Site of a Roman city (fl mid-1st century
Site of a Roman city (fl mid-1st century
Large Late Minoan
[Gr. Ventia; It. Veio]
Etruscan site c. 20 km north of Rome, set on a triangular tufa plateau bounded by two streams and accessible only from the north-west. Veii was apparently the largest city of the Etruscan twelve-city league, with an extensive territory and control of the River Tiber to the south. Excavations at Veii began in the 18th century, and the site has now been systematically explored. The earliest, small settlements on the site were Early Iron Age, and these villages later combined to form a substantial centre. The necropoleis contain chamber tombs, mostly for cremation burials, but, as elsewhere in Etruria, inhumation became more common in the Orientalizing period and rock-cut tombs under large tumuli were constructed. The Tomb of the Ducks (c. 675–c. 650
Pre-Columbian site on the Gulf of Panama, just west of the Panama Canal and c. 16 km from the 16th-century settlement of Old Panama in the Canal Zone. It is noted for its large number of burials and their accompanying grave goods. The site was discovered in 1948 and excavated in 1951 by Neville A. Harte, Samuel K. Lothrop, and the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, where the finds are held. Further excavations were directed by Thelma Bull in 1958. The excavations recovered 369 bodies in both individual and group graves. Lothrop described some of these as ‘bathtub’ burials, with the bodies placed in the grave floors either in an extended or a flexed position. More important people were buried in side chambers cut into the rock. In some cases, infants had been placed in urns and buried with an adult. Lothrop believed these bodies represented natural deaths, suicides, and sacrificial victims. Many had obviously been mutilated by decapitation, amputation, or dismemberment. According to Claude Baudez, this differential treatment of the dead suggests a stratified society....
Rock shelter in North America, in the Castle Mountains, AZ. It was occupied in Pre-Columbian times from c. 10,000
Pre-Columbian culture of the Veraguas Province of central Panama. This area extends from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean; it is bordered on the west by the Bocas del Toro and Chiriquí provinces and on the east by the Colon and Coclé provinces, and by the Azuero Peninsula provinces of Los Santos and Herrera. The extreme northern and southern parts consist of high mountains supporting a wet tropical climate, while the central area is dry. Veraguas culture was included by Richard Cooke as part of the central Panamanian cultural region, which exhibits cultural homogeneity through much of the archaeological record. More broadly, it is classed as part of the Intermediate area (see South America, Pre-Columbian, §II). Its earliest known site, Pueblo Nuevo on the Veraguas–Chiriquí border, has yielded a radiocarbon date of c. 230
Village c. 64 km south-west of Thessaloniki, Greece, once the site of ancient Aigai, the first capital of the Macedonian dynasty. Excavations, begun in 1861 and recommenced in 1938, have continued into the early 21st century; structures uncovered include a prehistoric tumulus cemetery, a large Hellenistic palace, a theatre, a small temple, the city walls, remains of houses and eleven monumental vaulted tombs, of which four are royal burial vaults. The many important finds are now in the Archaeological Museum, Thessaloniki.
The palace (end of the 4th century
(b Rome, Feb 12, 1808; d Rome, Dec 4, 1882).
Italian architect. As a young draughtsman he contributed illustrations to books popularizing Roman archaeology, such as Edward Dodwell’s I sette colli di Roma (London, 1829). Vespignani trained under Luigi Poletti and worked with him (1837–69) on the reconstruction of S Paolo fuori le mura, continuing the work on Poletti’s death. Three sides of the great quadriporticus were finished (1893) to his designs after his own death. A favourite of Pope Pius IX (reg 1846–78), he benefited from the many papal commissions generated during his reign. He applied historical revival styles to his work, for instance in his Madonna dell’Archetto Chapel (1851) in the Via di S Marcello, and the Confessio (1864) in S Maria Maggiore, both in Rome. Three early works were public monuments in Rome, including the new façade of the Porta Pia (1852–68), an eclectic work with elements borrowed from the Arch of Titus. In contrast, his Porta S Pancrazio (...
Site of an Etruscan city, now a village, on a hilltop c. 18 km north-west of Grosseto, Italy. In ancient times the city overlooked Lake Prilius, as did nearby Rusellae. There are few excavated remains: a main street c. 3 m wide, crossed obliquely by two smaller roads, has been uncovered. The buildings were small, crowded mud-brick or stone structures, as at Veii and San Giovenale. The city walls (?6th century
Pre-Columbian site near Chulucanas, Morropon Province, in the far north of Peru. It was the centre of a culture that flourished c. 500
It was the cemeteries that yielded the large quantities of fine pottery and metal artefacts for which the site is known. Many of these were in a purely local style, termed Classic Vicús, Vicús-Vicús, or simply Vicús. Reflecting the site’s location in a transitional zone between the Central and Northern Andes, this style was strongly influenced by neighbouring cultures. Some ceramics from the same area show close similarities to phases 1 and 2 of the ...
Site of a ruined city 25 km south of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Most of the city, which was situated between the Dhaleswari and Padma rivers, has been lost through erosion and floods. Rampal and neighbouring villages mark its original location.
