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Cinzia Maria Sicca

(b Bridlington, bapt Jan 1, 1685; d London, April 12, 1748).

English architect, painter, landscape gardener and designer. He was the most exuberant and innovative architect and designer active in England in the first half of the 18th century. He was trained as a painter but was not particularly successful or remarkable in this work, showing greater skill as a draughtsman. As an architect he was highly versatile, practising in both the Palladian and Gothick styles, and this versatility extended to his work as a designer, which included interior decoration, furniture and silverware, book illustration, stage sets and gardens.

Kent was born into a poor family in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Nothing is known of his early education, nor of the circumstances that led to his apprenticeship to a coach-painter in Hull at about the age of 15. Kent is first recorded in London in 1709, when he applied for a passport to go to Italy. He was then 24 and, according to ...


Richard Jeffree


German family of painters. Both (1) Friedrich Kerseboom and his nephew (2) Johann Kerseboom settled in Covent Garden, London, in the 1680s.

(b Solingen, 1632; d London, bur March 30, 1693).

According to Buckridge, he studied in Amsterdam and from 1650 in Paris under Charles Le Brun before proceeding to Rome. He remained there for 14 years, two of which were spent in Nicolas Poussin’s studio. After having moved to London, he produced history paintings, known now from engravings, in Poussin’s manner. He apparently discovered portrait painting to be more lucrative in England, but relatively few examples of his work are known. His portrait of Theophilus Leigh, signed and dated 1683, is rigidly posed and drily painted, while its companion, The Hon. Mary Leigh (both ex-Stoneleigh Abbey, Warwicks), is a timid work strongly influenced by Willem Wissing. Buckridge stated that Kerseboom also painted on glass.


Botanic gardens situated on the banks of the River Thames at Kew, 12 km west of London. The gardens extend to 121 ha and combine the roles of a major scientific institution and a popular park. The nucleus of the present Kew Gardens was formed from the grounds of the White House (1730–35; destr. 1802), residence of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta, and the adjacent grounds of Richmond Lodge (destr. 1772), favourite residence of King George II and Queen Caroline.

In 1730 Frederick commissioned William Kent to renovate the White House and lay out its grounds. Augusta remained there after Frederick’s death (1751), and, under the guidance of John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, established a small botanical garden (1759). The remaining grounds were embellished by William Chambers with buildings (1757–63) in various exotic styles, of which several survive, including the Pagoda (...



Ann Bomann, Sheila S. Blair, Jonathan M. Bloom and Adam Hardy

Light, usually free-standing, roofed building, either with open sides or partially enclosed. The term derives from the Turkish köşk (Pers. kūshk), a free-standing palace structure; in the past, kiosks commonly served as garden and banqueting pavilions in such Islamic lands as Turkey, Iran and India. The form was later imitated in European and American gardens and parks, and newspaper stalls and bandstands were built as kiosks from the 19th century. Small peripteral chapels found in ancient Egyptian architecture are also known as kiosks, and the form was commonly used in East Asian gardens.

See also Pavilion.

Ann Bomann

The kiosk, or peripteral chapel, appeared in Egypt at the beginning of the 12th Dynasty (c. 1938–c. 1756 bc) as a derivative of the peripteral temple (see Egypt, ancient, §VIII, 2, (i), (a)). The best-known early example, the White Chapel of Sesostris I (reg c....


Eva B. Ottillinger

(fl Vienna, 1835–c. 1871).

Austrian furniture-maker. In 1835 he founded a metal-furniture factory in Vienna; its products extended from garden and park furniture to drawing-room furniture and ornamental figures in the Rococo Revival style. At the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London, Kitschelt, along with Michael Thonet and Carl Leistler, represented the Vienna furniture industry, showing seats, tables and ornamental vases with floral decoration. At the Exposition Universelle of 1867 in Paris Kitschelt showed a four-poster bed and a suite designed by the architect Josef von Storck. In 1871 Kitschelt exhibited leather-upholstered seats in classical forms, designed by Rudolf Bernt (1844–1914), at the Österreichisches Museum für Kunst und Industrie, Vienna. Thereafter Kitschelt’s successors concentrated on the production of utility furniture made of tubular steel or moulded metal, portable furniture, tubular steel beds, ladders and garden tents.

M. Zweig: Das zweite Rokoko (Vienna, 1924) E. B. Ottillinger: Das Wiener Möbel des Historismus: Formgebungstheorie und Stiltendenzen...


Gordon Campbell

[Fr.: entrelacs]

Small garden where clipped, low-growing plants are laid out in a series of continuous interlacing bands. The term knot garden is sometimes used in 15th-century English to refer to a maze and in 16th- and 17th-century English to a French parterre (formal flower garden). Knot gardens seem to have originated in the knot designs of carpets and rugs imported into Europe from the Middle East in the 15th century.

