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Building or complex where electric power is generated for distribution, mainly through the burning of fossil fuel and use of water or nuclear power. The design usually consists of a turbine and boiler house (from 1950s combined) or a combination of a reactor, chimneys, cooling towers (unless by the sea) and ancillary buildings. Although the first experiments with electric lighting were made in the 1850s, it was not until the dynamo was developed in Germany and Great Britain in 1866–7 that the generation of electricity became viable. The subsequent development of the power station was primarily one of scale and took a similar form in most industrialized countries. Britain, Germany and the USA were in the forefront of technological progress. The British development, although slightly behind other countries in terms of the size of the early power stations and the adoption of functional architecture, was fairly typical. The first public electricity supply facility in ...



Thomas A. Markus

Building for secure confinement, especially of criminals or those awaiting trial. Prisons have existed since Classical times, but a distinct building type emerged in the West in the 18th century, stimulated by new social and reforming ideas on the care and rehabilitation of offenders. In Britain, for example, such reforming groups as the Quakers and Utilitarians advanced a theory of correction over physical retribution, and the custodial sentence became a recognized alternative to corporal or capital punishment. Stylistically, prison design nevertheless continued to express the purposes of security and punishment through weight, strength and austerity in classical or castellated Gothic forms. Heavy rustication, barred windows, imposing entrance gates and battlements have been consistent characteristics.

Early prisons were for the confinement of those awaiting trial or execution, or for the enforcement of debt repayment. They were also used for torture, for military purposes—both for captives and for the punishment of soldiers—and in monasteries by the beginning of the 13th century. These prisons were dark dungeons, either underground or built into walls or fortification turrets. Sforzinda, ...


Roderick Gradidge

Building, controlled by legislation, that is open to the public for the consumption and retail of alcohol. The ‘pub’ originated in Britain, but it has since been copied elsewhere as a characteristically British building-type. Its origins lie in the shop and in the private houses in which brewing was undertaken as a small family enterprise; this homely tradition did not completely disappear until after World War II. A third, somewhat more remote, tradition dates back to the charitable institutions of medieval times, when monasteries, where ale was always brewed, offered accommodation to travellers. The subsequent large coaching inns that offered this service came about as a result of the Dissolution of the monasteries in the 1530s.

Until Victorian times there was little to differentiate a pub from either shops or private houses selling alcohol: in 18th-century London shops had existed where gin could either be consumed on the premises or taken away. ...


Maria Natália Correia Guedes

[Palácio Nacional de Queluz]

Residence near Lisbon, Portugal. The main construction began in 1746 under the direction of the Infante Dom Pedro of Braganza (1717–86), uncle and subsequently king-consort (as Peter III) to Mary I. It became the official royal residence from 10 November 1794 until 27 November 1807, when the Napoleonic invasion forced the royal family to depart for exile in Brazil. The building began as a hunting-lodge owned by the Marquês de Castelo Rodrigo, a diplomat and statesman to Philip II of Spain (I of Portugal). In 1654 the property was incorporated into the estate of the Portuguese royal Infante and was subsequently inherited by Dom Pedro in 1742. His scheme of enlargement was given impetus by a fire in 1751, which destroyed the Paço Corte Real in Lisbon.

The new central east wing (1746–58) and the chapel (1750–52) were designed by Mateus Vicente de Oliveira (for illustration ...


Ulrich Krings

Building that serves passengers and goods for the railways. In its widest sense the term railway architecture includes all structures associated with the workings of the railway (stations, engine and coach sheds, warehouses, guard houses and water-towers, bridges, reservoirs and tunnels), but this article is concerned only with the station building itself.

Railway architecture began simultaneously in England and the USA, with the Liverpool–Manchester line and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, both established in 1830. The first railway stations were Crown Street, Liverpool (closed 1836; destr.), and Liverpool Road, Manchester. It was at Rainhill, on the same line, that the Rocket, designed by George Stephenson (1781–1848), had won the competition for steam locomotives in 1829, and much of the early development of both engines and railway buildings was the responsibility of Stephenson, his son Robert (1803–59) and Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Railways proliferated in Europe between 1835...


