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[Florentin, Dominique ; Riconucci, Domenico]

(b ?Florence, c. 1506; d Paris, 1565).

Italian sculptor, stuccoist, painter, engraver and mosaicist, active in France . He is mentioned for the first time between 1537 and 1540 in the accounts of the château of Fontainebleau, working on mosaics with Jean Picard (Jean Le Roux, fl mid-16th century). Barbiere rose to prominence rapidly in the team of artists assembled by Francesco Primaticcio on the royal works at the château and worked also at Troyes, where he lived for periods during his career. It is not clear, however, if he went to Troyes as a young man and established his profession there before going on to Fontainebleau with other sculptors from Troyes, such as the Julyot family (fl 16th century) and Nicolas Cordonnier, or whether he went initially to Fontainebleau in the footsteps of his fellow Florentines Rosso Fiorentino and Primaticcio and then went on to Troyes, a long-established centre of sculpture production, with craftsmen he had met at Fontainebleau (...


P. Knolle

Dutch family of artists, originally from Flanders. The five known generations of this family start with the history painter Anthonie Barbiers (bapt Rousselaere, 14 May 1676; d Amsterdam, 1726), who was in Rome at the same time as Pieter van Bloemen and returned to the northern Netherlands, settling in Amsterdam. His younger brother Balthazar Barbiers (bapt Antwerp, 5 Dec 1685; d Antwerp, c. 1728) worked in Antwerp, where his painted ceiling decorations for the municipal council chamber are still in situ.

Anthonie’s son and pupil Pieter (Anthoniesz.) Barbiers (b Amsterdam, 1717; d Amsterdam, 7 Sept 1780) worked as a painter, draughtsman and engraver, although none of his paintings has survived. He had a wallpaper factory and designed decorations for rooms and gardens. He was particularly interested in the theatre, and his stage designs were used by theatres in Amsterdam, Leiden, The Hague and Rotterdam. Some of his work for the Amsterdam theatre was engraved by ...


Marco Livingstone

(b Luton, Bedfordshire, Aug 29, 1940).

English sculptor, draughtsman and printmaker. He studied at Luton College of Technology and Art from 1957 but abandoned the course in 1959, working instead on the assembly-line of the Vauxhall car factory in Luton for 18 months. The experience of helping to build beautiful, machine-made objects on the shop floor proved decisive on his choice of materials for his first sculptures in 1962: leather and chrome-plated metal. The idea of relying on specialist fabricators to achieve the best result made it easy for him to accept Marcel Duchamp’s notion of the ready-made, as applied to ordinary manufactured items designated as sculpture but not made by the artist’s own hands. Rather than simply taking things as he found them, however, Barker either commissioned fabricators to make them to his specifications as with his leather-clad Zip Boxes of 1962, which aligned him with Pop art or had the original objects recast or resurfaced so that the sculptures became non-functional surrogates for them. The techniques and materials he employed, the almost heroic elevation of the commonplace, the humorous touches and the acceptance of the banal and the kitsch all contribute to the provocative originality of Barker’s work of the 1960s and to its importance in anticipating and probably influencing the sculptures with which Jeff Koons made his name in the mid-1980s....


Yvonne Modlin

(b Wedel, nr Hamburg, Jan 2, 1870; d Rostock, Oct 24, 1938).

German sculptor and printmaker. He experimented with several media because he believed that conventional forms of communication were too formulaic and often failed to make tangible the essence of artistic vision. In his plastic and literary oeuvres Barlach sought to define and externalize the inner processes of humanity and nature through depriving his subject of its superficial mask and extraneous detail.

Barlach studied sculpture at the Kunstgewerbeschule in Hamburg (1888–9) and at the Dresden Akademie (1891–5), where he became the chief pupil of the sculptor Robert Diez (b 1844). After two brief visits to the Académie Julian in Paris, he returned to Germany and collaborated with his friend Karl Garbers (b 1864) on a commission for architectural sculptures for the city halls of Hamburg and Altona. Barlach’s early work was influenced by the sinuous, wavy line of Jugendstil. In 1899 he moved to Berlin, where he lived for two years, but he later returned to Wedel, hoping to find inspiration in a familial environment. In the winter of ...


Richard Jeffree

(b ?Lincs, c. 1626; d London, bur Aug 11, 1704).

