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Dimitris Tsougarakis

(b Athens, 1891; d Athens, April 22, 1979).

Greek archaeologist and art historian . He graduated from the School of Philosophy at the University of Athens in 1924. From 1928 until 1930 he studied Byzantine art at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes in Paris under Charles Diehl and Gabriel Millet, gaining his doctorate in 1937. From 1920 until 1940 he also worked in the Greek archaeological service, mainly in Macedonia, as ephor of Byzantine monuments. In 1940 he was elected professor of Byzantine archaeology at the University of Thessaloniki, where he taught until he retired in 1956. In 1966 he became a member of the Academy of Athens. His work covered wide areas of Byzantine and post-Byzantine art. As an archaeologist, his two most important discoveries were the mosaics (5th century) in Hosios David at Thessaloniki and those in the church of the Holy Apostles (14th century) in the same city. He was a prolific author of books and articles....



John Paddock and Trent Barnes

Site in Mexico, in the Valley of Oaxaca, inhabited as early as c. 400 bc; an extremely compact small city flourished there in the Late Post-Classic period (c. ad 700–1521). Its present name derives from the Zapotec terms for tree (yaga) and old (gula). Its centre occupies a large natural terrace on the south side of a high hill; the top was fortified, and houses covered the slopes. Since no modern community covers the Yagul remains, its temples, palace, secular public buildings, ballcourt, and streets are clearly visible.

Around 400 bc ceramic sculptures with Olmec traits were placed in burials at Yagul (Oaxaca, Mus. Reg.). The site was nearly uninhabited until c. ad 700. When nearby Lambityeco was abandoned c. ad 700, its inhabitants apparently moved to Yagul, where they undertook the first major constructions at the site. However, the preservation of later buildings has left their work covered over. After ...


Ann Bomann

[Yahoudeh; Yahûdîyeh; Yahoudiyé; Yehūdīyah], Tell el- [Arab.: ‘Mound of the Jews’; Egyp. Nay-ta-hut; Gr. Leontopolis]

Egyptian site 31 km north of Cairo near Shibin el-Qanatir in the Nile Delta. It was excavated by Heinrich Brugsch, Edouard Naville, F. Ll. Griffith and Flinders Petrie in the late 19th century and early 20th, and by Shehata Adam in the 1950s. Although occupation of the site may have commenced during the Early Dynastic Period (c. 2925–c. 2575 bc), the earliest evidence dates from the Middle Kingdom (c. 2008–c. 1630 bc) and the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1630–c. 1540 bc). Two cemeteries include graves dating from the 12th Dynasty (c. 1938–c. 1756 bc) to the Greco-Roman Period (332 bcad 395). The ‘Hyksos Camp’ is a rectangular earth enclosure with rounded ends measuring c. 515×490 m, with a gateway in the eastern face. This enclosure consists of an inner vertical mud-brick wall, faced on the exterior by an inclined bank, or glacis, of plastered sand with a ditch beyond; no wall surmounted the bank. One theory is that, because of its similarity to Syro-Palestinian fortifications of the period, it was built by Near Eastern immigrants for military purposes. However, a more accepted interpretation is that it had a religious function, owing to certain parallels with cultic earthworks at Heliopolis and Mendes. Inside the enclosure on the north-east, the existence of a temple of ...


C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky

[Pers. Tappa-yi Yaḥyā]

Site in the province of Kirman in south-east Iran, which has provided a sequence for the archaeology of the area from the early 5th millennium bc to the Parthian or Sasanian period in the early centuries ad ( see Iran, ancient §I 2. ). The site is a mound 19.8 m high with an almost circular base 187 m in diameter. It was excavated by C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, from 1967. The finds are in the Archaeological Museum in Tehran and at the Peabody Museum, Harvard University.

Neolithic (Period VII, c. 4900–c. 3900 bc) and Chalcolithic (Periods VI–V, c. 3800–c. 3300 bc) remains include numerous houses with spacious storage facilities, a large number of clay figurines of sheep or goats and some stone figurines; one female figurine of chlorite was found in a storage magazine, resting face down and associated with numerous stone and bone tools. Carved chlorite vessels (made from locally quarried stone), a miniature human head and a large alabaster ram are particularly fine examples of 5th-millennium ...


Keith Pratt

Chinese Neolithic culture, c. 5000–c. 3000 bc, first discovered in 1921 by the Swedish archaeologist Johan Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960). It is named after the site at at Yangshao cun in Henan Province, and is the earliest known Neolithic culture in China. The Yangshao culture is centered on the Wei River valley and covers a large area from ...


C. A. Burney

Site in north-western Iran, 32 km south-west of Tabriz. This settlement mound is 16.5 m high and extends over c. 8 ha. A long Chalcolithic (4th millennium bc) sequence and Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium bc) levels were excavated by Charles Burney between 1960 and 1962. Finds are in the Archaeological Museum in Tehran.

