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J. H. Taylor

Small, undecorated tomb of an Egyptian noble and his wife. It was discovered in the Valley of Kings (KV 46) at Thebes in 1905. The tomb had suffered superficial plundering but most of the contents were recovered intact (Cairo, Egyp. Mus., and New York, Met.). The collection is important for the light it throws on the funerary equipment of the nobility at the height of the New Kingdom (c. 1540–c. 1075 bc) and the styles of furniture and decorative art current at that time.

Yuya and Tuya were the parents of Queen Tiye, the wife of Amenophis III (reg c. 1390–c. 1353 bc). Yuya, perhaps of Asiatic extraction, came from Akhmim in Upper Egypt, where he held important religious offices. He was also God’s Father (i.e. father-in-law of the pharaoh), Master of the Horse and King’s Lieutenant of Chariotry. His wife Tuya was in charge of the female personnel of the temples of Amun and Min....

Article

V. S. Turchin

( Yegorovich )

(b Tver’, July 29, 1820; d Moscow, Jan 13, 1909)

Russian historian and archaeologist . He studied under Timofey Granovsky (1813–55) at Moscow University and worked in the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow from 1837 to 1859. In the 1850s and 1860s Zabelin was influenced by the theories of Vissarion Belinsky and Ludwig Feuerbach (1804–72) and later by Positivism, but in the last years of his life tended towards Idealism. He served on the St Petersburg Archaeological Commission from 1859 to 1876. He was Chairman of the Society of Russian History and Antiquity at Moscow University from 1879 to 1888. He was one of the organizers of the History Museum in Moscow and was its director from 1883 to 1908. In 1907 he became an honorary member of the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences and the Academy of Arts. He was a consultant during the restoration of the Cathedral of the Dormition in Vladimir-Suzdal’ and the Cathedral of the Annunciation in Moscow. During the early years he was most concerned with the history of artistic metalwork, writing a number of works in the 1850s on the crafts of Kievan Rus’. He was also interested in Scythian history, icon painting, Old Russian architecture and archaeological theory. In his latter years he concentrated mainly on Russian social history. Zabelin sought to reconstruct the material basis of historical development by avoiding subjective assessments and using documents and monuments, which could include anything from churches to small crosses. He recognized that the distinctive feature of Old Russian art was the way in which it conveyed contemporary religious belief and interpreted forms derived from Byzantine art with greater freedom, and he was one of the first scholars to establish the relationship between wooden and stone building in Kievan Rus’. Zabelin’s works are rich in historical imagery and have inspired numerous Russian artists with an interest in Russian history and material culture....

Article

Zaculeu  

George F. Andrews and Trent Barnes

Pre-Columbian site around 4 km from the modern town of Huehuetenango in Guatemala. It flourished as a Highland Maya ceremonial and administrative centre c. ad 600–1525. The ruins of Zaculeu are high in the mountains of western Guatemala, in a relatively flat valley with mountains rising on all sides. Archaeological evidence shows that the site was occupied continuously from the Early Classic period (c. ad 250–c. 600) until its conquest by the Spaniards under the leadership of Gonzalo de Alvarado in 1525. At that time, the site was the Mam Maya capital, although it was evidently subjected to many outside influences and perhaps even conquest by neighbouring tribes during its long history. Most of what is known about Zaculeu is based on the excavations and restorations carried out in 1946–9 under the auspices of the Guatemalan Instituto de Arqueología e Historia. During this time nearly all the main structures were excavated and partly restored, numerous burials uncovered, and collections of ceramics and other artefacts made. Most of these artefacts are in the Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología in Guatemala City, and there is a small collection in the site museum....