The knot garden reached its apogee in England and France with designs printed in Thomas Hill’s The Profitable Art of Gardening (1568, 1608) and in L’Agriculture et la maison rustique (1564, 1570, 1572, 1582) by Charles Estienne and Jean Liébault; the 1572 edition was translated into English as Maison rustique, or the country farm by Richard Surflet in 1600, and the 1608 edition of Hill’s text replaces the knot design of the earlier edition with one borrowed from the ...


(b 1683; d Copenhagen, Sept 21, 1755).

Danish architect, gardener and landscape designer. He trained as a gardener in the Danish royal castle parks, and as an architect, probably on study trips to Holland and England. After his return to Denmark he was appointed gardener at the park of Rosenborg Castle in Copenhagen, but from 1720 he also worked as an architect and landscape architect. He planned and built the castle at Fredensborg, the summer residence of the Danish court, and he laid out the attached park (1720–35). The central corps-de-logis, with a square hall in the middle, three storeys high and roofed with a four-sided cupola, was repeatedly rebuilt and enlarged after his time. The plan derives ultimately from Palladian models. In front of the corps-de-logis is an eight-sided courtyard surrounded by original single-storey buildings. The garden was laid out as a semicircle with the main building in the middle. It was divided into six segments by seven paths, which extended as avenues into the surrounding deer park. The layout has something in common with the formal garden at ...


Werner Wilhelm Schnabel

(b Dresden, March 2, 1718; d Dresden, Nov 28, 1789).

German architect, teacher, theorist and landscape designer. He was first taught mathematics and the rudiments of architecture by his uncle, Christian Friedrich Krubsacius (d 1746), a lieutenant-colonel in the engineers’ corps. He received further training from Zacharias Longuelune and Jean de Bodt. In 1740 he held the post of ‘Kondukteur’ in the building department at Dresden. From c. 1745 he collaborated in the designs of the chief state master builder, Johann Christoph Knöffel. After Knöffel’s death, Krubsacius became the favoured architect of Heinrich, Graf von Brühl, at that time the most important architectural patron in Saxony. In 1755 he was appointed Electoral Court Master Builder, a position created especially for him. He went on a study trip to Paris in 1755–6, at Brühl’s instigation. After the outbreak of the Seven Years War in 1756, his scope for architectural employment deteriorated, so he turned to teaching. In 1764 he became Professor of Architecture at the newly founded Dresden Kunstakademie. His most important work was Schloss Neschwitz (...



(b Hamburg, ?1575; d Rome, Jan 23, 1624).

German engraver. Based first in Hamburg and from 1614 in Nuremberg, he produced engravings after Dürer, including Christ the Gardener (1614; see Hollstein, no. 7) and Ecce homo (1614; h 8), ornamental prints, typified by the Bunch of Fruit of 1614, and a series of 14 prints of the Twelve Apostles with Christ and Paul (1614; h 9–22). He travelled subsequently to Bologna and Florence and in 1618 settled in Rome, living with other artists in the house of the painter Francesco Albani in the Via Paolina from 1621 until his death. His friendship with the engraver Francesco Villamena provided him with considerable inspiration for his own engraving. He worked in Italy from the paintings of Franciabigio and Lanfranco and, most notably, executed a series of 14 engravings of the Life of St John the Baptist (two versions, 1617 and 1618; h 30–43) after Andrea del Sarto’s frescoes (...



M. I. Andreyev

Palace and park 10 km south-east of the centre of Moscow. From the early 17th century until 1917 it was owned by the Sheremet’yev family (see Sheremet’yev, Pyotr (Borisovich), Count). By the mid-1750s a large formal park had been created, with a parterre, a radial system of avenues and a network of ponds and artificial canals. Each avenue led to a pavilion or sculpture. In 1769–75 a wooden Neo-classical palace was built along the main axis of the park by serf architects under the direction of Karl Blank. The ceremonial rooms in the palace are decorated with painted panels, fine gilded stucco, crystal chandeliers and marble sculptures. Alongside the palace is a Baroque church (1737–9). The pavilions in the park include the ‘Dutch House’ (1749–51), the stepped pediments of which are reminiscent of 17th- and 18th-century Dutch architecture; the ‘Italian House’ (1754–5), built by the serf ...


Pamela H. Simpson

(b Philadelphia, PA, March 28, 1877; d Miami, FL, Sept 4, 1954).