The Early Bronze Age sequence consisted of 14 Early Trans-Caucasian II levels with round houses (circles) of relatively flimsy mud-brick construction with wattle-and-daub roofing; these houses tended to become larger and more densely located in successive levels, and the bigger ones had a central post. There was often a high threshold, and the standard kitchen fittings—bin, working surface and hearth—were invariably immediately to the right of the door. Pottery with intricate incised decoration was found in enormous quantities in the circles and their surrounding courtyards. Each circle had its range of storage vessels, smaller jars, bowls and lamps. The decoration is predominantly geometric, with patterns derived from woodworking or textiles, perhaps kilims, consistent with a nomadic tradition. Animals and birds also occur in profusion but are too stylized to be readily recognizable. Parallels lie in Trans-Caucasia, and the pottery belongs to a sub-tradition of Early Trans-Caucasian culture within this zone. It may have been brought by an intrusive Indo-European element from the north. There followed five Early Trans-Caucasian III levels with rectangular buildings and undecorated pottery. The surface of the mound bore extensive traces of burning....


Li Liu


Site in Yi xian (Yi County), Hebei Province, China. The capital of the state of Yan during the middle and later parts of the Warring States period (403–221 bc), Yanxiadu was surveyed and excavated in 1930, 1957–8, 1961–2, 1964–5, 1971 and 1973. The remains of the city are located between the Northern Yi River and Middle Yi River and cover a rough rectangle (c. 8 km east–west by 4 km north–south). The two rivers and two canals outside the eastern and western city walls functioned as a moat. The site is divided into an eastern and a western city, of which the eastern is the principal part. The eastern city is a rough square (c. 4.5 km east–west); three gates were found in its eastern, northern and western walls.

The palace area is in the northern part of the eastern city, and here four large rammed-earth foundations on earthen mounds were found: Wuyangtai, Wangjingtai, Zhanggongtai and Laomutai. Of these, Wuyangtai is the largest (...


Raja de Silva

[Yāpāhuva ; Pali: Subha-pabbata ; Sundara-pabbata ; Yasa-pabbata]

Sri Lankan site and capital city in the 13th century. Built around an outcrop of rock 90 m high, Yapahuva originated as a Buddhist cave monastery in the last centuries bc. The site came to prominence in the early 13th century as a defence station during the south Indian and Malay invasions. After the routing of the invaders, a well-fortified palace was built that served as the seat of Bhuvanekabahu I (reg 1272–84). Yapahuva was then sacked by a Pandya general, Aryachakravatti, and subsequently abandoned.

The defences exposed by excavation are roughly circular in plan and consist of two ramparts and two moats that abut the great rock on its south side. Gateways are located on the eastern and western sides. A broad flight of steps over the southern side of the outer rampart leads to the outer city. More or less in line with these steps is an ornamental ...


R. Suleymanov


Site in Uzbekistan, on the lower Kashka River, which flourished from the 8th century bc to the 7th century ad. The site has been identified as the ancient capital of the Naksheba region in southern Sogdiana. Excavations by the Institute of Archaeology (Academy of Sciences), Uzbekistan, uncovered an area of c. 150 ha, bounded by an inner and outer set of fortifications. The asymmetrical inner city wall had five sides with numerous bastions, and survived to a height of 8 m. Initially constructed in the 6th century bc, it was rebuilt several times. Less of the later outer wall survives. Excavated buildings within the walls were all constructed of mud-brick and beaten clay. A large temple complex in the centre of the inner city comprised two buildings, which contained numerous traces of a fire cult. Fragments of polychrome figural wall paintings and painted clay sculpture ( see Central Asia §I 3., (iii), (a)...


David Stronach

[Pers. Yārīm Tappa]

Site in the fertile Gurgan plain of north-eastern Iran, 125 km east of the Caspian Sea. The mound is 20 m high, but it is now reduced to little more than half its original size (diam. 180 m) by river erosion and is distinguished by its tall cliff-like southern face. It was this exposed section that indicated that Yarim Tepe could well expand what was known of the long history of settlement in north-eastern Iran, from the 6th millennium bc to the early centuries ad (see Iran, ancient §I 2., (i) ). The site was excavated by Stronach in 1960 and 1962, and most of the finds are in the Archaeological Museum in Tehran.

The sequence begins with the establishment of an Early Chalcolithic settlement (Yarim I) in the late 6th millennium bc. The pottery is straw-tempered, slipped and painted. After a gap of almost 1500 years (during which there is just enough evidence from the vicinity to indicate a local use of finely painted, grit-tempered ...


