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S. J. Vernoit

Dynasty that ruled in Iran from 1750 to 1794. The Zand tribe, a pastoral people from the Zagros foothills, became the dominant power in Iran after the death of Nadir Shah in 1747. Under Muhammad Karim Khan (reg 1750–79), who proclaimed himself regent (Pers. vakīl) for the Safavid puppet king Isma‛il III, the Zands brought stability to southern Iran, and from 1765 Karim Khan encouraged art and architecture ( see Islamic art, §II, 7(ii)(b) ) to flourish at Shiraz , his adopted capital. His first consideration was defence, and he rebuilt the city walls in 1767. Many of his other buildings, such as the citadel, palace and mosque with adjacent bath and bazaar, were grouped around a maidan to the north of the old city. Zand architecture is notable for its revetments in carved marble and overglaze-painted tiles with flowers, animals and people. Some themes were consciously revived from nearby Achaemenid and Sasanian sites such as Persepolis and Naqsh-i Rustam. Painting also flourished under Karim Khan (...



John Mack


Central Sudanic-speaking people, about one million in number, occupying the borderlands of Zaïre, the southern Sudan and the Central African Republic. Essentially agriculturalists, they formerly relied heavily on hunting and fishing for subsistence. The highly mixed ancestry of the Zande partly explains the diversity of their arts. They began to emerge during the 18th century from groups who were expanding from the west and exploiting the resources along the northern fringes of the forests. These groups fell under the leadership of the Avongara, the aristocratic clan of the Zande, whose princes and governors ruled the various Zande provinces. Conquered peoples were incorporated into Zande society as subjects, gradually losing their language and separate identity, but contributing their own skills to Zande culture. In addition to trade, a complex system of tribute ensured a constant circulation of goods from distant areas of Zande influence and a wide dispersal of the specialist artistic products of individual regions. Examples of Zande art are to be found, for example, in Tervuren, Koninklijk Museum voor Midden-Afrika (Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale); London, British Museum; Birchington, Powell-Cotton Museum; and Oxford, Pitt Rivers Museum, as well as many other European and North American museums. Published illustrations are also very common (...



Islamic dynasty which ruled in northern Iraq, south-east Anatolia and Syria from 1127 to 1222. In 1127 ‛Imad al-Din Zangi, the son of a Turkish commander in the Saljuq army, was appointed governor of Mosul for the Saljuq sultan and guardian (Turk. atabeg) for his sons. The semi-independent Zangi expanded his dominion north and west and was granted Aleppo in 1129. He fought against the crusaders, most notably at Edessa in 1144. Zangi was succeeded by two independent branches of the family in Mosul and Aleppo. His son Nur al-Din (reg in Aleppo 1146–74) conquered Damascus in 1154, opposed the crusaders and sent his generals Shirkuh and Salah al-Din to Egypt, where the latter founded the Ayyubid dynasty. The Ayyubids succeeded the Zangids in Aleppo in 1183 and in Damascus in 1186.

Nur al-Din, a staunch Sunni, built many religious institutions, and fortified Aleppo, Damascus and other key sites. During his reign there was a Classical Revival in Syrian architecture as well as a wholehearted adoption of symmetrical building plans and forms, such as the iwan, typical of Abbasid architecture in Iraq. In his hospital (...


(b Borispol, Ukraine, 1891; d Tel Aviv, 1985).

Israeli painter . He graduated from the Academy of Arts in Kiev in 1914, where he had been influenced by the watercolours of Mikhail Vrubel. In 1923 he emigrated to Palestine, where he lived first in Jerusalem and then from 1927 in Tel Aviv. From 1927 to 1929 he worked and studied in Paris. He worked almost entirely in watercolours from 1923 until the early 1940s, producing still-lifes and landscapes. The watercolour Safed (1923; Jerusalem, Israel Mus.), with its mosaic-like patches of colour, is characteristic of the works of the 1920s, which were mainly of landscapes around Jerusalem, Haifa Bay and Safed. In the 1930s he painted views from his Tel Aviv studio or flowers on a window-sill, as in View from the Window over Tel Aviv (1935; Amsterdam, Stedel. Mus.)

In 1948 Zaritsky was one of the co-founders of the New Horizons group and soon came to be its leader. His painting developed into what was called ...



