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Article

Bizen  

Richard L. Wilson

Japanese centre of ceramics production. High-fired ceramic wares were manufactured from the end of the 12th century in and around the village of Inbe, Bizen Province (now Okayama Prefect.). This region had been a centre for manufacturing Sue-style stonewares and Haji-style earthenwares from the 6th century ad (see Japan, §IX, 2, (ii), (a)). At the end of the Heian period (794–1185) the potters moved from the old Sue-ware sites around Osafune village to Inbe, just to the north. In response to increased agricultural development, the new kilns manufactured kitchen mortars (suribachi), narrow-necked jars (tsubo) and wide-necked jars (kame). During the 13th century the wares show less of the grey-black surfaces typical of the old Sue tradition and more of the purple-reddish colour characteristic of Bizen. In the 14th century Bizen-ware production sites shifted from the higher slopes to the foot of the mountains. Kilns expanded in capacity, ranging up to 40 m in length. Vast quantities of Bizen wares, particularly kitchen mortars, were exported via the Inland Sea to Kyushu, Shikoku and numerous points in western Honshu, establishing Bizen as the pre-eminent ceramics centre in western Japan. By the 15th century the Bizen repertory had expanded to include agricultural wares in graded sizes; wares then featured combed decoration and such functional additions as lugs and pouring spouts. Plastic–forming was assisted by the introduction of a fusible clay found 2–4 m under paddy-fields. This clay, which fires to an almost metallic hardness, is still in use today....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

Pascale Méker

(b Paris, July 25, 1781; d Paris, June 12, 1853).

French painter. After an apprenticeship at the Dihl et Guerhard porcelain factory in Paris, where he was taught by Etienne Leguay (1762–1846), Blondel moved to Jean-Baptiste Regnault’s atelier in 1802. He won the Prix de Rome in 1803 with Aeneas and Anchises (Paris, Ecole N. Sup. B.-A.) but did not go to Rome until 1809, when he stayed there for three years. After gaining a gold medal in the Salon of 1817 for the Death of Louis XII (Toulouse, Mus. Augustins), Blondel embarked on a wide-ranging and successful career as official decorative painter. In addition to the decoration of the Salon and of the Galerie de Diane at Fontainebleau (1822–8) and the ceiling of the Palais de la Bourse (Justice Protecting Commerce, sketch, 1825; Dijon, Mus. Magnin), he received commissions for several ceilings in the Louvre, of which the earliest and most remarkable is in the vestibule to the Galerie d’Apollon (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Canadian pottery founded in Collingwood, Ontario, in 1947. Its earthenware figures were moulded from a rich red clay and used two glazes, one dark and one light; during firing the lighter glaze ran as it passed through the darker glaze. The pottery is associated with its characteristic green figures and vases, but in the 1960s produced earthenware in other colours and also made tea and coffee sets. The pottery closed in ...

Article

William R. Sargent

Category of ceramics defined by the use, on a white surface, of blue derived from cobalt oxide, the most powerful of the colouring oxides in tinting strength. Depending on its concentration, colours range from a pale blue to a near blue-black. Cobalt produces good colours on all ceramic bodies, from low-fired earthenwares to high-fired porcelains (see Ceramics, §I, 4). It was used as a colourant on figures found in Egyptian tombs of the 5th Dynasty (c. 2465–c. 2325 bc), and glass beads coloured with cobalt and dating to c. 2250 bc have been discovered in north-west Iran. Its use in ceramic glazes is datable to 1200 bc from tomb objects found in Ethiopia, Mycenae, and Tiryns, which probably originated in Egypt or Phoenicia. Persian and Syrian potters used cobalt on earthenwares for several centuries before they introduced it to China, where it was first used as an underglaze colour on earthenware during the Tang period (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

Large circular earthenware dish made in England (especially Bristol and Lambeth) in the late 17th century and early 18th; the name derives from the dashes of blue around the rims. The dishes are usually decorated with portraits of Stuart monarchs or pretenders, but some portray an Adam and Eve in which the fruit is an orange, an allusion to William and Mary of Orange. There are no makers’ marks on the dishes....

Article

Bocage  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Boccaro  

Gordon Campbell

[bucaro; búcaro; buccaro]

Scented red earthenware brought originally by the Portuguese from Mexico; the word derives from Portuguese búcaro (clay cup). The term also denotes similar earthenware made in Portugal and Spain (especially Talavera) from the 16th to the 18th centuries, and the imitation made by Johann Friedrich Böttger at Meissen; the name is also applied to the red Chinese stoneware made in Yixing.

