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Milan Ivelić

(b Santiago, Feb 24, 1927; d Santiago, April 22, 1987).

Chilean sculptor. He studied architecture at the Universidad Católica de Chile in Santiago (1947–8) before transferring to the Escuela de Bellas Artes at the Universidad de Chile, also in Santiago, where he studied painting, drawing and printmaking from 1949 to 1952. In 1959 he obtained a scholarship to study goldwork at the Scuola Porta Romana in Florence. In 1962 he took a course in casting at the Escuela de Artes Aplicadas at the Universidad de Chile, at the same time producing ceramics, enamels and sculptures. While studying casting on a Fulbright scholarship in 1968 at the Rhode Island School of Design in Providence, RI, he developed a technique of modelling for sand-casting in aluminium, which he used exclusively in his later work. From 1956 until his death he was professor of fine arts at the Universidad de Chile.

Egenau experimented with a spontaneous manner in his early work, first in bronze and later in aluminium, observing natural shapes and their interrelationships as a paradigm of order and harmony. Through these concerns he became interested in transcending history and in tracing human experience back to its mythic origins: in his ...


Cecilia Suárez

(b Quito, 1936; d Quito, April 14, 1996).

Ecuadorean painter and sculptor. He studied at the Faculty of Arts of the Universidad Central in Quito (1971) and then taught at the Escuela de Bellas Artes de Loja. In 1977 he gave up teaching to concentrate on his career as an artist. He was a proponent of the naive style of fantastic realism, which corresponded in Latin American visual art to magic realism in literature and constituted a typically Latin American expression of the paradoxes of everyday reality. In his studies of the life of the mestizo population of the Andean world, Endara Crow chose themes based on people’s daily lives, depicting, for example, horses pulling bells up the sides of mountains and animals and birds peering out from the upper floors of picturesque provincial houses, in images bordering on magic and the bizarre. In his painting Endara Crow worked mostly in acrylic. He also created colourful sculptural monuments and murals. His work was exhibited internationally, and he was awarded many prizes, including the Swiss International Naive Painting prize in ...


Rita Eder

(b Mexico City, Jul 28, 1934; d Mexico City, Sept 16, 2010).

Mexican sculptor and museum director. Escobedo attended Mexico City College (now Universidad de las Américas) in 1951, where she was introduced to sculpture by the renowned abstract sculptor Germán Cueto. Awarded a traveling scholarship to the Royal College of Art, London (1951–1954), Escobedo met luminaries of European sculpture, including Henry Moore, Jacob Epstein, and Ossip Zadkine, who profoundly influenced her sense of organic integrity in form and material. It became clear to her that sculpture as museum piece or domestic ornament did not fulfill her objectives. During the 1960s and early 1970s Escobedo created works on a monumental scale and became well known for such ambitious urban sculptures as Signals (painted aluminum, h. 15 m, 1971), sited at Auckland Harbour, New Zealand, and Doors to the Wind (painted reinforced concrete, h. 17 m, 1968) at Anillo Periférico and Calzada del Hueso on the Olympic Friendship Route, Mexico. From the 1980s she directed her work towards ecological and humanitarian issues. A number of site-specific installations and performances explored the theme of the densely populated metropolis of Mexico City. While conscious of the social meaning of art, her approach was abstract and conceptual rather than overtly realist. She used natural materials, such as interwoven branches and grass, or the detritus of urban life. As a cultural promoter, she held such positions as director (1958–1982) of the museum of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, where she developed a program of exhibitions in tune with the aspirations of a new generation of writers, painters, sculptors, and filmmakers renovating the arts in Mexico and supported by the National University. She was also director (1982–1984) of the Museo de Arte Moderno where she projected the image of the museum as a place with a vision of the present and the future which meant attracting new audiences by changing the roles of the artistic system and softening the barriers between artists, spectator, and critics. The structural change in the function of art influenced her exhibition policy where she had the collaboration of young generations of artists interested in relational aesthetics....


Elida Salazar

(b San Juan de los Morros, Nov 29, 1950).

Venezuelan sculptor. He studied at the Escuela de Artes Plásticas ‘Cristóbal Rojas’ and at the Instituto de Diseño Neumann, both in Caracas (1968–71). From 1977 to 1980 he lived in New York, where he studied at the Pratt Institute and at the School of Visual Arts. Espinoza began exhibiting in 1969, participating in the Salón Arturo Michelena de Valencia, Venezuela. From then on he showed his work in one-man and group shows in Venezuela and abroad. The net, represented with canvas stretched to different tensions, was a constant theme of Espinoza’s work. In 1985 he represented Venezuela in the São Paulo Biennale in Brazil.

F. Paz Castillo and P. Rojas Guardia: Diccionario de las artes plásticas en Venezuela (Caracas, 1973)M. Hernandez Serrano, ed.: Diccionario de las artes visuales en Venezuela, 2 vols (Caracas, 1982)La rama florecida: Escencia y misterio de la naturaleza: Obras recientes de Manuel Espinoza...


Fausto Ramírez

(b Barcelona, June 27, 1854; d Rome, Jan 23, 1938).

Catalan painter, sculptor, and teacher, active also in Mexico. He was the son of the draughtsman Cayetano Fabrés. He studied at the Academia Provincial de Bellas Artes in Lonja (1867–75) and in the studio of the sculptor Andrés Aleu y Teixidor. With his sculpture in plaster the Dead Abel (1875; Barcelona, Real Acad. Cat. B.A. San Jordi), he won a scholarship to study in Rome. There he was attracted to the work of the sculptor Vincenzo Gemito and at the same time to the paintings of Mariano José Bernardo Fortuny y Marsal; eventually he abandoned sculpture to devote himself completely to painting. He worked in a similar Orientalist genre, inspired by North African subject-matter, in paintings such as the Warrior’s Repose (1878), the Sultan’s Present (1877–8; both Barcelona, Mus. N. A. Catalunya), and On the Sultan’s Order (c. 1902; Mexico City, Mus. N. A.). His painting of musketeers, ...


