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Carlos A. C. Lemos

(b São Paulo, Feb 1, 1909; d 1997).

Brazilian architect. He studied in Rio de Janeiro, graduating as a civil engineer from the Escola Politécnica and as an architect from the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes (1933), where he participated in the reforms of 1931–1932 when Lúcio Costa introduced Modernist teachers; this exposed him to the teachings of Le Corbusier and his rationalist approach to Modernism. Until 1936 he worked with Adhemar Marinho (b 1911), and they designed the Esther building (1936) in São Paulo, which is considered to be the first freestanding modern building in the city. It was also the first multi-use building in São Paulo, comprising ten floors of shops, offices, and flats as well as an underground car park. Conceived in accordance with Le Corbusier’s principles, it combined a new structural system of pilotis and open-plan floors with a sculptural sense of the building’s volume, its four façades articulated in a manner reminiscent of Art Deco. A member of ...


Cecilia Suárez

revised by Rodolfo Kronfle Chambers

(b Ambato, Oct 8, 1931).

Ecuadorean painter and draftsman, muralist. Mostly self-taught, he trained under the guide of immigrant modernist painters, with the Dutch Jan Schreuder (1955) and especially with the American Lloyd Wulf (1955–1959), whose friendship had a deep impact on him. In 1957 he graduated as an architect at the Universidad Central del Ecuador in Quito, although he never practiced as one.

His characteristic style of flat colors on which he would accommodate areas of thick paint would gain him early notoriety. In 1960 he won the grand prize at the Salón Mariano Aguilera with Man, House, and Moon, with which he expressed an ongoing attempt to grasp an Amerindian cosmovision, as well as a desire to move beyond the anecdotal figuration of Ecuadorian Social Realist art. For a brief period he developed an Ancestralist (or “Pre-Columbian”) phase, during which he poetically evoked the continent’s precolonial past (e.g. Symbols series, 1960; Origin, 1961). He was an early adopter of this movement that challenged the supremacy of well-established Indigenist painters such as ...


Nelly Perazzo

(b Buenos Aires, Sept 6, 1899; d Paris, May 16, 1953).

Argentine sculptor active in France. He studied at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes in Buenos Aires before moving in 1925 to Paris, where he studied under Émile-Antoine Bourdelle. Living a tragic bohemian existence and feeling a strong nostalgia for Latin America, he returned incessantly to the theme of the gaucho, as in Gaucho in the Bough (gray granite, 1951; Buenos Aires, Mus. A. Mod.), and sought also to conjure the landscape of Argentina—with its light, its wind, and the contours of the Andes—in sculptures such as Totem Patagonia (wood, 1951; Buenos Aires, Mus. A. Mod.).

Basing his stark and violently contrasting intersecting planes on a close analysis of natural forms, Vitullo arrived at a symbolic visual language by which the horizontality of the pampa and the verticality of the mountains are equated with masculine and feminine archetypes. He carved a variety of materials, notably oak, marble, granite, and other stone....


Ramón Alfonso Méndez Brignardello

(b Santiago, 1829; d Valparaíso, 1890).

Chilean architect. His father was unknown and his mother a humble laundress who made great efforts in order to educate her son. He began working for a cabinetmaker at the age of 13 and then joined a drawing class for craftsmen at the Instituto Nacional, Santiago. There were few professional architects in Chile at that time, and he was commissioned at the age of 18 to design the Casa de Orates building. Vivaceta Rupio joined the first architecture class of the Frenchman Claude François Brunet-Debaines (1788–1855), who had been contracted by the Chilean government. His fellow pupil Ricardo Brown and he were the first architects to be trained in Chile. As a result of his assiduity and determination, he was selected by Brunet-Debaines to complete outstanding works when the contract expired. Working in the 19th-century Neo-classical tradition, with some gestures towards the neo-Gothic, Vivaceta Rupio rebuilt the towers of several Santiago churches and built several private houses and the church and convent of Carmen Alto. He contributed to repairs to the cathedral of Santiago and collaborated with ...


Roberto Pontual

(b Lucca, April 14, 1896; d São Paulo, ?May 30, 1988).

Brazilian painter of Italian birth. He was taken as an infant to São Paulo by his Italian parents and began painting in 1914 after working as a painter-decorator. In the 1930s he was involved in the modernist groups active in São Paulo, including the Família Artística Paulista; he held his first one-man exhibition at the Itá Gallery, São Paulo, in 1944. He became involved in the Concrete art movement in Brazil and took part in Concrete art exhibitions in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro in 1956 and 1957.