R. M. Munchaev and N. Ya. Merpert

Group of six mounds containing remains of settlements dating from the 6th to the 1st millennium bc, situated near the town of Tall ‛Afar in northern Iraq. Three of these, Yarim Tepe I, II and III, were investigated by a Soviet expedition led by R. M. Munchaev from 1969 to 1980. Finds have been distributed between the Iraq Museums in Baghdad, the Mosul Museum and the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow.

Yarim Tepe I, which belongs to the Hassuna culture of northern Mesopotamia (6th millennium bc), covers an area of approximately 2 ha on the banks of a stream. The mound rises 5 m above the level of the plain, and the archaeological deposits are 6.5 m deep, within which 12 levels have been identified. Architectural remains have been recorded from the earliest levels upwards. The houses are rectangles composed of a series of rooms used as living-quarters or workshops. In the larger houses there are up to 15 rooms. The walls of the houses are made up of clay slabs, and the floors were coated with clay or gypsum. Within the rooms there were round, oval and rectangular ovens as well as granaries and areas for drying grain. Kilns for firing pottery, the remains of workshops where tools were produced and round constructions possibly used as shrines were also discovered. Child burials were found under the floors of some houses....


M. Yaldiz

[Yarxoto ; Chin. Jiaohe ]

Site of an ancient city in the Turfan Oasis in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. It was for a time the capital of the Uygur kingdom (9th–13th century). However, the town was mentioned earlier in the annals of the Chinese Han dynasty (206 bcad 220) as Jushi, the residence of the ruler of Turfan. As the name Yarkhoto (‘cliff town’) suggests, the town is situated on an island-like plateau surrounded by two deep river valleys. This plateau (1.5 km from north–west to south–east) is strewn with a great number of Buddhist ruins, which in the main were excavated by Aurel Stein (1900–01; 1906–7; 1914), Albert Grünwedel (1902–3; 1904–5) and Albert von LeCoq (1904–5; 1913–14). The building designated by Stein as Yar I is a monastery, the largest building—Yar II—a Buddhist sanctuary. The latter is in an architectural style widely used in Central Asia: a stupa of several storeys, with niches, and surrounded by a wall. Devotees were able to walk round the stupa in a clockwise direction and worship the cult figures—Buddhas, ...



Ye. V. Zeymal’


Site in the basin of the Yavan-su River, a tributary of the Vakhsh River, 40 km south-east of Dushanbe, Tajikistan. During the Kushana or post-Kushana period (3rd century ad to early 5th), the site (c. 40 ha) was surrounded by a wall and a moat (now only partially preserved) and had no fewer than three city gates. The fortified citadel (h. 8 m) is clearly visible as a double hill in the centre of the site (380×200 m). The site was excavated in 1963–5 under the direction of B. A. Litvinskiy and the material housed in the Tajikistan Academy of Sciences (Dushanbe, Tajikistan Acad. Sci., Donish Inst. Hist., Archaeol. & Ethnog.).

Stratigraphic investigations on the citadel to a depth of 10 m provided a benchmark for the chronology of the whole of south Tajikistan from the late 2nd–early 1st century bc to the 4th–mid-5th century ad. This period covered six consecutive phases of construction. The stratigraphic analysis made it necessary for scholars to rethink previously accepted dates for other sites, in particular those put forward in ...


Carolyn Tate

Ancient Maya city in the modern state of Chiapas, Mexico, which flourished as an important lowland capital c. 300–810 CE. Yaxchilan occupies the hills and riverbank overlooking a great bend in the Usumacinta River. Its eighteen or nineteen rulers perpetuated a 400-year-long rivalry with Piedras Negras, about 48 km downstream, for control of the subsidiary centers and sacred caves of the region. Yaxchilan’s approximately 130 carved monuments include stelae, lintels, altar-pedestals, thrones, circular ballcourt markers, and five grand hieroglyphic stairways. Their texts and images present the broadest range of ritual activities seen at any Maya site. In addition to the variety of sculptural formats and subjects, some of the monuments of Yaxchilan are widely considered to be among the most skillfully designed and carved of Maya art works. And as at many Pre-Columbian centers, its designers created alignments to solar phenomena as they planned specific buildings.

The site became well known following the explorations of ...


J. D. Hawkins

[Turk.: ‘inscribed rock face’]

Great open-air sanctuary (c. 1500–1200 bc) of the Hittite capital city Hattusa ( see Boğazköy ), c. 1.5 km north-east of the ruins of the city in central Turkey. Yazılıkaya is a rocky outcrop forming two chambers (A and B) open to the sky. These were closed off by a gradually developing series of buildings that evolved from a simple wall to more elaborate structures designed to provide the natural sanctuary with the gatehouse and entrance courtyard of the typical Hittite temple. Excavation has revealed more than one remodelling.