S. J. Vernoit

[Zavāra ; Zawareh]

Small town in central Iran. According to the geographer Yaqut (d 1229), Zavara existed in Sasanian times, and ancient fortifications and a fire temple could be seen there in the medieval period, but the town is now known for two mosques. The congregational mosque (1135–6) is the earliest extant example of the standard type of Iranian mosque, with four iwans grouped around a court and a dome behind the qibla iwan. It is rectangular in plan and has a side entrance, minaret and barrel-vaulted roof supported by piers. The elaborately carved stucco mihrab was redone in 1156–7, at the same time that the mosque in nearby Ardistan was revamped. The four-iwan plan links the congregational mosque at Zavara with others in a regional group centred in Isfahan ( see Islamic art, §II, 5(i)(b) ). The smaller Pa Minar Mosque (‘Mosque at the foot of the minaret’) is notable for its early minaret (...


[Abū Zayd ibn Muḥammad ibn Abī Zayd]

(fl Kashan, 1186–1219).

Persian potter. At least 15 tiles and vessels signed by Abu Zayd are known, more signed works than are known for any other medieval Iranian potter (see fig.). He frequently added the phrase ‘in his own hand’ (bi-khāṭṭihi) after his name, so that it has been misread as Abu Zayd-i Bazi or Abu Rufaza. His earliest piece is an enamelled (Pers. mīnā’ī) bowl dated 4 Muharram 583 (26 March 1186; New York, Met.), but he is best known for his lustrewares. A fragment of a vase dated 1191 (ex-Bahrami priv. col., see Watson, pl. 53) is in the Miniature style, but most of his later pieces, such as a bowl dated 1202 (Tehran, priv. col., see Bahrami, pl. 16a) and a dish dated 1219 (The Hague, Gemeentemus.), are in the Kashan style, which he is credited with developing (see Islamic art, §V, 3(iii)...



Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of the Yemen from the late 9th century ad to the 20th. The Zaydi imams traced their descent to the Prophet Muhammad and took their name from Zayd (d ad 740), the son of the fourth Shi‛ite imam. The Zaydi imamate in the Yemen was established by Yahya al-Hadi (854–911) who arrived there in 889, but his austere code of behaviour initially won little success and he was forced to leave. He returned in 896 and established his seat at Sa‛da, to the north of San‛a’. He won the allegiance of several tribes by acting as a mediator in tribal disputes, but his influence remained precarious. After his death his followers remained in the Yemen, and the Zaydi imamate continued to claim authority by divine right, although there was no strict dynastic criterion for the election of imams. Based in the north of the country, the power of the Zaydi imams varied over the centuries; occasionally it reached as far as San‛a’. The movement was forced underground by the advent of the ...


Gilbert Herbert



Isabelle Gournay

( Louis )

(b Angers, Oct 20, 1911; d 1996).

French architect . He studied architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris (1928–39), winning the Premier Grand Prix de Rome in 1939. In 1942 he went to Tunisia as a volunteer in the Free French Army. From 1943 to 1948 he practised there as Chief Government Architect, directing a team involved in modernization; they designed housing projects, markets and schools, which were notable for their respect of local traditions. Although he returned to private practice in Paris (1948), he still received large public commissions from the Tunisian government (for example buildings for the University of Tunis, 1960–64). In Paris he was instrumental in the implementation of the Camus process, a prefabrication method that he used in the housing complex at the Pont de Sèvres, Boulogne-Billancourt (1949–52). The Renault industrial complex, Flins (1950–55), is in a straightforward International style, although its façades are enlivened by a polychrome composition by the painter ...


S. J. Vernoit

(b Istanbul, 1901; d Amman, Sept 5, 1991).

Turkish painter . The daughter of Shakir Pasha, a Turkish general, diplomat and historian, she was brought up in a distinguished family of statesmen and intellectuals. She went to the Academy of Fine Arts, Istanbul, in 1920, where she studied under Namık Ismail (1890–1935), and then to Paris in 1927, where she studied at the Académie Ranson under Roger Bissière. On returning to Istanbul, she joined an association of young Turkish painters known as the D Group, which was founded in 1933. In 1934 she married the Hashemite prince Zeid El-Hussein, a diplomat, and accompanied him on postings to Berlin, London and Paris. She had private exhibitions in Istanbul in 1944 and 1945, and then in 1946 at Izmir and the Musée Cernuschi, Paris. After World War II, when she moved back to western Europe, she had further exhibitions in London, Paris, Brussels, New York and elsewhere. She participated in the ...