M. C. García Sáiz and J. L. Barrio Moya: ‘Presencia de cerámica colonial mexicana en España’, An. Inst. Invest. Estét., vol.58 (1987), pp. 108–10 M. C. García Sáiz and M. Ángeles Albert: ‘La cerámica de Tonalá en las colecciones Europeas’, Tonalá: Sol de barro, ed. S. Urutia and J. de la Fuente (Mexico City, 1991) J. C. Castro and M. C. McQuade: Talavera Poblana: Four Centuries of a Mexican Ceramic Tradition (Albuquerque, NM, 2000) B. Hamann: ‘The Mirrors of Las Meninas: Cochineal, Silver, and Clay’, A. Bull., vol.92 (March–June 2010), pp. 6–35...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b 1913; d 1969).

American potter famed for his hand-painted porcelain figures of American birds. He maintained an aviary on the Delaware River, and the captured life specimens were the models for the work of his studio in Trenton, NJ. The largest collection of his porcelain birds is housed in the Stark Museum in Orange, TX....

Article

Thérèse Picquenard

(b Paris, Oct 9, 1743; d Paris, March 10, 1809).

French sculptor. He was the son of Antoine Boizot (1704–82), a designer at the Gobelins, and a pupil of René-Michel Slodtz. He studied at the Académie Royale, Paris, winning the Prix de Rome in 1762, and after a period at the Ecole Royale des Elèves Protégés he completed his education from 1765 to 1770 at the Académie de France in Rome. He was accepted (agréé) by the Académie Royale in 1771, presenting the model (untraced) for a statuette of Meleager, but was not received (reçu) as a full member until 1778, when he completed the marble version (Paris, Louvre). He exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon until 1800.

The first years of Boizot’s career were dedicated primarily to decorative sculpture, such as the model for the elaborate allegorical gilt-bronze clock known as the ‘Avignon’ clock (c. 1770; London, Wallace; see France, Republic of, §IX, 2, (iii), (a)...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

American porcelain manufacturer. Gousse Bonnin (b ?Antigua, c. 1741; d c. 1779) moved in 1768 from England to Philadelphia, where he established the first porcelain factory in America with money from an inheritance and with investments from George Morris (1742/5–73). The land was purchased late in 1769 and in January 1770 the first notice regarding the enterprise was published. The first blue-decorated bone china wares were not produced until late in 1770. Newspaper advertisements noted ‘three kilns, two furnaces, two mills, two clay vaults, cisterns, engines and treading rooms’ and listed such wares as pickle stands, fruit baskets, sauce boats, pint bowls, plates, plain and handled cups, quilted cups, sugar dishes in two sizes, cream jugs, teapots in two sizes, and breakfast sets. Well-established foreign competition, however, was too formidable for the new business, which had to charge high prices to meet large expenses; production ceased by ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English ceramics manufactory founded in 1842 by Thomas Latham Boote and Richard Boote at the Central Pottery, Burslem, Staffs; in 1850 the company bought the Waterloo Potteries, Burslem from Thomas Edwards. The Company produced unglazed pavement tiles, Parian ware (notably a group consisting of Repentance, Faith and Resignation) and earthenware with inlay decoration (which they called ‘Royal Patent Ironstone’). In 1888 the Company discontinued most of its decorative lines, and thereafter concentrated on the manufacture of plain white granite ware for the American market and on the production of glazed and unglazed pavement tiles; the company supplied the tiles for the Blackwall Tunnel (Greenwich, London), which opened in 1897. Decorative tiles included a set of ‘The Four Seasons’ (1891) designed by the children’s book illustrator Kate Greenaway. After 1906, production was restricted to tiles. In 1963 T. and R. Boote was bought by T. & R. Boote Richards Tiles, and it now trades as H. & R. Johnson Tiles Ltd. Boote wares were variously marked as T & R B, T & R BOOTE and T B & S; Victorian marks often included the royal arms....

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Article

Gordon Campbell

Article

A. E. Duffey

(b Winburg, July 11, 1923).

