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Isobel Whitelegg

(b La Vega, Mantanzas, 1959).

Cuban painter, photographer, installation and performance artist, active also in the USA. Campos-Pons studied at the Higher Institute of Art, Havana (1980–85). Initially a painter, her graduation show Acoplamientos (1985; Havana, HIA) was concerned with representations of the female body as a device for prohibition and control, and her early work focused on the role of women in society and their representation within the history of art. In 1988 she went to the USA as a visiting artist at the Massachusetts College of Art, Boston, and in 1991 she settled permanently in Boston. Using shaped canvases, her first works displayed an interest in the interrelationship between painting and three-dimensional media. While living in the USA she also expanded her interest in sculpture and installation to include elements of video and performance.

Living abroad also brought her relationship to Cuba into sharper relief; work produced in the early 1990s addressed her own displacement in relation to the enforced migration of her ancestors as slaves, and the way in which an imagined Africa is collectively created in contemporary Cuba by story-telling, the cultivation of traditional medicinal plants and the practice of the Afro-Caribbean Santería religion. Using performance and video as a form of self-portraiture, another aspect of her practice focuses on her attempt to build a coherent identity as an Afro-Cuban woman living in the USA. With the aim of achieving simultaneity between performance and its immediate capture in the production of an unalterable image, her self-portraits employ large-format colour Polaroid photography, as in the diptych ...


Xiao Situ

(b Budapest, Hungary, April 10, 1918; d New York City, May 23, 2008).

Hungarian-born American photographer. Brother of the photographer Robert Capa. Born Cornel Friedmann in Budapest in 1918, Capa moved to New York in 1937 and became an American citizen in 1944, officially changing his name to Cornell Capa. He practiced and advocated a form of humanitarian documentary photojournalism that aimed to deepen people’s awareness and concern about the social, economic and political issues that confronted individuals and groups of people around the world.

He worked as a staff photographer for Life magazine from 1946 to 1954, covering social and political conditions and events in the United States, England and Latin America. Some of his most notable contributions to the magazine during this period include his photo essays on Judaism and Israel, the education of mentally disabled children in northeastern United States and the 1952 presidential campaign of Democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson.

After Capa’s older brother, the American war photographer Robert Capa, was killed in ...


Reinhold Misselbeck

[Friedman, André ]

(b Budapest, Oct 22, 1913; d Thai-Binh, Vietnam, May 25, 1954).

American photographer of Hungarian birth. Capa studied political science at Berlin University from 1931 to 1933. A self-taught photographer, as early as 1931 he worked as a photographic technician for the Ullstein publishing house and as a photographic assistant for Dephot (Deutscher Photodienst) cooperative photographic agency. In 1933 he emigrated to Paris, where he and his friend Gerda Pohorylles (1901–37) invented the American-sounding name Robert Capa, initially to publish photo-stories for which she wrote the text. This unsettled period in Paris offered numerous opportunities to work as a freelancer and to publish successfully. Although Lucien Vogel, the publisher of the magazine Vu, had revealed Capa’s use of a pseudonym, he kept the name and flew to Spain as a reporter on the Spanish Civil War. With Pohorylles (using the pseudonym Gerda Taro) he published Death in the Making, which contained his most famous photograph Death of a Spanish Loyalist...


Constance W. Glenn

(b Boston, MA, Dec 7, 1932).

American photographer. Caponigro studied music at Boston University College of Music (1950–51). In 1953 and again in 1956, while he also studied with Alfred W. Richter, Caponigro studied photography with Benjamin Chin, a former student of Ansel Adams and Minor White at the California School of Fine Art. From 1957 to 1959 he was associated with Minor White, first as a student in Rochester, New York, at workshops in White’s home and then as an assistant during the summers of 1958 and 1959. His association with White provided the basis for his mature style. A delicate tonal balance and mystical view of nature typify black-and-white images such as Running White Deer and County Wicklow, Ireland (1967; see Landscape: Photographs by Paul Caponigro, New York, 1975, no. 27). Throughout his career he repeatedly returned to the examination of particular forms in nature. Close-up views of sunflowers constitute one series (...


Hélène Bocard

(b Fareins, Ain, April 1, 1828; d Paris, 1906).

French photographer, caricaturist, and writer. He was trained as an industrial designer, then, like Nadar, he embarked on a career as a caricaturist. He was passionately fond of the theatre and published a series of lithographs, Le Théâtre à la ville, in Paris in 1854. He founded literary reviews, among which was Le Boulevard (1861), which established his reputation. After an apprenticeship in 1858 with Pierre Petit, he began to photograph artistic, literary, and political personalities with whom he was associated politically, including the composer Gioacchino Rossini (pubd 1877; e.g. in Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.) and Emile Zola (pubd 1877; e.g. in Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.). He also photographed actors, including Sarah Bernhardt and the mime artist Charles Deburau on stage. Some friends, including Gustave Courbet (e.g. pubd 1878; Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.), were the object of a series of photographs. He was also the accredited photographer of ...