Located in the ancient region of Vanga, Vikrampur was an important city in the 10th–13th centuries during the rule of the Chandra, Sena and Deva dynasties. The Senas made it their capital when they were forced to withdraw to south-eastern Bengal under pressure from the sultans of Delhi in the early 13th century. Vikrampur itself came under Muslim rule at the end of the 13th century. A broad ditch is all that remains of the Ballal Bari, the fortified palace of the Senas. There are several ruined temples in the area, and many stone and wooden images have been unearthed. These include a 4 m-long wooden column carved with human and animal figures (Dhaka, N. Mus.) recovered from a ruined temple in the village of ...
Site of Copper Age settlement 7 km north-west of Cartaxo in the Tagus Valley, Portugal, dated to c. 3500–c. 2200
Site of prehistoric settlement on the right bank of the River Danube, east of Belgrade, Serbia. It flourished during the 6th–4th millennia
Site of burial mound near the Iron Age settlement of Mont Lassois in the Côte d’Or département, France. The tumulus of Vix has been dated by its contents to c. 500
The burial was of a woman aged 30–35, found lying on her back across the remains of a four-wheeled vehicle. The wheels had been removed and propped against the east wall of the chamber, and the metal decorations from the vehicle, the harness and a goad (?or sceptre) lay scattered over the eastern half of the chamber. The whole of this area, including the corpse, appears to have been covered with a cloth edged with roundels, from which pigments seen on the floor during excavation may have come. The woman wore, or was buried with, a considerable amount of jewellery, comprising bronze leg-rings, a bronze torque (heavy neck-ring) found in the waist region, three bracelets of schist and two of amber, a necklace of stone and amber beads and seven brooches (five of bronze and two of iron), some with gold, amber or coral inlay. The most spectacular personal ornament was a gold ring, found around the skull and originally described as a diadem but now generally considered to be a torque. This ring weighs 480 g and is slightly oval in shape, ending in lions’ feet with highly decorated globular terminals. A little gold figure of Pegasus adorns the joining-point of each terminal and lion’s foot. Without exact parallel anywhere, this piece is thought by some to be of Iberian manufacture, while others believe it to have been eastern European in origin....
(b The Hague, Jan 9, 1871; d Oegstgeest, April 10, 1958).
Dutch archaeologist and linguist. He initially studied Dutch literature in Amsterdam (1890) but specialized in Sanskrit in his thesis (1897). After a year of private lecturing (1898–9) on Indian literature at the University of Amsterdam, in 1900 he went to India to study Sanskrit further and to visit the Hindu and Muslim monuments. The British archaeologist Sir Aurel Stein, whom he met in Kashmir, recommended that the Indian Government appoint Vogel as Archaeological Surveyor. From 1901 to 1913 Vogel undertook surveys, first of the Muslim monuments and the Hindu antiquities and inscriptions in the Punjab; later, transferred to Uttar Pradesh, he was in charge of the early Hindu and Buddhist monuments and participated in excavations. In 1914 Vogel was appointed professor in Sanskrit and Archaeology at Leiden University. He was one of the founders of the archaeological Kern Institute in 1925 and the supervisor of 12 volumes of the ...
Cave site in Kreis Heidenheim, Germany. It has yielded one of the earliest and best-executed assemblages of art objects of the Upper Palaeolithic period (c. 40,000–c. 10,000
(b Paris, Oct 18, 1829; d Paris, Nov 10, 1916).
French archaeologist and diplomat. He initially worked as a diplomat in Petrograd (now St Petersburg) in 1850, but he soon resigned and from 1853 to 1854 travelled around Greece, Turkey, Syria and Palestine, where he collected material for his work on Christian buildings. In 1861 he was sent to Cyprus by the historian Ernest Renan, with William Henry Waddington (1826–94), the epigrapher, and Edmond-Clément-Marie-Louise Duthoit, the architect, in order to explore the island systematically and organize large-scale excavations. Vogüé and Waddington continued their research in Syria and Jerusalem in 1862, enabling Vogüé to publish a detailed study of the Temple of Jerusalem two years later. Following Waddington’s departure in late 1862, Vogüé stayed a little longer in the East with Duthoit, exploring central Syria and Ḥawrān; this trip provided him with the material for the three-volume Syrie centrale. From 1868 Vogüé was a free member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, and he was involved in producing the ...
Roman site in Morocco, 20 km north of Meknès. The town was inhabited from the 3rd century
( Nikolayevich )
(b Vladimir, Dec 13, 1904; d Moscow, April 4, 1976).
Russian archaeologist and art historian. He graduated from the history department at Leningrad (now St Petersburg) State University in 1926. From 1928 to 1931 he was a postgraduate student and then joined the staff of the State Academy for the History of Material Culture. In 1934 he published his thesis on the history of Russian architecture in the 16th and 17th centuries. He became a doctor of historical sciences in 1944 and a professor in 1946. He directed excavations in the Old Russian cities of Yaroslavl’, Rostov, Vladimir, Suzdal’, Pereyaslavl’-Zalessky, Staritsa, Murom and Grodno and, as a result of the excavations in Bogolyubovo (1943–54), the remains of a 12th-century palace complex were discovered. He was particularly interested in the synthesis of Romanesque and Byzantine influences in Old Russian architecture; he also revealed the decisive influence of Vladimir and Suzdal’ on the architecture of the state of Muscovy. From ...
Site on the north coast of Cyprus, c. 8 km north-east of Lefka. Here the extensive remains of a 5th-century