English painter, etcher and draughtsman. In 1650, following his probable apprenticeship to the portrait painter William Sheppard (fl 1641–60), he was made free of the Painter-Stainers’ Company. He was by then a mature draughtsman, as can be seen by his drawing of David Slaying the Lion (1648; London, BM). In 1652 Edward Benlowe’s poem Theophila: Or Love’s Sacrifice, a Divine Poem was published in London with a frontispiece portrait of the author and a further 11 fine plates by Barlow (drawing for one plate in London, BM; drawing for another in London, V&A). Following Theophila, Barlow produced plates for numerous books, such as Richard Blome’s The Gentleman’s Recreation (1686). He published his own major edition of Aesop’s Fables in London in 1666 (dated 1665); two further editions, one in 1687 with additional plates and one in 1703, were dedicated to William Cavendish, 3rd Earl of Devonshire. Many drawings for both the original and expanded editions survive (London, BM). Barlow also contributed plates to the revised version (...


Anthony Dyson

(b Oldham, Aug 4, 1824; d London, Dec 24, 1889).

English printmaker . He was articled to Messrs Stephenson & Royston of Manchester and furthered his training at the Manchester School of Design. In 1847 he went to London where he soon became well established as an engraver of such celebrated subjects as J. E. Millais’s A Huguenot (1852, Makins priv. col.; declared for publication by D. T. White in June 1856) and the same artist’s My First Sermon (1863; London, Guildhall A.G. declared by Henry Graves & Co. in March 1865). Barlow also engraved many portraits, for example that of the northern industrialist Samuel Crompton (commissioned by Thomas Agnew and published in March 1862) and of Millais’s Cardinal Newman (1881, London, N.P.G.; declared by Agnew in March 1884). Barlow exhibited 46 works at the Royal Academy between 1849 and 1890. In 1873 he became an Associate Engraver of the Royal Academy and was elected to full membership in ...


Blanca García Vega

(b Minas de Ríotinto, Huelva, Jan 12, 1871; d Vera de Bidasoa, Navarra, 1953).

Spanish printmaker, painter and writer . He was self-taught. He belonged to the Generación del 98 and the modernist literary movement. He began engraving in 1901 and won second prize at the Exposición Nacional, Madrid (1906), going on to win first prize in 1908. He also began etching c. 1908, and it became his favourite technique, although he also made lithographs. Both his prints and paintings have a literary content and focus thematically on life’s human aspects in a way reminiscent of the work of Toulouse-Lautrec. He illustrated Rubén Darío’s Coloquio de los centauros. Despite their lack of fine detail, his prints are realistic, for example Bar Types (etching and aquatint, c. 1906–9; Madrid, Bib. N.) and Beggars (etching and aquatint, c. 1910; Madrid, Bib. N.). His impressionistic painting style of the 1920s became more roughly worked later, possibly due to the loss of an eye in 1931. In ...


Elizabeth Miller

(b Paris, 1696; d London, Jan 22, 1762).

French engraver active in England . He was the pupil and son-in-law of Nicolas-Henry Tardieu. In 1712 the French engraver Claude Du Bosc (fl c. 1711–40) brought Baron to London to assist with the engraving of murals at Marlborough House. In 1724 Baron engraved eight plates of the Life of Achilles after Rubens (Meyer, nos 16–24). Five years later he returned to Paris where he engraved L’Accord parfait (m 51), the first of his four prints for the celebrated Recueil Jullienne collection of the works of Antoine Watteau. Two of the other Watteau paintings that he engraved (m 52 and 54) belonged to the painter’s English physician Dr Richard Mead and the fourth, Les Deux Cousines (m 53), Baron owned himself. A drawing by Watteau of an engraver at work (London, BM) is believed to depict Baron. While in France, Baron also engraved Titian’s Pardo Venus...


Mirka Beneš

(b Marseille, 1618; d Rome, Sept 18, 1678).

French etcher and architectural designer. He arrived in Rome around 1640 where he settled permanently among its community of French artists. No records exist of his training, but his earliest etchings (1640–47) are historical and mythological scenes, such as the Battle of Bommel in 1585 (1640) after Guglielmo Cortese and Apollo and Python (c. 1647–52) after Domenichino’s painting for the Villa Aldobrandini, Frascati.

Barrière also etched seascapes in the manner of his friend and fellow French artist Claude Lorrain, for whom he later etched five scenes between 1660 and 1668, such as the Seaport with Ulysses Returning Chryseis to her Father (c. 1644; etching, 1664). In 1647 Barrière began to work on precise perspectival renderings of architecture and topography. He was encouraged in this direction by the patronage of the Francophile amateur architect Prince Camillo Pamphili, who commissioned Barrière’s best works, the plate-books ...