(b Tehran, 1937).

Iranian painter and printmaker . He studied at the College of Fine Arts and the College of Decorative Arts in Tehran and began to exhibit his work early in his career, at the Biennales in Paris (1959–63), Tehran (1960–66), São Paulo (1963) and Venice (1964), receiving a number of awards. He first began to be influenced by Iranian Shi‛ite folk art in 1959, presenting it in his work in a distinctive way, with neither parody nor satire. He went to live in Paris in 1961 but continued to take a close interest in the development of art in Iran. At the third Tehran Biennale in 1962, held in the Abyaz Palace in the Gulistan compound, he exhibited canvases that consisted of geometric patterns of squares, triangles and circles, using colours characteristic of religious folk art, and covered with calligraphy to create a distinctive texture. It was on this occasion that the Iranian art critic ...


Diane Harris

( fl mid-1st century ad ).

Greek bronze sculptor, active in Rome and Gaul . His name (‘foreign gift’) suggests that he may have been born in Massalia (Marseille), Asia Minor, Egypt or Syria, and according to Pliny (Natural History XXXIV.xviii.46) he was the foremost sculptor of colossal statues of the 1st century ad. From ad 54 to 64 Zenodoros worked in Arvernis, Gaul, making a bronze statue of Mercury, for which he was paid 40 million sesterces. Nero commissioned him to make a colossal imperial portrait c. 36 m high, which was placed in his palace, the Domus Aurea in Rome (Pliny: XXXIV.xviii.45–6; Suetonius: Nero xxxi). During the reign of Vespasian ( ad 69–79) it was converted into a statue of the Sun god, Sol (Aelius Spartianicus: Hadrian XIX.xii; Herodian: I.xv.9; Pliny: XXXIV.xviii.45). A replica of the Mercury was known in Corinth in antiquity (Pausanias: Guide to Greece II.iii.4) and several extant copies may reflect the original appearance of the statue. The colossal statue of ...


R. G. Killick

[Assyrian: ziqquratu ]

A square or rectangular stepped tower with three or more stages, one of the most distinctive and enduring forms of Mesopotamian religious architecture. The first ziggurats were built in the mid-3rd millennium bc; the latest examples were still being renovated in the 6th century bc.

Ziggurats first appeared in southern Iraq, in the major religious centres of the Sumerians, at sites such as Ur ( see Mesopotamia, fig. ), Eridu, Uruk, Kish and Nippur. The earliest known ziggurats are at Kish and date to the Early Dynastic III period (c. 2600–c. 2400 bc). All other Sumerian ziggurats date to the Ur III period (c. 2100–c. 2000 bc); these ziggurats were rebuilt many times, however, which may well have obscured or obliterated their earlier forms. In the 2nd millennium bc the ziggurat, together with many other aspects of Sumerian religious life, was taken over by the ...


J. D. Hawkins

[anc. Sam’al]

Site of an ancient city in southern Turkey, which flourished in the 9th–7th centuries bc. It lay at the eastern end of the Amanus Gates pass and consisted of a central citadel mound and flat lower town in the plain, surrounded by a circular double wall pierced by three gates. Many sculptures and inscriptions, both native (in Aramaic and Phoenician alphabets) and Assyrian (in cuneiform), were recovered from the site. Uniquely, the native inscriptions are in relief rather than incised, doubtless in imitation of Hittite hieroglyphic inscriptions, and Hittite art also influenced the style of the sculptures. The site was excavated by F. von Luschan in five seasons between 1888 and 1902. The finds, especially sculpture, were shared between the Pergamonmuseum in Berlin and the Archaeological Museum, Istanbul.

The South City Gate was badly destroyed but had some associated orthostats showing human and animal figures, including fabulous beasts. These were crudely executed in the earliest local style. Apart from this, sculpture was concentrated in the walled citadel. Particularly well preserved was the Outer Citadel Gate, with most of its 33 carved orthostats ...