Article

Zagora  

R. A. Tomlinson

Site on the west coast of the Greek island of Andros in the Aegean, which was established in the 9th century bc and flourished for approximately two centuries before being abandoned. It occupies the flat top of a promontory, with sheer cliffs on all sides except the north-east, which was defended by a massive fortification wall. The settlement was clearly sited for defensive reasons rather than convenience, and this reflects the troubled period of its existence, the Greek Dark Ages. The fortification wall (9th century bc) is a most interesting and rare example of Dark Age defensive works. It is some 140 m long and varies in width from around 4 m at its northern end to about 3 m at the only gate, near its southern end. It is built of unworked local schist and marble. The gate is set back, with an outwork to the north flanking the entrance passage. Within the fortified area, part of the town has been excavated by ...

Article

V. Ya. Petrukhin

Site of Neolithic petroglyphs (before mid-2nd millennium bc) on the sloping granite banks of the River Vyg, which flows into the White Sea in Karelia. Vladislav I. Ravdonikas (1894–1976) discovered Zalavruga 1, with around 200 carvings, in 1936, while research by Yury A. Savvateyev from 1963 led to the discovery of a cliff with a further group of images (Zalavruga 2, with around 500 rock-carvings). The petroglyphs were made using pecking technique and are mostly in outline, with rare examples in low relief. Elk, deer and water-fowl are faithfully rendered. The most unusual images are scenes showing the hunting of a white whale from a boat and hunters on skis pursuing elk. The compositions cover large surfaces of rock, forming a kind of panel, and are similar in style to the nearby panel at Besovy (or Chortovy), which has around 300 images of large fish and water-fowl and smaller elk and human figures....

Article

Zapotal  

Nelly Gutiérrez Solana and Trent Barnes

Pre-Columbian ceremonial site in central Veracruz, Mexico. It flourished c. ad 500–c. 800 and is notable for the large ceramic figures found there and for one of the few known temples in Mesoamerica dedicated to the god of the underworld. Zapotal has been plundered and some of its sculptures taken abroad; two seated female figures (Brussels, Mus. Royaux A. & Hist.; St Louis, MO, A. Mus.) are probably from Zapotal. Excavations at the site have been carried out by the Universidad Veracruzana since 1971, and most of the artefacts unearthed are in the Universidad Veracruzana, Museo de Antropología, Jalapa.

The site consists of mounds orientated along a north–south axis, two of which measure 10 m and 15 m in height. An offering of numerous terracotta figures and vessels, which had been broken for ritual purposes, was discovered in an artificial platform known as Mound 2 (75×35×4 m). Over 100 burials have also been found. Some contained ‘smiling face’ clay figurines, a type found only in the Veracruz region, and an ossuary composed of a column of 82 skulls and bones was also unearthed. The skeletal remains from tombs bear evidence of human sacrifices....

Article

V. A. Zav’yalov

Site in southern Uzbekistan, 14 km north-west of the old city of Termez. Occupying an area of 16.9 ha, it was, after Termez and Dalverzin Tepe, the third largest of the settlements that flourished in the valley of the Surkhan River during the Kushana period (1st century bc–4th century ad). It was subject to the Sasanians c. ad 360–80, and from the late 4th century until its destruction it was probably under Kidarite domination. It is this last period that has been most fully excavated. Excavations began in 1951–2 and were resumed in the 1970s by the Bactrian Expedition of the Academy of Sciences, USSR. The fortified city (400 m sq.) has four corners approximately orientated towards the cardinal points. The walls were reinforced with semicircular towers at intervals of 35 m and were surrounded on three sides by a moat and an earthen rampart. At the northern corner stood a fortified citadel 120 m sq. A similar fortified area, 60 m sq., was built into the southern corner. Two city gates were located near each of these strongholds, and a fifth gate has been detected in the south-west wall. Outside the walls a small Buddhist stupa and the fortified dwelling of ...

Article

Li Liu

[Chang-chia-p’o]

Site in Shaanxi Province, China, in the area of the Western Zhou (c. 1050–771 bc ) capitals, Feng and Hao, south-west of the city of Xi’an. The Western Zhou remains at Zhangjiapo were excavated in 1956–7, 1967, 1979–81 and 1984. Foundations of 13 semi-subterranean houses, small in size and simple in structure, and more than 500 tombs were uncovered.