South African potter. He was educated at Heidelberg and Potchefstroom (both nr Johannesburg) and began a fine arts degree at the University of the Witwatersrand, which he left after two years to work for a four-year painting diploma at the Johannesburg School of Art. In 1949 he won a three-year scholarship to study ceramics in Britain. He spent one year at the Central School of Arts and Crafts, London, where he worked under Dora Billington (1890–1968) and acquired his interest in pottery. He spent another two years working in such studios as those of Raymond Finch (b 1914) in Winchcombe, Glos, and Michael Cardew in Cornwall. He returned to South Africa in 1952 and taught ceramics at the Technical College in Durban (1952–4) and at the Pretoria Art School (1954–6). At the same time he established his own earthenware studio, specializing in simple white and green wares. He later established a studio near White River and, after working again briefly for ...

Article

Carmen Ravanelli Guidotti

(b Savona, 1744; d 1808).

Italian ceramics painter. From an early age he was attracted to the traditions of Ligurian pottery and worked in both Liguria and Marseille, France. It was, however, chiefly in Savona that his products were most favourably received because of his ability to continue the traditions of the maiolica factories of the Chiodo and Levantino families. His workshop’s production was influenced by the work of famous local artists; the variety of wares produced included maiolica, porcelain and cream-coloured earthenware decorated with both enamels and high-temperature colours. His wife Clara [Chiarina] Boselli was a skilled painter of flowers and small figures; after Boselli’s death she continued to run the factory.

F. Noberasco: Artisti savonesi (Savona, 1931)G. Morazzoni: La maiolica antica ligure (Milan, 1951)P. Torriti: Giacomo Boselli e la ceramica savonese del suo tempo (Genoa, 1965)L. Pessa and G. Boselli: Giacomo Boselli: Cultura e genio di un ceramista del Settecento...

Article

Ruth Rosengarten

(António Teixeira Bastos Nunes)

(b Lisbon, Sept 18, 1899; d Lisbon, Aug 18, 1982).

Portuguese painter, printmaker and designer of tapestries and tile panels. Known primarily as a ‘painter of Lisbon’, he began his artistic career as an illustrator and cartoonist as well as writing a weekly satirical page (1928–50) in the newspaper O sempre fixe. He visited Paris in 1929, 1930–1 and again in 1937, when he was impressed by a retrospective exhibition of the work of van Gogh, whose influence is evident in Botelho’s scenes of urban squalor of the late 1930s. He had begun to depict calm, unpopulated views of Lisbon in the early 1930s, for example Side View of the Castle (1935; Lisbon, Mus. Cidade), and from the early 1940s concentrated almost exclusively on this theme. The compositions became increasingly crisp and planar and the piling up of volumes and compression of space increasingly stylized, especially after he began to paint from memory in 1949. The tonalities of Botelho’s paintings remained consistently pale, as in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(bapt Bromsgrove, Worcester, Jan 25, 1828; d St Martin’s, Worcester, Dec 12, 1870).

English porcelain painter and designer, was born near Kidderminster, Worcestershire, the son of a maker of spade handles. He was trained from 1846 as a glass painter at Richardson’s glassworks at Wordsley near Stourbridge. In 1853 he moved to Worcester to work as a painter for the Worcester Porcelain Factory, where he developed ‘Worcester enamel’, a tinted white enamel on a dark ground (often blue); the resemblance to 16th-century Limoges enamels led to his work being sold as ‘Limoges ware’....

Article

Hugo Morley-Fletcher

(b Schleiz, Feb 4, 1682; d Dresden, March 13, 1719).

German chemist and inventor. With the assistance of the scientist and mathematician Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (1651–1708), he initiated experiments for the manufacture of gold from base metals (alchemy). This attempt attracted the attention of Frederick-Augustus I, Elector of Saxony, who obtained Böttger’s services and kept him under virtual house arrest. The creation of gold did not succeed, but Böttger first developed a red stoneware called Jaspis-porzellan and then on 28 March 1709 discovered ‘true’ or hard-paste porcelain, which had until then only been produced in China and Japan. A factory was established in the Albrechtsburg in Meissen on 6 June 1710. There Böttger worked with David Köhler, Paul Wildenstein and Samuel Stöltzel to refine the new material and to create the necessary colours to decorate it. Initially the shapes were designed by the court goldsmith Johann Jacob Irminger (1635–1724), who in 1712 assumed the role of artistic director at the factory. Böttger’s porcelain was creamy white and could be potted very thinly. Böttger did not see his invention reach its full potential, as very few satisfactory enamel colours had been created by the time of his death. His discovery, however, was to create a fashion for porcelain all over Germany for the next 60 years....