Until the mid-1940s Volpi painted landscapes and figures in a rough, realistic manner, already revealing his strong attraction for the picturesque and popular aspects of his subjects. Between 1945 and 1950 he painted seascapes and groups of houses along the Itanhaem littoral, but after 1950 he established his characteristic vocabulary of soft and sensual brushstrokes and simple, schematized shapes, with a limited range of such motifs as popular façades, church arches, flags, sails and masts; examples include ...


[Jean Frédéric Waldeck, Comte de ]

(b Prague, March 17, 1766; d Paris, April 30, 1875).

French painter and printmaker of German–Bohemian origin, active in Mexico. After studying in Paris under Jacques-Louis David, Pierre-Paul Prud’hon and Joseph-Marie Vien he travelled to Chile and then to Mexico, where he was employed by an English mining company in Tlalpujahua to draw machinery to be used in extracting minerals. He became more interested, however, in drawing archaeological ruins. While in Mexico he declined the offer of two posts: that of directing the first lithographic press in 1826, shortly before its installation by the government, and the presidency of the Academia de S Carlos in Mexico City. He did, however, publish Colección de antigüedades que existen en el Museo Nacional.

Waldeck continued to publish his illustrations after returning to Europe, where he settled in Paris. In 1866 he was involved in a polemic in the newspapers with Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc over the merits of using photography as archaeological evidence.

Colección de antiqüedades que existen en el Museo Nacional...


Regina Maria Prosperi Meyer

revised by Helena Bender

(b Odessa, Apr 2, 1896; d São Paulo, Jul 27, 1972).

Brazilian architect of Russian birth. He studied at the Odessa School of Art (1912), in the Russian Empire (now Ukraine), resuming his education at the Reggio Istituto Superiore di Belle Arti (1918–1920) in Rome, Italy. After graduating, Warchavchik worked for Italian architect Marcello Piacentini, assisting in the design of economic housings and the Teatro Savoia’s construction in Florence (1922–1923). In 1923 he moved to São Paulo to work for the Companhia Construtora de Santos (1923–1926), establishing a private office in 1927. Maintaining his work in São Paulo, Warchavchik associated himself with Lucio Costa between 1932 and 1933. He also helped Costa to renovate the Escola Nacional de Belas Artes in Rio de Janeiro, working as a professor of architectural composition (1930–1932). Additionally, Warchavchik was the first Latin American delegate of the International Congresses of Modern Architecture (CIAM) from 1930 to 1933. Warchavchik was an avant-garde architect in Brazil. He designed and built the first modern houses and published the first manifesto on modern architecture in the country....



Susan Bergh


Pre-Columbian civilization that, between 600 and 1000 CE, created one of the ancient Andes’ major art styles, drawing inspiration from contemporary and earlier traditions, such as the Nasca.

During the Middle Horizon period (600–1000 CE), the Wari people forged the most politically complex and geographically expansive civilization to have existed in the central Andean region since settled life emerged there in about 5000 BCE. Only the later Inka Empire (1400–1532 CE) had greater influence and territorial extent. The eponymous Wari capital city was in Ayacucho in the south-central highlands of Peru; underexplored due to the vagaries of history, the enormous urban center covers more than 6 sq. km (2.3 sq. miles). Smaller but still impressive are the often better-documented provincial centers the Wari built in far-flung areas of the highlands, western foothills, and eastern slope, including Pikillacta; Cerro Baúl; Jincamocco; Viracochapampa, which was never finished or occupied; and Espíritu Pampa (respectively, ...


Veerle Poupeye

(b Lucea, Hanover, Jamaica, Dec 9, 1931).

Jamaican painter and dealer. He studied at the Royal College of Art, London, the Rijksacademie, Amsterdam, and elsewhere in Europe. In the early 1960s, together with Karl Parboosingh and Eugene Hyde, he was one of the founding members of the Contemporary Jamaican Artists’ Association, which gave impetus to the second generation of the Jamaican Art Movement. His approach was essentially academic and realist, with occasional modernist intrusions. He experimented with abstraction, and in some works he employed a futurist analysis of movement. He is best known for his large-scale, epic depictions of Jamaican life painted in grand academic manner, such as the Garden Party (1976; Bank of Jamaica col.), which is a panoramic commentary on the idiosyncrasies of Jamaican society. He was also a popular portrait painter, and his finest portraits, such as the portrait of Valerie Bloomfield (1962; Kingston, N.G.), have an intimate, immediate quality. He was also well known for his nudes and erotic scenes, painted mainly in oil and watercolour. From ...