Kevin Halliwell

[Karrik, Vil’yam; Karrik, Vasily (Andreyevich)]

(b Edinburgh, Dec 31, 1827; d St Petersburg, Nov 1878).

Scottish photographer, active in Russia. He was the son of a Scottish timber merchant living in St Petersburg. He studied architecture and painting at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg from 1844 to 1853, when he went to Rome to further his studies in painting. On his return to St Petersburg in spring 1856 he had already decided to take up photography for financial reasons, and he became the assistant to a portrait photographer named Hoch. In 1857 he travelled to Edinburgh, where he studied photography briefly with James Good Tunny and met the photographer John McGregor (d 1872). McGregor agreed to travel to St Petersburg, and the two opened a portrait studio there in September 1859, making albumen prints using wet collodion plates. Their photographs received approval from the imperial household, and Carrick developed a relationship with the court painter Mihály Zichy, with whom he embarked on a project of photographing the works of artists (e.g. Zichy’s watercolour of the ...


Leslie Williams

[Dodgson, Charles L(utwidge)

(b Daresbury, Ches, Jan 27, 1832; d Oxford, Jan 14, 1898).

English mathematician, writer and photographer. Well-known as the author of children’s books with a logical philosophical undercurrent, he was active as an amateur photographer, using wet collodion plates, from May 1856 to July 1880, according to his diary. His portraits of Victorian luminaries include Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1863; see Gernsheim, pl. 21), Arthur Hughes (1863; see Gernsheim, pl. 32), John Everett Millais (1865; see Gernsheim, pl. 48), Alfred Tennyson (1857; see Gernsheim, pl. 8) and many churchmen. His portraits of children are often elegantly composed: The Ellis Children (1865; see Ovenden and Melville, pl. 2), for example, lie, sit and stand to form a white triangle of dresses on the dark landscape. Effie Millais (1863; see Gernsheim, pl. 50) in her white flannel night-gown swirls within an oval frame. His letters suggest that he made numerous nude studies of children. Four hand-tinted examples of these may be found in the Rosenbach Museum and Library, Philadelphia....


Kimberly Juanita Brown

(b Johannesburg, Sept 13, 1960; d Johannesburg, July 27, 1994).

South African documentary photographer. Carter swiftly became famous after one of his images appeared in the New York Times in 1993. That photograph, captioned A Vulture Watches a Starving Child, won him the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography in 1994. He committed suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning three months later, solidifying his fame in a swirling mélange of international tragedy, racial politics, and personal trauma.

Born in 1960 in Parkmore, a suburb of Johannesburg, into a firmly segregated South Africa, Carter was one of three children and the only son of Jimmy and Roma Carter. When he was later conscripted into the South African Defence Forces, Carter found it difficult to enforce the mandates of racial apartheid. As soon as he was able, he transitioned out of the SADF and into the world of photography. He began his career as a sports photographer and quickly moved into documentary photography. His disdain for the fully structured apartheid system was a matter of public and private record, and this disdain fuelled his desire to document the racial violence engulfing South Africa in the decade before the end of apartheid....


Mark Haworth-Booth

(b Chanteloup, Seine-et-Marne, Aug 22, 1908; d Cereste, Aug 3, 2004).

French photographer, painter and draughtsman. He not only shaped and extended the concept of photography but through it achieved a psychological penetration and formal perfection equal to other kinds of serious image-making. He began to study painting and drawing at the age of 15 and in Paris was a student in the atelier of André Lhote in 1927–8, a painter whom he remembered with affection and respect. Lhote’s Synthetic Cubist methods and high valuation of the ‘lightning sketch’ as a source of ideas seem to have proved fruitful for him.

Cartier-Bresson spent a year in the French army in 1930, and then he visited the Côte d’Ivoire in 1931, followed by a period of convalescence in France from Blackwater fever contracted during his travels. His serious interest in photography began at the time of his return (although photographs from 1929 are known). From 1932 he used the Leica camera, his chief mentor being ...


(b Mexico City, Jul 28, 1874; d Mexico City, Mar 30, 1938).

Mexican photographer, journalist, and collector. Casasola initially studied typography before becoming a reporter in 1894. He probably began taking photographs to illustrate his articles and in 1902 traveled to Veracruz to photograph a tour by President Porfirio Díaz. Newspapers that publicly criticized Díaz or his government were often harassed or closed, thus articles and their illustrations often focused exclusively on positive aspects of Mexican life, such as the development of infrastructure, the growth of trade, and the pastimes of the elites living in Mexico City (see Monasterio 2003, 32–41). At the same time, Casasola sometimes photographed scenes of everyday life, traveling, for example, to haciendas near Mexico City to photograph the peasant farmworkers. In these images he took care, lest he attract the ire of the government, to avoid any display of the harsh conditions that characterized life for the majority of Mexicans outside of the capital.

