oct 8, 1768).

French printer and publisher. He was born into a family of printers and type-founders. In 1729 he began to work at the celebrated Le Bé type foundry in Paris, of which his father was manager; he also studied drawing at the Académie de St Luc. In 1736 he started up as a professional type-founder, producing woodcut vignettes and some large-format type. In 1739 Fournier was formally registered as a typecutter. He made the first move towards the standardization of type sizes with a Table of Proportions (1737), although his method was supplanted by that of the Didot family. His first specimen book, Modèles des caractères de l’imprimerie (Paris, 1742), showed 4600 punches. Fournier’s typographic skills lay in his modernization of type forms. His roman types increased the thin–thick stroke contrasts and used flat, unbracketed serifs; his italic has been described as the most legible of all. His interests also lay in the design of metalcut floral ornaments and in music cutting, for which he developed a more unified system than that previously possible. Fournier’s technical improvements included moulds for the continuous casting of rules and leads that allowed for much longer rules. Having applied in ...


Madeleine Barbin

(b Nancy, May 4, 1717; d Paris, March 22, 1769).

French engraver and publisher. After studying painting at Nancy, he started work in 1733 in Dijon as an engraver of coats of arms. From 1740 to 1748 he worked as an engraver in Lyon with the publisher Robert-Menge Pariset, who in 1748 brought out his Principes de dessein faciles et dans le goût du crayon (Pognon and Bruand, nos 1–12). François then established himself in Paris, where he published (1751–3) volumes of engravings by the architect Emmanuel Héré (pb 227–91) of the châteaux in Lorraine belonging to Stanislav I, King of Poland. François was a skilled and inventive printmaker, who is best known for being the first in France to practise engraving in the crayon manner (see Crayon manner §2) in order to imitate chalk drawings. To achieve this, he employed, in turn, the burin to make double or triple lines (1740–48); a plate prepared by the use of a mezzotint rocker (...


Timothy Riggs



Ray McKenzie

(b Chesterfield, Derbys, 1822; d Cannes, Feb 25, 1898).

English photographer. He is noted for his studies of the Middle East and for establishing the largest photographic publishing firm in the 19th century. He was born into a Quaker family and spent five unrewarding years apprenticed to a cutler in Sheffield, suffering a nervous breakdown in 1843. After two years recuperative travel he became a successful businessman, first in wholesale groceries and later in printing. His involvement with photography began at this time. He was one of the founder-members of the Liverpool Photographic Society in 1853 and he exhibited portraits and landscapes to much critical acclaim.

The sale of Frith’s printing firm in 1854 financed the expeditions to Egypt and the Holy Land that were to establish his pre-eminence among early travel photographers. He made three trips between 1856 and 1860 (see fig.). On the first, he sailed up the Nile to the Second Cataract, recording the main historic monuments between Cairo and Abu Simbel. On the second, he struck eastwards to Palestine, visiting Jerusalem, Damascus and other sites associated with the life of Christ. The final expedition was the most ambitious, combining a second visit to the Holy Land with a deeper southward penetration of the Nile. His photographs of the temple at ...


Gordon Campbell

(b Hammelburg, Franconia, c. 1460; d Basle, Oct 27, 1527).

German humanist printer. He moved to Basle in 1491 and trained as a printer and scholarly editor in the Amerbach family workshop. After the death of Johannes Amerbach in 1513, Froben established himself as an independent publisher with a particular interest in the printing of Biblical and patristic works (notably a nine-volume edition of St Jerome), and engaged Hans Holbein the younger (see Holbein family §(3)) and Urs Graf to design decorative initials and borders for his books; Holbein also painted his portrait (of which a copy is in Windsor Castle). Froben became a close friend of Desiderius Erasmus, who lived in Froben’s house, and was the publisher of Erasmus’s Greek New Testament (the first to be published). Froben also published tracts by Luther, but when Luther and Erasmus clashed over the doctrine of grace, Froben supported Erasmus. After Froben’s death the publishing house was managed by his descendants until ...


Gordon Campbell

(b Mainz, c. 1400; d Paris, Oct 30, 1466).

German printer. He was a lawyer who in 1450 lent Johann Gutenberg 800 guilders to finance the publication of the 42-line Bible. He subsequently invested another 800 guilders and became Gutenberg’s partner. When Gutenberg became bankrupt in 1455, Fust assumed control of the press together with his son-in-law Peter Schöffer. On ...


Pilar Benito

An international monthly cultural review that was published in Tenerife, Canary Islands, from February 1932 to June 1936. Its editor-in-chief was Eduardo Westerdahl (1902–80), and its editors included the writer Domingo Pérez Mink. The proclamation of the Second Republic in Spain in 1931 created an atmosphere of liberalization, and national and international avant-garde periodicals of the previous decade such as Esprit, Cahiers d’art, Die Brücke and Revista de Occidente reappeared. The very character of the islands and the emphasis on international tourism favoured the Gaceta del arte’s publication. Its viewpoint was dependent on Westerdahl’s European travels, which put him in contact with such contemporary avant-garde movements as Functionalism, Rationalism, Surrealism and many others. His programme was to disseminate the most progressive styles and ideas emerging in Europe, from aesthetics and ethics to fashion. From the outset, Gaceta del arte maintained connections with the Rationalist movement in architecture. Its contacts with ...