David Boxer

(b Kingston, 1934).

Jamaican painter. He attended the art classes of the Institute of Jamaica’s Junior Centre (1948–52) and then studied at the Jamaica School of Art in Kingston (1952–8). He began to exhibit in Jamaica with some success, but decided to further his studies at St Martin’s School of Art in London (1962–5). On his return to Jamaica it was clear that his work had undergone a dramatic transformation, primarily as a result of his visits to the British Museum in London and his encounters there with masterpieces of African art. These may have struck a chord within him, but it was clear in his paintings that Picasso’s Cubism provided the conduit for his Africanisms. In his sculpture, particularly his delicately polychromed bas-reliefs, the influence seems to have been more direct: many works seem related to Yoruba carvings in the proportions and massing of the figures. Intensely Jamaican in his subject-matter, he produced in the late 1960s and 1970s an extended series of paintings that drew their imagery from Jamaican Jonkonnu, a Christmas festival where the revellers are costumed and masked (...


Eduardo Williams

Art produced in the period before European contact in the 16th century in the culture area of West Mexico, which comprises the modern Mexican states of Jalisco, Colima, Nayarit and Michoacán.

West Mexican art is characterized by some of the most distinctive styles of Mesoamerica, Pre-Columbian. There has, however, been little systematic research into or study of West Mexican material in its archaeological context; most examples have been obtained through the looting of sites and the consequent destruction of all information regarding archaeological context and provenance. The unique qualities of West Mexican art, pertaining particularly to the shaft-tomb tradition, lacked monumentality. Few Mesoamerican deities were represented, and there was an emphasis on the portrayal of realistic anthropomorphic and zoomorphic ceramic figures. This aspect may have had a symbolic connection with shamanism and relates primarily to tomb offerings. West Mexican art seems to have functioned on the level of village-centred or domestic cults, rather than in the state-level civic or religious ceremonies of nuclear Mesoamerica....


Terence Pitts

(b West Carlisle, OH, April 8, 1871; d Mexico City, July 8, 1925).

American photographer and teacher . A self-taught photographer, he began taking photographs in 1893 and soon developed a style that showed the influence of Whistler, Sargent and Japanese prints. He was elected to the Linked Ring, Brotherhood of the group of Pictorial photographers in 1900 and was a leading member of the Photo-Secession from 1902. His evocative photographs of rural landscapes and of his family celebrate the joys and virtues of the simple, middle-class way of life that existed in the USA before World War I (e.g. Ring Toss , 1899; New York, Met.)

By 1906 White was already a major figure in American photography and moved to New York, where he began a close professional and artistic relationship with Alfred Stieglitz that lasted until 1912. His work was published in Camera Work in July 1903, Jan 1905, July 1908, July 1909 and Oct 1910. In 1908 he began teaching photography, founding in ...


Eduardo Serrano

(b Munich, 1905; d Key Biscayne, FL, 1969).

Colombian painter of German birth. He studied at the Kunstakademie in Munich under the German painter Hugo von Habermann (1899–1981) and the German painter and printmaker Adolf Schinnerer (1876–1949). He lived in Berlin in 1931–1932, coming into contact with Max Liebermann, and in 1933 he exhibited with the Neue Sezession in Munich. He decided to leave Germany for political reasons, particularly after Hitler’s persecution of “degenerate” art, and in 1939 he traveled to Colombia; he acquired Colombian nationality seven years later. He was immediately dazzled by the local population and by tropical plant life, which he began to interpret with an extremely expressive line and bold use of color.

All vestiges of representation later disappeared from Wiedemann’s work, and he devoted himself, particularly in his watercolors, to a lyrical use of color that led him to pure abstraction. These paintings, in spite of their freedom of expression and color, were characterized by strong lines and an underlying geometrical emphasis. Afterwards he made collages using humble materials such as wire, string, plaster, cloth, and paper, which he transformed into aesthetically unified compositions notable for their rhythmic sequences. Wiedemann’s work, particularly because of its poetic, spontaneous, and experimental nature, influenced both abstract and figurative art in Colombia....


Anne K. Swartz

(b Primavera, Paraguay, 1943).