In 1905 Agustín and his brother Miguel were both working as photographers for ...


Andrew Cross

(b Lansing, MI, Sept 17, 1953).

American photographer and installation artist. Casebere made his first photographs of constructed models in 1975 while completing a BFA at the Minneapolis College of Art and Design. This method of image-making, a kind of no-man’s land between reality and constructed fiction, became his trademark. By the time he graduated from the California Institute of Fine Arts in Valencia, CA, he was part of a generation of American artists, including Cindy Sherman and Richard Prince, that was redefining the use of photography in art. Casebere’s early work directly referenced Hollywood films and television, depicting scenes in American domestic interiors or the popular conception of the Wild West. His primary concerns at that time were the exploration of personal and collective memories and the presentation of myths of a past that continue to inhabit the present. Always showing places without people in them, these images take on a charged atmosphere reminiscent of ...


W. Iain Mackay

(b Carhuás, Ancash, Oct 2, 1857; d San Miguel de Tucumán, Dec 1922).

Peruvian painter, photographer, teacher and critic. At the age of four he was brought to Lima, where he began to take lessons in art. From 1885 he travelled through France, Italy and Belgium, and on returning to Latin America he settled in Buenos Aires, where he took up photography. In 1905 he returned to Lima, where he set up a workshop and art college at the Quinta Heeren, introducing the latest photographic techniques. On visiting Spain in 1908 Castillo discovered the historical genre paintings of Mariano Fortuny y Marsal, and once back in Lima worked as a painter and as art critic for the magazines Prisma, Variedades, Actualidades and Ilustración peruana. He later supported Daniel Hernández in founding (1919) the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Lima (see also Peru, Republic of, §XI). In parallel with the writer Ricardo Palma, Castillo was concerned with recording the traditions of Lima’s colonial past, and such paintings as the ...


Joan Fontcuberta

Spanish Catalan family of photographers.

(b Valls, nr Tarragona, Sept 14, 1889; d Barcelona, July 13, 1971).

He was brought up in Barcelona, where he worked for the photographer Rafael Areñas (1913–14). In 1915 he returned to Valls, where he ran his own studio until 1931. His interest in photographic theory led him to combine practical work with lecturing. He travelled throughout Europe, visiting museums and compiling information on photography and advertising. In 1931 he moved his studio permanently to Barcelona, specializing in industrial and advertising photography. Català Pic was a fervent admirer of Man Ray and was aware of modern art movements such as Constructivism and Futurism. In such works as the advertisement for Industrias gráficas Cantín (c. 1940) images of movement are multiplied and distorted to create a single powerful composition. Both his photographs and his theories were published in magazines, and from ...


Paolo Costantini

(b Lucera, Foggia, Nov 29, 1904; d Senigallia, Oct 25, 1961).

Italian photographer and writer. He graduated in law from the University of Rome in 1926 and practised as a lawyer in Rome (1926–35). He was self-taught as a photographer. From 1935 to his death he worked as a freelance photographer in Senigallia. He was a founding member of three photographic groups of great importance in the theoretical debate on photography in Italy, the Gruppo degli Otto (1941), La Bussola (Senigallia, 1947) and the Gruppo MISA (1953). He was the recipient of numerous international awards and was one of the most important figures in Italian photography between 1940 and 1955.

Cavalli was dedicated to the exaltation of a formal aesthetic in photography, and he discussed his conviction that photography was an art form in numerous articles in the main Italian photographic magazines between 1947 and 1961 (especially Ferrania, Rivista fotografica and Progresso fotografico). His photographs, first published in ...


Ismeth Raheem

(b 1854; d England, 1913).

English photographer, publisher and writer. He first travelled to Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) as private secretary to the Bishop of Colombo. In 1870 he set up a small bookshop in Colombo, which by 1884 had diversified into a flourishing publishing house, H. W. Cave & Company, and a printing firm equipped to produce books with excellent quality photographic reproductions. He took a serious interest in photography, and this enabled him to illustrate the pictorial travelogues written by him and published by his own firm. His close supervision of the details of book production and photographic reproduction gave him a competitive edge over other commercial photographers. He returned to England in 1886 after the death of his wife and settled down in Oxford. He made occasional visits to Ceylon, but continued to manage his firm’s business from England.