American sculptor and educator. A specialist in animal sculpture, Albert Laessle spent most of his life and career in Philadelphia. In 1894, he began attending classes at the Spring Garden Institute and the Drexel Institute before entering the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in 1900, where he studied with Charles Grafly and Thomas Anschutz. In 1904, with the aid of a traveling scholarship, Laessle went to Paris where he studied under Michel Beguine (1855–1929). Returning to Philadelphia in 1907, he became Grafly’s studio assistant. The two formed a life-long friendship. Laessle provided the animals for several of Grafly’s major public works. Laessle later bought a farm on the outskirts of the city so he could have his own animals to study, and he kept modeling equipment at the Philadelphia Zoo. The recipient of many honors, Laessle’s early style was in the Beaux-Arts tradition, but after 1908 he began experimenting with an expressive, less finished form. He taught at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts for 20 years (...



David Aradeon

[Yoruba Eko]

Capital city of Nigeria, on the Gulf of Guinea. Aerial photography reveals a mosaic of land use patterns: large traditional compound spaces in such neighbourhoods as Oke Arin and Oshodi are separated, by British urban planning norms, from the ‘garden city’, one-acre lots in Ikoyi and Ikeja, where the colonial officers lived. Tenuous roads and bridges link Lagos Island with the mainland, including Apapa, through Iddo Island, on which the railway terminal and old Ijora power station are sited.

Lagos has a dual heritage, based first on the Idejo, land-owning chiefs and descendants of the Awori Yoruba founders from Ife, and then on the Edos (see Edo), who established a military camp in the second half of the 16th century at Enu Owa. The crowning of an Oba of Lagos, or the capping of any white cap chief, depends on the performance of sacred rites at Enu Owa for both spiritual blessing and legal validity. Edo rule also instituted a political and social structure, of which the Prime Minister (Eletu Odibo) is the most important official....


Roger White

(b Twickenham, bapt Sept 14, 1696; d London, March 3, 1751).

English architect and writer. The son of a gardener, he first tried his hand as a landscape gardener in Twickenham and published several books that reveal his practical knowledge of the subject, notably New Principles of Gardening (1728) and Pomona (1729). He deplored the rigid formality of continental horticulture and followed Stephen Switzer in advocating the introduction of the serpentine line into layout and planting. By 1731 he had moved to London, where at different times he ran a drawing school in Soho, manufactured artificial stone ornaments, engaged in polemical journalism and produced a succession of architectural publications.

Langley’s classical pattern books plagiarized an astonishing variety of sources, both Baroque and Palladian, although it is clear from their tone and that of his newspaper articles that he had little sympathy for the prevailing Palladian orthodoxy of Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, and his followers. This may explain why, despite energetic self-publicity, he never managed to establish himself as a practising architect—his unsuccessful design (...


Kathleen Russo


French family of artists. (1) Jean Le Blond (i) and (2) Jean Le Blond (ii) worked as painters, engravers and print publishers. Much the most important member of the family was the architect and garden designer (3) Alexandre-Jean-Baptiste Le Blond, who designed several hôtels in Paris as well as contributing to various influential books on architecture and garden design. In 1716 he moved to Russia, where he worked for Tsar Peter the Great.

(b Paris, c. 1594; d Paris, ?May 24, 1666).

Painter, engraver and print publisher. He was the eldest son of the print publisher Nicolas Le Blond I (d 1610), and was primarily a painter, described as ‘peintre ordinaire du Roy’ from 1629. None of his paintings is now known. He followed his father in publishing prints and inherited his stock on his death. His earlier publications were popular prints made by rather heavy-handed engravers such as ...


F. Hamilton Hazlehurst

(b Paris, March 12, 1613; d Paris, Sept 15, 1700).

French garden designer and collector. He was outstanding in his time for his innovation and skill in garden design, particularly in his work at Vaux-le-Vicomte, Versailles, and Chantilly, and his ardent disciples carried his gardening principles throughout France and beyond, so spreading his influence. Popular among contemporaries, he also enjoyed a special relationship with the traditionally aloof Louis XIV, who bestowed upon him the Order of St Lazare (later replaced by the even more prestigious Order of St Michel), a coat of arms, and, on his retirement, a princely pension. Although the original spelling of his name was Le Nostre, by the late 20th century the form of Le Nôtre had gained most currency.

His career was doubtless determined at an early age, since his grandfather, Pierre, and his father, Jean, were both royal gardeners, who worked principally at the Palais des Tuileries. He was thus initiated into gardening practice by his father and a coterie of distinguished gardeners that included Claude Mollet (i) (...