Jorge Luján-Muñoz

(b San Marcos, Jan 1, 1946).

Guatemalan painter and printmaker. He began his art studies at the Escuela Nacional de Artes Plásticas in Guatemala City, then studied painting at the Facultad de Bellas Artes of the Universidad de Costa Rica (1968–9) and printmaking at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid (1974–5). His first works were expressionist woodcuts influenced by Munch, but after studying in Madrid he changed his style, emphasizing the role of drawing and texture and taking his subjects from Latin American literature.

On his return to Guatemala in 1979, Barrios addressed himself to the magic realism that held sway there in literature as well as in the visual arts. From c. 1980 he devoted himself increasingly to watercolour (e.g. Bosch’s Garden, Guatemala City, Mus. A. Contemp.) and to oil painting. His brother César Barrios (b 1945) was also active as a painter and printmaker....


William L. Pressly

(b Cork, Oct 11, 1741; d London, Feb 22, 1806).

Irish painter, draughtsman, printmaker and writer.

He was the son of a publican and coastal trader and studied with the landscape painter John Butts (c. 1728–65) in Cork. Early in his career he determined to become a history painter: in 1763 he went to Dublin, where he exhibited the Baptism of the King of Cashel by St Patrick (priv. col., on loan to Dublin, N.G.) at the Dublin Society of Arts, by whom he was awarded a special premium for history painting. He studied under the portrait and history painter Jacob Ennis (1728–70) at the Dublin Society’s drawing school. He attracted the attention of Edmund Burke, who in 1764 found work for him in London preparing material for volumes of the Antiquities of Athens with James ‘Athenian’ Stuart. From 1765 to 1771 Barry travelled in Europe, financially supported by Burke. He was mostly in Rome, where he moved in the circle of the Scottish painters John and Alexander Runciman and the sculptor Joseph Nollekens; he seems also to have known the Swedish Neo-classical sculptor Johan Tobias Sergel. In ...


Alison Stewart



Bernt von Hagen



Cecile Johnson


(b Long Beach, CA, March 14, 1941).

American installation artist, painter, printmaker and sculptor. Bartlett studied at Mills College, Oakland, CA (1960–63), and at the Yale School of Art and Architecture, New Haven, CT (1964–5). The progressive approach to modern art taught at Yale and the nearby thriving art scene of New York were instrumental in her early development (1963–early 1970s). Bartlett’s first one-person exhibition was in New York (1970) in the loft of the artist Alan Saret. Nine-point Pieces (1973–4), a later work, was shown at the Paula Cooper Gallery in New York and was experimental both conceptually and materially. Her ambivalent use of systems to establish an order and to oppose it allowed her to explore the material and the conceptual process of making images and objects. Rhapsody (1975–6; priv. col., see exh. cat., p. 21), one of her best-known installations, consists of 988 steel plates covered with screenprint grids and hand-painted Testors enamel and hung on a wall (2.28×47.86 m). Each plate exists individually and in relation to its adjoining plate and may be read vertically or horizontally, creating a mesh of stylistic variability exploring both figurative and non-figurative motifs. Another work of the 1970s is ...


Annamaria Negro Spina


(b Perugia, 1615; d Rome, Nov 7, 1700).

Italian engraver, draughtsman and painter . He lived in Rome from 1635, initially as the pupil of Poussin, later serving Christina, Queen of Sweden, as an antiquarian. He was an indefatigable engraver of Roman monuments, and his work was published in, for example, Admiranda Romanorum Antiquitatum (Rome, 1693). He also engraved from Raphael, Polidoro da Caravaggio, the Carracci and Lanfranco, and on subjects of his own invention. As a draughtsman, Bartoli reproduced the Codice Virgiliano (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, Cod. Vat. 3867) in 55 plates (1677; Rome, Calcografia N.), commissioned by Cardinal Camillo Massimi, for whom he also executed drawings of ancient Roman paintings and mosaics (Glasgow, U. Lib.). He lived for a long time in Paris, where he was introduced at the court of Louis XIV.

DBI C. Pace: ‘Pietro Santi Bartoli: Drawings in Glasgow University Library after Roman Paintings and Mosaics’, Papers of the British School at Rome...


Valerio Rivosecchi

(b Cupramontana, Ancona, Feb 8, 1892; d Rome, May 16, 1963).