Teresa del Conde

(b Hacienda de Valparaíso, Zacatecas, Dec 12, 1928).

Mexican painter and sculptor. He grew up in Zacatecas and achieved recognition as a sculptor in Mexico City c. 1953, after briefly attending courses there at the Escuela Nacional de Pintura y Escultura ‘La Esmeralda’. He worked as a ceramicist and travelled throughout Mexico to study the country’s archaeology, art, geography, customs and traditions. After studying medicine briefly at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México in Mexico City, he decided to devote himself to art, travelling for the first time to Europe in 1947 in order to visit museums, churches and monasteries. On his return to Mexico he obtained a scholarship from the French government, which allowed him to study in Paris for two years. There he met Brancusi, frequently visiting his studio, but he was especially close to Ossip Zadkine.

Felguérez returned definitively to Mexico in 1956, teaching sculpture in Mexico City at the Escuela de Arte y Diseño of the Universidad Iberoamericana and later at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Together with his first wife, ...


Angel Kalenberg

(b Montevideo, May 21, 1874; d Buenos Aires, Oct 31, 1916).

Uruguayan sculptor. He received his first sculptural lessons at the workshop of his father, the Italian sculptor Juan Ferrari (1836–1918), followed by a brief period at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Buenos Aires in 1888. From 1890 he studied in Rome under Ettore Ferrari and Ercole Rosa, winning first prize for sculpture in 1892. On returning to Montevideo in 1897 he established a workshop as well as a course in visual arts at the University of Uruguay. By the time he moved to Buenos Aires in 1910, his reputation as a sculptor specializing in monumental work was firmly established in Uruguay and Argentina.

While still living abroad Ferrari created sculptures of the human figure influenced by Auguste Rodin’s use of voids and striking contrasts of light, such as Prometheus Chained (1893; Montevideo, Av. Agraciada). On his return to Latin America he made numerous full-length figures on a small scale such as ...


Iliana Cepero

(b Buenos Aires, Sept 3, 1920; d Buenos Aires, Jul 24, 2013).

Argentine conceptual artist, poet, and sculptor. In 1947 Ferrari earned his bachelor degree in Engineering at the Universidad de Buenos Aires. Between 1952 and 1955, while in Italy seeking medical treatment for his daughter, Ferrari began to experiment with ceramics, and exhibited work in Rome and Milan. In early 1960s, back in Argentina, he began to make wire sculptures and written drawings. During his fifteen-year exile in Brazil from 1976 to 1985, he experimented with a great range of media and art practices, from sculptures, drawings, etchings, collages of pictures and bird excrement, and sound-making sculptures (berimbau) to mail art, videotext, and photocopy. By the 1990s he produced his so-called “deformed calligraphies,” written paintings and electronic art, along with collages that skillfully combined Christian iconography, contemporary events, oriental erotica, and texts in Braille. Ferrari’s work often expresses a provocative social and political critique against war, Christianity, abuses of power, the West’s moral double standards, and the bourgeois character of art institutions....


Cynthia Haveson Veloric

(Pablo Ramón )

(b San Juan, 1933).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, and jazz percussionist of Puerto Rican birth. Ferrer was born into a financially stable household where ‘there were problems which had to do with family turmoil of a psychological kind’ (interview with C. H. Veloric, 1990). His strict upbringing merged with an awareness of leftist politics gained from exiles from the Spanish Civil War who lived at his grandmother’s house. Fleeing Catholic school, he attended Staunton Military Academy in Virginia, where he learnt to play the drums. At Syracuse University he rejected formal classes, preferring the company of musicians and artists. He became the leader of a Latin band while simultaneously painting on his own. His frustrations and inclinations were supported by his half-brother, the actor José Ferrer (1912–92).

In 1952 he entered the University of Puerto Rico where he took painting classes with the exiled Spanish painter and writer Eugenio Granell (...


Stephen Bann

(b Nassau, Bahamas, Oct 28, 1925; d Dunsyre, Scotland, March 27, 2006).

Scottish sculptor, graphic artist and poet. Brought up in Scotland, he briefly attended Glasgow School of Art and first made his reputation as a writer, publishing short stories and plays in the 1950s. In 1961 he founded the Wild Hawthorn Press with Jessie McGuffie and within a few years had established himself internationally as Britain’s foremost concrete poet (see Concrete poetry). His publications also played an important role in the initial dissemination of his work as a visual artist. As a sculptor, he has worked collaboratively in a wide range of materials, having his designs executed as stone-carvings, as constructed objects and even in the form of neon lighting.

In 1966 Finlay and his wife, Sue, moved to the hillside farm of Stonypath, south-west of Edinburgh, and began to transform the surrounding acres into a unique garden, which he named Little Sparta. He revived the traditional notion of the poet’s garden, arranging ponds, trees and vegetation to provide a responsive environment for sundials, inscriptions, columns and garden temples. As the proponent of a rigorous classicism and as the defender of Little Sparta against the intrusions of local bureaucracy, he insisted on the role of the artist as a moralist who comments sharply on cultural affairs. The esteem won by Finlay’s artistic stance and style is attested by many important large-scale projects undertaken throughout the world. The ‘Sacred Grove’, created between ...