Liliana Mavrodinova

The largest active monastery in Bulgaria, situated c. 120 km south-west of Sofia in the valley of the Rilska River, a western tributary of the Struma. The monastery was founded in the 10th century by the Bulgarian saint Ivan of Rila (876–946). In 1335 the local prince Khrelyu (Hrelyu) built a defensive tower and a church dedicated to St Ivan. During the Ottoman period (1393–1878) the monastery was damaged and plundered many times, and most of its present buildings, with the exception of Khrelyu’s tower, date from the 19th century. The monastery is an enclosed courtyard (c. 32,000 sq. m) with five sides and two entrances. The blocks surrounding the yard are mostly four storeys high and house c. 300 cells, 4 chapels, a refectory, libraries and rooms for visitors. From the outside the monastery resembles a fortress, but its internal façades are united by an arcade supported on stone columns, while the floors above open on to wide verandahs. Khrelyu’s tower (h. 23 m) is a square prism in plan with five storeys. The topmost storey projects beyond the others and is supported by three external pilasters on each side; it houses a chapel dedicated to the Transfiguration, which contains wall paintings (...


Sarah Morgan

Type of structure, usually associated with the Early Christian and Eastern Churches, that is found where volcanic rock is soft enough to carve or where natural caves occur. This includes parts of southern Italy (e.g. Basilicata and Apulia), Greece (e.g. Meteora), Turkey (e.g. Cappadocia; see Cappadocia §2, (i), (a); and Beşparmak), Cyprus (St Neophytos Monastery), Ethiopia (e.g. Lalibela), Georgia (David Garedzhi), Romania (Basarabi-Murfatlar), Bulgaria (e.g. Ivanovo), and the Crimea (near Chersonesos). The churches and dwelling places created in these areas survive in a variety of forms: part-natural cave, part-built, or wholly carved from the rock, with some churches so carefully shaped and finished as to resemble built architecture. From the Early Christian period caves and rock-cut dwellings were popular with hermits and saints as retreats. In some cases communities formed around a saintly figure, and monasteries were established with living spaces, refectories, chapels, and occasionally a larger congregational church. Several texts of saints’ lives, such as that of ...


J. M. M. Kylstra-Wielinga


Dutch castle near Velp, in the province of Gelderland. Constructed c. 1300, the stronghold belonged to the counts of Gelder until 1526. The building originally consisted of an irregular four-sided corps de logis with a circular donjon as its south-west corner tower. The location of this tower on one of the diagonals (as at Flint Castle, built 1277, in Wales) is unusual in the Netherlands; so, too, is its massive size, acquired when it was rebuilt on the old foundations after a fire in 1412. It is c. 25 m high and 16 m in diameter, with walls ranging in thickness from 1.2 m to 4 m. Square chambers have been contrived in the thickness of the wall. The donjon formerly was not connected to the corps de logis, but it was linked sometime after the rebuilding of 1412. The present corps de logis used to be the barbican, replacing the original ...


Kathryn Morrison and Anat Tcherikover


Benedictine monastic church in Loiret département, France. An abbey dedicated to Notre-Dame and St Peter and following the Rule of St Benedict was founded at Fleury, on the left bank of the River Loire, by Abbot Leodebod of St-Aignan, Orléans, in 651. The community procured, by stealth, the revered relics of St Benedict from Montecassino, Italy, in the 670s, and thenceforth the abbey was called Saint-Benoît-de-Fleury or Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire. It flourished in the Carolingian period and was reformed between 930 and 943 by Abbot Odo of Cluny, but the most brilliant phase in its history occurred under Abbots Abbo (988–1004) and Gauzlin (1004–30). The monastery was dissolved at the Revolution (1789–95), but monks were reintroduced in 1944.

Kathryn Morrison

Around 1100 the monastery was described as a triangle with a church at each angle. The most important church, Ste Marie, had been rebuilt in 883 following Norman raids and was later renovated after a fire in ...


Patrick Donabédian

Armenian monastery in a suburb of Alaverdi in the district of T’umanyan, northern Armenia. It was founded by Queen Khosrovanush, the wife of King Ashot III of Ani (reg 952–77), at the same time as she founded the Haghpat Monastery. The main periods of construction were under the Bagratid and Kiwrikid dynasties during the 10th and 11th centuries, and the Zak’arid princes from the end of the 12th century to the early 13th; restoration work was undertaken in the 17th century and in the 1980s. The principal buildings are arranged either side by side or at a short distance from one another, thus creating a vast, compact and symmetrical ensemble that almost forms a quadrilateral.

The earliest building is the church of the Holy Mother of God (second quarter of the 10th century), which is a domed cross-in-rectangle. A second church (966–72) dedicated to the Saviour and lying several metres to the south marks the foundation of the monastery proper. Although much larger than the church of the Holy Mother of God, it possesses the same cross-in-rectangle plan with a dome resting on engaged columns. Its proportions have been altered somewhat by a reduction in the height of the drum following restoration work either at the end of the 12th century or during the 17th....


Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

Austrian castle near Melk Abbey in Lower Austria. Situated among hills in the Danube valley, Schloss Schallaburg combines imposing medieval ruins with a splendid Renaissance palace. The high-medieval sections dating from the 11th and 12th centuries are dominated by a three-storey tower house and surrounded by crenellated walls; remains of the Romanesque crypt are preserved under the present chapel. The Losenstein family inherited the castle in 1431. Most of the original fabric was removed when Hans Wilhelm von Losenstein (1546–1601), Lord of nearby Loosdorf and a member of the old Protestant gentry, decided to make his domain an important centre for the Protestant nobility. Continuing work begun by his father, he had the castle extensively rebuilt and enlarged from 1572 to 1600.

At the heart of the Renaissance structure is the great courtyard, the Terracottahof (1573) by Jakob Bernecker, with magnificent two-storey arcades. The rich terracotta figurative decoration includes herms, caryatids, reliefs, masks and heraldic emblems (many replaced in the 19th century) and presents allegories of the main ethical and spiritual ideals of the period: the ...


Josef Strasser

Palace complex at Oberschleissheim, 18 km north of Munich, consisting of three palaces: the Altes Schloss, Lustheim and the Neues Schloss. William V, Duke of Bavaria, had a simple mansion (1598–1600) built here. His son Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, had a large new structure, the Altes Schloss (1616–23; extensively damaged 1944; façade rebuilt 1972–4), erected to plans by Heinrich Schön the elder. A single main storey is articulated by disproportionately broad pilasters above a high half-basement. A steep pitched roof crowns the scheme. An external staircase in symmetrically paired flights leads to a porch, the pediment of which rests on rusticated piers; its pitch differs from that of the gable of the raised central bay behind. The interior decoration was by Peter Candid.

Elector Maximilian II Emanuel had a banqueting house called Lustheim (1684–8) erected to the east, in line with the Altes Schloss. Designed by ...


Verena Beaucamp and Heribert Meurer

Former parish church (cathedral since 1926) in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, and one of the most significant and innovative 14th-century buildings in south Germany.

Verena Beaucamp

Formerly with a second dedication to Our Lady, Holy Cross is thought to be the oldest Hall church in south Germany. It was owned by Lorsch Abbey until 1297, when it and the Johanneskirche, Gmünd, were ceded to Augsburg Cathedral. A new building was planned from the early 14th century after the relic of the Cross belonging to the Johanneskirche passed to the parish church. With Schwäbisch Gmünd then at the height of its importance, Holy Cross is a grandiloquent statement of civic pride.

As most of the archives were destroyed in the 19th century, the building history has to be reconstructed from the structure itself. The Romanesque predecessor to the present building dated from the second half of the 12th century. It was an aisled basilica, probably with eight bays and without transepts; the aisles ended in apses, and the square choir may also have had an apse. Flanking towers replaced the side aisles ...


Phyllis Lambert

(New York)

Office building at 375 Park Avenue in midtown New York City by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson (see fig.), which marked a pivotal moment in the history of architecture. It was commissioned in the euphoria of post-war America in November 1954 by Samuel Bronfman, owner of the Canadian distillery Seagram. Bronfman’s daughter, Phyllis Lambert, then 27, was director of planning and, as such, effectively the client, selecting the architect as well as establishing the ethics for a building meant to represent the best of modern society. With such a broad mandate, the Seagram Building would bear responsibility not only to the people who would occupy it but to an expanded, even global audience.

The Seagram Building created a rare triumvirate in New York City’s broadest and most majestic street, Park Avenue, between 52nd and 53rd Streets; it was sited directly opposite McKim, Mead & White...


Robert Ousterhout

Any church that takes as its model the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem (see Jerusalem §II 2.). Numerous medieval copies of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre survive, indicative of the importance of Jerusalem and its sacred monuments in the Middle Ages (for a discussion of more symbolic representations of Christ’s Tomb itself situated within church buildings see Easter sepulchre). The feature most frequently (if loosely) copied was the Anastasis Rotunda, which marked the site of Christ’s Entombment and Resurrection. A medieval architectural copy clearly differs from a modern scientific replication: sepulchre churches often diverge dramatically in scale and form from the prototype. Significant parts were taken to represent the whole; forms were simplified, reproduced at a reduced scale, and translated into the local architectural idiom. Selected measurements might be retained, and often a copy of the Tomb aedicula appeared. Such schematic diagrams as the plans reproduced in the manuscripts of Adomnan (see for example Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., MS. 458, fol. 4...