The tombs can be divided into three groups: large, medium and small. Grave goods include ceramic, bronze, jade, stone, bone and ivory artefacts. The bronzes are ritual objects, weapons, tools and chariot parts. The jade and stone ornaments are in the forms of various animals, such as fish, birds, cattle, deer, rabbits and cicadas. Important burials include a group of three tombs belonging to the family of a nobleman named Jing Shu. A large tomb, which enclosed a male body, is composed of a rectangular pit with two ramps, one on either side, and is flanked by two smaller tombs, each of which contained a female body. Some 460 fragments of grave goods of 4 major types were unearthed: bronzes, jades, glazed pottery and lacquerware. The bronzes include chariot parts, bells (...

Article

Mary S. Lawton

[Cheng-chou ; Chengchow]

Capital of Henan Province, China. Archaeological excavations since 1950 in the drainage basin of the south bank of the Yellow River have produced evidence that this was a centre of Shang culture (c. 1600–1050 bc ).

The area has been identified by some archaeologists with the second Shang capital, Ao, which according to the ancient annals (e.g. Liu Xin’s San Tong li pu (a calendar) and the Zhushu jinian (Bamboo Annals)) was founded by the Shang ruler Zhongding (reg c. 1568– c.1558 bc), but on the basis of archaeological evidence is generally dated to the 15th century bc. Around 1300 bc it seems the capital was transferred to Yin, near modern Anyang (see 1968 exh. cat.). Findings support the hypothesis that for some time Zhengzhou and Anyang may have been occupied contemporaneously. During the Zhou period (c. 1050–256 bc ) the area was first called Guyang and then known as Dantu. While serving as the capital of the state of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period (...

Article

Bent Nielsen

[Chuang-pai ; Chuang-po]

Site on the border of Fufeng County and Qishan County in Shaanxi Province, China. It is one of the main centres of bronze finds from the Zhou period (c. 1050–256 bc ) in Shaanxi; many of the finds bear Shang (c. 1600–c. 1050 bc) motifs or are forms characteristic of the Shang period. In 1976 a storage pit dating from the Western Zhou period (c. 1050–771 bc ) and filled with bronzes was discovered. A total of 103 bronzes, of which 74 were inscribed, had been placed carefully in three layers in the pit. In addition to spoons and bells, 21 different types of vessels, jars, pots, bowls and dishes were represented; all were in a good state of preservation. The bronzes can be divided into groups according to the names and circumstances given in the inscriptions. The 284-character inscription on a pan dish known as the Shi Qiang ...

Article

Alexander Koutamanis

[ Ernestos ] ( Moritz Theodor )

(b Oberlössnitz, nr Zwickau, June 22, 1837; d Athens, July 9, 1923).

German architect, designer and archaeologist, active in Greece. He studied at the Königliche Bauschule in Dresden (1855–8) and worked for Theophilus Hansen in Vienna (1858–9). Hansen brought Ziller to Greece to execute the Academy of Athens (1861–4). After an educational journey in Italy and further studies at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1864–8), Ziller settled in Greece. He eventually became a Greek national and rose to the positions of professor at the National Technical University of Athens (1872–82) and Director of Public Works (1884).

Ziller was the most active and influential architect of the reign of George I (reg 1863–1913). Following Hansen’s example, he adopted different morphological systems for different types of buildings. For public and residential buildings he used the Renaissance Revival style, as in Iliou Melathron (1878–80), the residence of Heinrich Schliemann and his most significant building; the house of Pavlos Melas (...