Italian painter, printmaker and writer . He spent his youth in Rome, Siena and Florence and completed his studies in 1910 at the Istituto di Belle Arti in Siena. He made his first etchings around 1909 in Florence, where he studied the prints of Jacques Callot, Giovanni Fattori and Rembrandt and attended both the faculty of arts of the university as well as courses in anatomy at the faculty of medicine. Bartolini began painting in oils just before World War I and during the war fought as an officer at the Front. He resumed his artistic activity in 1919, establishing himself as a printmaker. He continued to produce paintings, however, for example Meeting with Nomads (1922; Rome, G.N.A. Mod.). In 1932, along with Giorgio Morandi and Boccioni, he won a prize at the Mostra dell’Incisione Italiana in Florence and in 1935 obtained first prize for printmaking at the second Quadriennale at the Palazzo delle Esposizioni in Rome, where he exhibited 50 etchings. He demonstrated great facility and inventiveness as a printmaker (e.g. ...


Glenn F. Benge

(b Paris, Sept 24, 1796; d Paris, June 25, 1875).

French sculptor, painter and printmaker. Barye was a realist who dared to present romantically humanized animals as the protagonists of his sculpture. Although he was a successful monumental sculptor, he also created a considerable body of small-scale works and often made multiple casts of his small bronze designs, marketing them for a middle-class public through a partnership, Barye & Cie. His interest in animal subjects is also reflected in his many watercolours. He thus challenged several fundamental values of the Parisian art world: the entrenched notion of a hierarchy of subject-matter in art, wherein animals ranked very low; the view that small-scale sculpture was intrinsically inferior to life-size or monumental work; and the idea that only a unique example of a sculptor’s design could embody the highest level of his vision and craft. As a result of his Romantic notion of sculpture, he won few monumental commissions and endured near poverty for many years....


M.-E. Hellyer

(b Paris, Oct 23, 1723; d ?Paris, Jan 12, 1797).

French engraver, print-seller and dealer . His father was Claude-Pierre Basan, a wine merchant in Paris. Pierre-François received his first lessons in drawing and engraving from his cousin Etienne Fessard (1714–77); he then studied under Jean Daullé. From 1747 he worked for the print-seller Michel Odieuvre (1687–1756), for whom he engraved 58 portraits. Between 1750 and 1754 he contributed to the engraving of the paintings in the Saxon royal collection in Dresden (Galerie royale de Dresde, 1753–7) and in the collection of Heinrich, Graf von Brühl (Galerie … [du] Comte de Brühl, 1754). He also engraved 14 illustrations for the Histoire naturelle of Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1749–67; Paris, Bib. N. cat. nos 272–85).

However, it is as a print-seller rather than as an engraver that Basan is best remembered. By his own admission, he had too much ‘vivacité de caractère’ for the exacting task of the engraver, and in ...


Andreas Franzke

(b Deutschbaselitz, Saxony, Jan 23, 1938).

German painter, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor. After attending grammar school in Kamenz, near Dresden, he began studying painting at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste in East Berlin in 1956 but was expelled after one term because of ‘socio-political immaturity’. After moving to West Berlin in 1956, at which time he took a new surname reflecting his place of birth, he resumed his studies in 1957 at the Hochschule der Bildenden Künste in West Berlin; in 1961 he became a post-graduate student under Hann Trier, completing his studies in 1962. He became interested in literature and in the theoretical writings of painters such as Kandinsky, Malevich and Ernst Wilhelm Nay. His intensive reading of the works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Charles Baudelaire, the Comte de Lautréamont, Antonin Artaud, Stefan George, Gottfried Benn and Samuel Beckett had a great influence on his early work.

After moving to West Berlin Baselitz became closely associated with two other painters from East Germany, A. R. Penck and especially ...


David Alexander

English family of engravers. Isaac Basire (1704–68) worked as an engraver in London. His son (John) James Basire (i) (b ?London, 6 Oct 1730; d London, 6 Sept 1802) became known as an engraver of architecture and was employed on the first volume of James Stuart’s and Nicholas Revett’s The Antiquities of Athens (1762). In 1763 he travelled in Italy; around that time he succeeded George Vertue as Engraver to the Society of Antiquaries, and he became Engraver to the Royal Society in 1770. He contributed fine prints to Vetusta monumenta, produced for the Antiquaries, and other publications; he also engraved many individually issued prints, notably one after Benjamin West’s Pylades and Orestes (1766), one of the first prints of a contemporary painting published by John Boydell. This was shown in London in 1770 at the Free Society of Artists exhibition; between ...