Nigel J. Morgan

Spanish Augustinian religious house in Huesca, Aragon, founded in 1183 by Sancha (d 1208), wife of Alfonso II of Aragon (reg 1162–96). The church (1188) has a nave and two aisles and is a Latin cross in plan. It has a fine Romanesque portal. Sancha is buried in the church, and the mausoleum chapel of S Pedro off the north transept contains the tombs of her son Peter II of Aragon (d 1213), his sister, and some of his comrades-in-arms. The tombs of the prioresses are elsewhere in the church. There are also a Romanesque cloister and a rectangular chapter house with wall paintings (see §1 below). Features dating from the 13th century include the Mudéjar ceiling and paintings in the Prioress’s Room, and a cycle of paintings in the church. The chapel of S Juan was added to the church in ...


Harriet Sonne de Torrens


Twelfth-century church, restored in 1905, located in the south-eastern region of Skåne in Sweden, which during the medieval period was a province of Denmark. Simris Church was built as part of a massive construction of Romanesque churches that occurred across the North after Asser was declared the first Archbishop of Lund (1103/1104) and the reigns of Valdemar I (reg 1157–82) and Canute VI (reg 1182–1202) brought political stability to the new alliance between Church and State. The richly ornamented church preserves one of three baptismal fonts in Skåne carved by the Majestatis Tryde workshop (the other two are Östra Nobbelöv and Stenkyrka), and it has retained the fragmentary remains of late medieval wall paintings on the western wall and in the chancel, attributed to the Konga group dating from the 15th and 16th centuries, which depict events from the Life of Christ.

The chalice-shaped font, made of sandstone, was carved with a two-tiered, hierarchical, pictorial programme around the upper basin; the basin is supported by a stone base with four animal heads and motifs between each head. Scenes from the ...


D. O. Shvidkovsky

Monastery (now a museum reserve) in the north of Russia, situated on the isthmus between Blagapoluchiye Bay and the internal lake on Solovetsky island, the largest of six islands in an archipelago in the White Sea. It was founded in 1429 by the monks Zosima and Sabatios (Savvaty). During the 15th and 16th centuries it extended its agricultural landholdings along the White Sea, the rivers flowing into it and on the nearby islands, which have an unusual climate and a combination of natural and manmade features, such as lakes, canals and forests of both pine and spruce. Other major industries developed, including the production of salt, hunting, mica and iron ore mining, and pearl fishing, so that between the 16th and 18th centuries the monastery served as the economic and political centre of the White Sea region. It was also one of the most powerful Russian frontier fortresses. Between 1668...


Margaret Graves

From the Latin for “spoils [of war],” the term is used within the history of art and architecture to mean the re-use of earlier building materials and sculpture in later monuments. In Islamic architecture, the term spolia is most commonly, although by no means exclusively, used to refer to the re-use of Classical architectural elements, particularly stone columns and capitals, in medieval settings, but the term is equally applicable to Indian Muslims’ reuse of temple elements for their mosques. In most cases spolia were used only in the first periods of a region’s Islamization, where they may be regarded as not only a practical recycling of readily available building materials but also a representation of the triumph of Islam over earlier faiths.

The use of Classical and Byzantine spolia is seen in many of the great buildings of the early Islamic Mediterranean area. The two great monuments of the Umayyads, the Dome of the Rock (begun 692; ...


( Rome )

Basilica on the northern slopes of the Celian Hill. The original church was begun by Pope Miltiades (reg 311–14) and was completed in the 6th and 7th centuries. Pope Honorius I (reg 625–38) dedicated the church to four anonymous martyrs, signified by its name meaning ‘four holy crowned ones’. The martyrs were allegedly soldiers, later identified as Severus, Severinus, Carpophorus, and Victorinus, who refused to worship Aesculapius and were killed by Diocletian (reg 284–305). The bodies of the martyrs are kept in four urns in the crypt.

At least six building phases can be identified on the exterior of the apse. The church, in danger of collapsing, was restored and enlarged by Pope Adrian I (reg 772–95). Pope Leo III (reg 795–816) and several of his successors, including popes Gregory IV (reg 827–44), Leo IV (reg 847–55), and Stephen V (reg 885–91), donated lavish gifts of vestments, silver, books, and relics to the church. Pope Leo IV, who was elected pope here, significantly added the chapels of SS Barbara and Nicholas, the crypt, and the bell-tower....