Michael Symes

English landscape garden at Halesowen, West Midlands, laid out from c. 1745 by its owner, William Shenstone (1714–63). A minor poet of limited finances and author of Unconnected Thoughts on Gardening (1764), Shenstone turned the modest farm that he had inherited into one of the best-known and most visited gardens of the 18th century. The Leasowes, a ferme ornée, originally consisted of c. 60 ha of hilly fields and woods cut through by streams and ornamented with a rustic grotto, a ruined priory, seats, temples and urns (destr.). Shenstone’s intention was to re-create the imagined atmospheric settings of Classical pastoral poetry; to that end numerous verse fragments, many taken from Virgil’s Eclogues, were incised on urns and benches. A path led through the most scenic situations to terminate in ‘Virgil’s Grove’, a solemn area for contemplation, planted with yews and other evergreens, where Shenstone set up an obelisk (destr.) dedicated to the poet. The strong influence that The Leasowes exerted can be discerned at Ermenonville, Oise, laid out in the late 18th century by Louis-René, Marquis de Girardin, and at Little Sparta, Stonypath, Strathclyde, begun in ...



Jiří Kroupa

[Ger. Eisgrub]

Town in southern Moravia, Czech Republic, known for its manor house and garden. Situated on the border with Lower Austria, about halfway between Brno and Vienna, the estate belonged to the Liechtenstein princes from the mid-13th century to 1945. Before 1588 Hartmann II, Landgrave of Feldberg, had commissioned a house and ornamental garden for use as the family’s country seat. The house was modernized in the 17th century by Charles Eusebius, Prince of Liechtenstein, who employed, among others, the stuccoist Bernardo Bianchi, the masons Pietro Maderna, Pietro Tencalla and Francesco Caratti (1632) and the architects Giovanni Battista I Carlone (ii), Giovanni Giacomo Tencalla from Vienna and Andrea Erna from Brno (1638–41). Further modifications were made by Antonio Beduzzi in the 1730s, by Isidore Canevale in 1766–72 and by Joseph Kornhäusel, who gave the house a Neo-classical façade in 1815. The only part of the house to remain unaltered was the monumental riding school and its stables, designed in ...


[Remee; Remy] [Vallemput, Remigius; Vanlimpitt, Remigeus]

(bapt Antwerp, Dec 19, 1607; d London, bur Nov 9, 1675).

Flemish (possibly French) painter, copyist, collector and dealer, active in England. In 1635 he was living in the newly developed area of Covent Garden, London; at that time he was closely associated with Anthony van Dyck and presumably assisted in his studio. Through his varied activities, van Leemput became a leading figure in the London art world, and he assembled a major collection of paintings and drawings. He bought extensively when Charles I’s collections were sold in 1649–51; his purchases included works attributed to Titian, Giorgione, Correggio and Andrea del Sarto. Later he acquired the great equestrian portrait by van Dyck of Charles I with M. de St Antoine (British Royal Col.), which he apparently attempted to sell in Antwerp but asked too high a price. It was still with him at the Restoration in 1660, when it was recovered from him for Charles II.

Although van Leemput painted original works, he was best known for his small-scale copies after van Dyck and others. A series of ‘14 … Ladies heads Copys by Remy’ (described thus in Queen ...


Françoise de la Moureyre

French family of artists. (1) Pierre Legros (i) was a sculptor, who contributed to the decoration of the gardens of the château of Versailles. His elder son (2) Pierre Legros (ii) became one of the most successful monumental sculptors in early 18th-century Rome, his best-known work being the altar of St Ignatius in the church of Il Gesù. (3) Jean Legros, younger son of Pierre (i), was a portrait painter in the style of Hyacinthe Rigaud.

(b Chartres, bapt May 27, 1629; d Paris, May 10, 1714).

Sculptor. A pupil of Jacques Sarazin, he was received (reçu) in 1666 as a member of the Académie Royale, with a marble bas-relief of St Peter (Versailles, Notre-Dame). He was principally employed by the Bâtiments du Roi on the sculptural decoration of the château and gardens of Versailles. Within the constraints imposed by the designs and models supplied by Charles Le Brun and François Girardon, his numerous works of sculpture display a distinctive personality of sensual charm and high spirits. His earliest works for Versailles were six gilded lead fountains for the ...


Eva Börsch-Supan

(b Bonn, Sept 29, 1789; d Potsdam, Jan 23, 1866).

German landscape designer and urban planner. He came from a family of horticulturists from Liège that had lived in Bonn since 1665, and he learnt botany and landscape design from his father, Peter Joseph Lenné the elder (1756–1821), in Bonn and Koblenz, and, until 1808, with his uncle Clemens Weyhe in Brühl. On visits to southern Germany in 1809 and 1812 he encountered gardens designed by Friedrich Ludwig von Sckell, and in Vienna he learnt about problems of urban planning. In Paris in 1811 he was influenced by the ideas of Gabriel Thouin (1747–1829), particularly Thouin’s approach to drawing plans, use of geometrical curves and schemes for planting close to a main residence; Lenné also at this time studied architecture with Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand. As imperial garden designer (1814–15) at Laxenburg, near Vienna, he designed the Schlosspark, most of which was executed. The following year he went to Potsdam as Gartengeselle, and in ...