Article

J. D. Hawkins

[anc. Sam’al]

Site of an ancient city in southern Turkey, which flourished in the 9th–7th centuries bc. It lay at the eastern end of the Amanus Gates pass and consisted of a central citadel mound and flat lower town in the plain, surrounded by a circular double wall pierced by three gates. Many sculptures and inscriptions, both native (in Aramaic and Phoenician alphabets) and Assyrian (in cuneiform), were recovered from the site. Uniquely, the native inscriptions are in relief rather than incised, doubtless in imitation of Hittite hieroglyphic inscriptions, and Hittite art also influenced the style of the sculptures. The site was excavated by F. von Luschan in five seasons between 1888 and 1902. The finds, especially sculpture, were shared between the Pergamonmuseum in Berlin and the Archaeological Museum, Istanbul.

The South City Gate was badly destroyed but had some associated orthostats showing human and animal figures, including fabulous beasts. These were crudely executed in the earliest local style. Apart from this, sculpture was concentrated in the walled citadel. Particularly well preserved was the Outer Citadel Gate, with most of its 33 carved orthostats ...

Article

Ziwiyeh  

M. F. Charlesworth

[Pers. Zīviyya]

Site in Iranian Kurdistan, 33 km east of Saqqiz, where a collection of gold, silver, ivory and other objects, probably mostly of the 8th century bc, was discovered in 1947. The first study of this ‘Ziwiyeh Treasure’ was published by André Godard in 1951, but for nearly 30 years Ziwiyeh was mostly left to the mercy of commercial diggers and antique dealers. The number of objects attributed to the treasure in collections around the world has gradually grown; in 1973 Roman Ghirshman listed 341 objects in the Tehran Archaeological Museum alone. Many objects are undoubtedly forgeries, and others, although genuine antiquities, were discovered elsewhere but attributed to Ziwiyeh in order to enhance their commercial value. This led to criticism (see Muscarella) of the uncritical acceptance by academics of objects attributed to Ziwiyeh.

Before 1976 Ziwiyeh was briefly surveyed and excavated by Robert Dyson, Cuyler Young and Stuart Swiny. During 1976–8...

Article

Zhong Hong

Archaeological site at the city centre of Changsha, capital of Hunan Province in southern China. From this site an astonishing quantity of documents belonging to the Kingdom of Wu ( ad 222–280) was unearthed in 1996.

Covering the south and southeast China, the Kingdom of Wu was one of the three kingdoms in a period of division immediately following the fall of the Han dynasty. Also known as Dongwu (the Eastern Wu) period in Chinese history, Wu was immortalized for its rivalry with other kingdoms in the Ming dynasty novel Sanguo yanyi (‘Romance of the Three Kingdoms’). Outside of the legends, however, little was known about Wu due to the fact that historical documentation surviving from this period was scarce. This situation changed after the 1996 excavation at Changsha, a key city of Wu, where archaeologists uncovered 57 storage wells in the Zoumalou construction site. Thousands of items made of bronze, steel, iron, ceramics, wood and bamboo were unearthed. The most surprising discovery was from a single well containing a hoard of about 170,000 intact slips and fragments, inscribed and dated to the Eastern Wu period, with an estimated text of over 3 million characters....

Article

Susan Langdon

[now Ayios Vasilios]

Site of an Early and Late Bronze Age town in the Corinthia of southern Greece, midway between Argos and Corinth. Excavations at the Zygouries Hill in the Kleonai Valley were conducted by Carl Blegen in 1921–2 for the American School of Classical Studies, revealing an important sequence of Bronze Age settlements. The Early Helladic (eh) phase (c. 3600/3000–c. 2050 bc) was the most abundantly represented, with at least ten houses of mud-brick on stone socle construction arranged close together on narrow streets. The rectangular, flat-roofed, two- and three-roomed structures with fixed central hearths provided one of the first definitive examples of Early Bronze Age domestic architecture. Contemporary graves yielded a broad variety of eh pottery, small gold, silver and bronze ornaments, numerous figurines and stone tools. Like its neighbours Tiryns, Asine, Lerna and Ayios Kosmas, Zygouries suffered a severe destruction at the end of ...