American installation and performance artist, writer and educator of Paraguayan birth. Emigrating from Paraguay to the United States in 1961, Faith Wilding consistently examined the social role of women and their bodies as the subject of her art. She received her BA in English with honors from the University of Iowa, Iowa City. Wilding did postgraduate studies in Art and Art History at California State University, Fresno, where she met the artist Judy Chicago, who founded the first Feminist Art Program. Wilding completed her MFA at California Institute of the Arts (CalArts), and served as teaching assistant for the renowned Feminist Art Program (FAP), team-taught by Chicago and artist Miriam Schapiro. In the FAP, Wilding led a consciousness-raising group and a journal writing class, in addition to participating in the famed collaborative project Womanhouse (Jan 30–Feb 28, 1972) with her crocheted installation Crocheted Environment (Womb Room) , which resembles a loosely crocheted spider’s web, and in the performance ...


Regina Maria Prosperi Meyer

revised by Helena Bender

(b Trieste, Apr 23, 1928; d São Paulo, Feb 14, 2014).

Brazilian architect, urban planner, politician, and writer of Italian birth. He graduated from the Mackenzie’s School of Architecture in 1952. In his student years, Wilheim worked as an assistant to journalist and curator Pietro Maria Bardi at the Museu de Arte de São Paulo (MASP, 1946–1948) and in the office of architect Rino Levi (1950–1951). Wilheim established his professional practice in 1953 after winning the competition for the Santa Casa de Jaú Hospital (1954). He also engaged his career into politics, heading three government offices in São Paulo: the State Secretariat for Economy and Planning (1975–1979), the Municipal Secretariat for Planning (1983–1985; 2001–2004), the Secretariat for the Environment (1987–1991), and the Empresa Paulista de Planejamento Metropolitano (EMPLASA, 1991–1994). He was also the Adjunct Secretary-General of the United Nations (1994–1996) and helped to organize the Habitat II Conference held in Istanbul in 1996. As a writer, Wilheim edited magazines on art and politics and published articles and books about urban planning. Wilheim was the articulator of the strategic planning concept in Brazil. His career was mainly concerned with the design of public buildings and especially with the urban planning of several cities in Brazil....


Ludovico C. Koppmann

(b Buenos Aires, Feb 19, 1913; d Buenos Aires, Oct 14, 1989).

Argentine architect and urban planner. He was the son of the composer Alberto Williams. He first studied engineering and aviation and became a leading member of the Rationalist Grupo Austral, before graduating as an architect from the University of Buenos Aires in 1941; he then went into practice in Buenos Aires. Williams became well known for his daring design experiments, manipulating space and utilizing technology to the full; they include such projects as ‘Dwellings in Space’ (1942), International Airport (1945) and ‘Hanging Office Building’ (1946), all in Buenos Aires; the latter was conceived as four huge concrete columns with beams and upper arcades from which the floors were hung. His built works include the Concert Hall (1942–53), Buenos Aires, and the House over the Brook (1943–5), constructed for his father in Mar del Plata; with the aim of raising the building off the ground but eliminating columns, the structure was designed like a bridge, supported on a parabolic curve....


Patricia Hills

(b Roxbury, MA, April 14, 1922).

American sculptor, painter, printmaker and teacher. Raised in Roxbury, a suburb of Boston, Wilson was the second of five children of Reginald and Violet Wilson, immigrants from British Guiana (now the Republic of Guyana). He attended the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston with a full scholarship and received a diploma with highest honors in 1945; a BS degree in art education followed in 1947 from Tufts University. With a fellowship from the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, he spent 1947–9 in Paris, where he studied with Fernand Léger. Returning to Boston he taught briefly at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, married Julie Kowitch and moved to Mexico City with a John Hay Whitney Fellowship. There he became friends with Elizabeth Catlett and her husband Francesco Mora, both active in the graphic workshop organized by leftist artists, the Taller de Gráfica Popular, where he worked. In Mexico he learned the techniques of true fresco, which had been popularized by Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros, and painted the mural, ...


Paul Apodaca, Mick Gidley, Deborah A. Middleton, G. Lola Worthington, Margaret Moore Booker, Andrea Laforet, Joanne Danford-Cordingly, J. Garth Taylor, Kate C. Duncan, Marvin Cohodas, Andrew Hunter Whiteford, Christian F. Feest, Edwin L. Wade, Paula A. Baxter, Carol Herselle Krinsky, Aldona Jonaitis and Mary E. Graham



Kathryn Greenthal and Marcus Whiffen