In his photography Cave specialized in rural and landscape scenes and was especially interested in creating views with luxuriant tropical vegetation, using dramatic atmospheric lighting effects. Some of the best examples of this type of work are reproduced in his lavishly printed travelogues ...


Robert Smith


(b Wellington, New Zealand, March 30, 1878; d Sydney, June 19, 1953).

Australian photographer of New Zealand birth (see fig.). His father, Pierce Mott Cazneau (1849–1928), was an English-born New Zealand photographer, who became manager of a photographic portraiture studio in Adelaide c. 1889 and took his family to South Australia. While still at school Harold Cazneaux assisted his father and in 1897 joined the same studio as an artist-retoucher. He was mainly interested in becoming an artist and attended evening classes conducted by Harry P. Gill. Acquaintance with the influence of the English Pictorial photography movement in the 1890s made him aware of the medium’s artistic potential. Dissatisfied with his routine occupation in Adelaide, c. 1904 he joined a studio in Sydney where the work was similar, but a higher salary enabled him to buy his own camera and begin creative photography on his own account, including a lasting preoccupation with pictorial celebration of the diversity of everyday life in the city....


Jerald R. Green

(b El Grao, Valencia, May 21, 1909; d Barcelona, Dec 1, 1985).

Spanish photographer. He was apprenticed for a year to a prominent studio photographer in Barcelona and worked as a press photographer on the staff of the Día grafíco. In 1934 he left the newspaper to work as a freelance photojournalist, and until the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 his photographs appeared in every major Catalan newspaper. On 19 July 1936 Centelles was the only native photographer to document the uprising in Barcelona; he continued to photograph the city and the Aragon front until he was mobilized. In February 1939 Centelles was ordered to leave Spain, and he took with him the army photographic archives and his own negatives.

After a brief period in a French concentration camp Centelles was recruited by the French Resistance and worked in a clandestine photographic laboratory until his return to Spain in 1944. Entrusting his negatives to a French couple, he secretly re-entered Spain. He was prohibited by the Franco government from returning to photojournalism and instead took up commercial photography. In ...


John-Paul Stonard

(b Croydon, May 18, 1953, d London, March 15, 1996).

English sculptor, photographer and installation artist. She studied at Brighton Polytechnic (1973–6) and the Chelsea School of Art, London (1976–7). She lived and worked in London, and lectured at the Royal College of Art, Chelsea School of Art and the London Institute. Chadwick’s innovative and provocative use of a rich variety of materials, such as flesh, flowers, chocolate and fur, was hugely influential on a younger generation of British artists. Her strongly associative and visceral images were intended to question gender representation and the nature of desire. In the early performance There’s Absolutely Nothing to Worry About, which she presented with Philip Stanley at the Spectro Gallery in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1979, she staged an interaction between a lone male and female on a London Underground train. Here Chadwick dealt, from a strongly feminist perspective, with gender power relations taking place in a depersonalized public space. This theme was continued in ...


Erika Billeter

(b Coaza, nr Puno, 1891; d Cuzco, 1973).

Peruvian photographer. The only major photographer of Latin American Indian origin in his time, he gained international recognition only after his death. As a boy he was fascinated by photography, about which he learnt in the studio of Max T. Vargas in Arequipa in 1908. In 1920 he opened a studio in Cuzco, which became the base for his examination of Inca culture. Like the radical intellectuals of the ‘indigenous’ movement with which he was associated, he believed that his country’s true spirit lay with the Indian population. He was motivated, however, not just by documentary concerns but by pictorial ones; his experimentation with light sources can be directly related to his interest in Rembrandt’s paintings. His growing posthumous reputation is largely due to the work of his son, Victor Chambi (b 1917), who on his father’s death began printing some of his 18,000 glass negatives.

Chambi, Martín...


Reinhold Misselbeck

[Hargesheimer, Carl-Heinz]

(b Cologne, May 19, 1924; d Cologne, Dec 31, 1971).

German photographer, sculptor, stage designer and theatre director. He studied graphic design and photography at the Cologne Werkschulen. In 1948 he made his first sculptures in metal, but he made his name shortly afterwards with experimental photographs and other experimental works. A member of the young German avant-garde, from 1951 he taught experimental photography at the photographic school BIKLA (Bild und Klang) in Cologne. In 1957 his first book, Cologne intime, appeared, and a year later he published Im Ruhrgebiet and Unter Krahnenbäumen (both with texts by Heinrich Böll), whose new photographic structures provoked violent reactions and public debate. His photography during this period was based on the collection of images, and he always attempted to penetrate the façades of buildings and of people.

After a series of publications about Berlin, the Rhineland and stocktaking, Chargesheimer turned to the theatre, working as a stage designer, director and photographer for theatres in Cologne, Vienna, Brunswick, Hamburg, Bonn and Kassel. He summed up this achievement in ...