The main chamber A was entered through the gatehouse and courtyard with a left turn, which would have disclosed the natural gallery, its rock walls sculptured with two files of figures (on the left male figures advancing right, on the right female figures advancing left). The processions converge in a central scene at the back of the gallery, where two sets of main figures, three on the left and four on the right, confront each other. The figures of both files have been numbered consecutively from the left: the left file has 42 figures, the right 21....



Martin J. Powers


County in south-central Shandong Province, China, where a large Han-period (206 bcad 220) tomb decorated with engravings, low reliefs and sculpture was found in 1953. The tomb (max. 8.70×7.55 m), in Yi’nan has attracted much interest because of its relatively naturalistic engravings.

Built of fine, dark grey limestone which, when polished, provides an excellent surface for engraving, the tomb consists of a forechamber, middle chamber and rear chamber along a roughly north–south axis, with five smaller side chambers. A post-and-lintel system is employed throughout, with cantilevered ceilings ( see China, fig. ). This type of plan is common among late Han tombs discovered in Jiangsu and Shandong provinces. The tomb at Yi’nan is unusual, however, in that its stone columns and beams were carved to resemble the ornamented brackets and other features of wooden architecture. Since the tomb had been plundered, it yielded no artefacts of consequence....



Donald F. Easton

Site near Gelembe, north-west Turkey, which flourished in the Early Bronze Age, c. 2700–2400 bc. Yortan was excavated in 1900–01 by Paul Gaudin, who concentrated on the extramural cemetery where he uncovered 107 burial jars each containing at least one contracted burial and associated grave goods. The finds are in the British Museum in London, the Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire in Brussels and the Louvre in Paris.

The pottery from Yortan has an outstanding range of shapes, including globular jars with flaring collar-neck, globular jugs with rising spout (sometimes cut away above the handle), bird-shaped jugs ( see fig. ), ‘teapots’, carinated bowls and triple jars with one over-arching basket handle. Many vessels, especially smaller ones, have three small feet. Kâmil distinguished three successive classes, of which only Class C was wheel-made. Class A, the most numerous, has a well-burnished but crumbly fabric, which is generally black or grey but sometimes red or brown. It often has incised, incised-and-white-filled, or white-painted decoration. Common designs include chevrons and horizontal bands containing zigzags, wavy lines, dashes or lozenges, while plastic ornament comprises warts, crescents, parallel bars and fluting. The fabric of Class B is harder and finer, but less burnished. The fine, hard-fired ware of Class C is light grey or light red, with no burnish and little decoration; the clay may have come from a different source....



M. Yaldiz

Chinese site c. 8 km west of Khotan in southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It is considered to have been the old capital of the region of Khotan. Aurel Stein’s archaeological surveys of 1900–01 confirm Chinese records (e.g. the Hou Han shu (‘History of the later Han’)), which describe Yotkan as a magnificent secular and religious centre. Although no buildings survive, the nearby river exposed at a depth of 3–7 m a 2–3 m thick layer of material culture containing ceramics, terracotta figures, metal and soapstone, gold leaf, jewellery, cameos, seals, coins and manuscripts. Despite the missing stratigraphic observations, it can be gathered from comparative studies that these objects date from the 1st to the 4th century ad. The ceramics, the yellowish, unglazed surface of which shines, are the most remarkable finds ( see also Central Asia §II 5., (iv) ). The decoration consists of incisions and beading, but characteristic of this ware are the applied, medallion-like reliefs and sometimes even three-dimensional figural representations. The ornamentation covers either the entire body of the vessel or only the shoulder, is wrapped round the body of the vessel horizontally or is used as a handle attachment. Many different motifs occur, floral (lotus rosettes and palmettes) as well as animal (griffins and lions, camels, monkeys, birds and gorgons’ heads). Human figures are also represented: musicians, dancers and acrobats are accompanied by drinking individuals or couples....



Margaret Chung


Chinese Buddhist cave temple complex 16 km west of Datong, Shanxi Province. The complex, consisting of more than 40 caves and innumerable niches containing Buddhist images, was hollowed from the sandstone cliffs of the Wuzhou Mountains during the 5th century ad under the patronage of the Northern Wei dynasty (386–534; see Wei dynasty, §1 ). The influence of Indian and Central Asian models is discernible in the carvings found in the 20 or so larger, earlier caves, while the sculptures in the smaller, later caves and niches display a more mature Chinese style, which reached its highest expression in the sculptural style of the cave temple complex of Longmen , near Luoyang, Henan Province.

The Northern Wei dynasty, founded by the Tuoba or Toba people, who ruled northern China during the Northern and Southern Dynasties period ( ad 310–589), adopted Buddhism as its state religion. Work was begun at Yungang by the emperor ...