S. J. Vernoit

Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of North Africa and Spain between ad 972 and 1152. The founder of the dynasty, Ziri ibn Manad (d 972), was a Sanhaja Berber in the service of the Fatimid caliphs, who ruled from Tunisia. In 936 Ziri founded Ashir, the family seat, in the Titeri Mountains 170 km south of Algiers. His son Buluggin (reg 972–84) was appointed governor of North Africa when the Fatimids left Kairouan for Cairo. Under Buluggin, his son al-Mansur (reg 984–96), and his grandson Badis (reg 996–1016), the Zirids greatly enlarged their territory, expanding into northern Morocco, where they came in conflict with the Umayyads of Spain. By 1015 the Zirid domain had become too large to be governed from Kairouan alone: the Zirids retained control of the eastern half, while the western portion was granted to Buluggin’s son Hammad (reg 1015–28), who established his capital at the Qal‛at Bani Hammad to the east of Ashir. In ...



M. F. Charlesworth

[Pers. Zīviyya]

Site in Iranian Kurdistan, 33 km east of Saqqiz, where a collection of gold, silver, ivory and other objects, probably mostly of the 8th century bc, was discovered in 1947. The first study of this ‘Ziwiyeh Treasure’ was published by André Godard in 1951, but for nearly 30 years Ziwiyeh was mostly left to the mercy of commercial diggers and antique dealers. The number of objects attributed to the treasure in collections around the world has gradually grown; in 1973 Roman Ghirshman listed 341 objects in the Tehran Archaeological Museum alone. Many objects are undoubtedly forgeries, and others, although genuine antiquities, were discovered elsewhere but attributed to Ziwiyeh in order to enhance their commercial value. This led to criticism (see Muscarella) of the uncritical acceptance by academics of objects attributed to Ziwiyeh.

Before 1976 Ziwiyeh was briefly surveyed and excavated by Robert Dyson, Cuyler Young and Stuart Swiny. During 1976–8...


Robbert Ruigrok

(b Aktyubinsk, Kazakhstan, Feb 7, 1945).

Israeli painter, Playwright and theatre director of Kazakh birth. He moved to Israel with his parents when he was four. Having displayed an early artistic talent, Zohar had his first drawing lessons when he was 14. After three years in the army (from 1963), he entered the Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem. His teachers included Ernst Fuchs, the Viennese fantastic realist painter, who was highly influential on Zohar. Also important in his development were travels in Britain and the Netherlands, where he saw Dutch Old Master collections and in particular the work of Johannes Vermeer. Zohar’s first one-man show (1970) was at the Ahuva Doran Gallery in Tel Aviv. After exhibiting in further solo and group shows, in 1979 he lectured at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Zohar’s paintings of this period reflected strongly the influence of Vermeer in style and subject-matter. By the 1980s his work became more expressionistic and larger in scale. A retrospective in ...


Mary Boyce

Religion based on the teachings of Zarathushtra, known in the West as Zoroaster. It originated in eastern Iran, possibly as early as the mid- to late 2nd millennium bc, and still has adherents in many countries.

The recorded history of Zoroastrianism began with the Achaemenids who ruled in ancient Iran as the first Persian empire (538–331 bc). The Persian priests, the magi, later became known in the West as typical Zoroastrian priests. The Achaemenid Persians spread Zoroaster’s teachings far and wide in the Ancient Near East. After Alexander the Great’s conquest (330 bc) and a period of Hellenistic rule, Iranian sovereignty was restored by the Parthians from north-west Iran (reg 250 bcc. ad 224), who upheld Zoroastrianism. They were overthrown by their co-religionists, the Sasanians (c. ad 224–651), who founded the second Persian empire and established a centralized, authoritative Zoroastrian Church, which combated heresy and around the 5th century ...


Lucy Der Manuelian and Armen Zarian

Ruins of the Armenian patriarch’s palace and cathedral 3 km south-east of Ēdjmiadzin (anc. Vagharshapat), in Armenia. The building was dedicated to the Heavenly Hosts, the ‘vigilant powers’ (zvart’nunk’ner), who appeared in a dream to St Grigor the Illuminator (c. ad 239–c. 325/6). According to a Greek inscription and the Armenian histories of Sebeos (7th century) and Katholikos Hovhannes Draskhanakertc‘i (10th century), the cathedral was built c. 650–59 by the Katholikos Nerses III, known as ‘the Builder’ (reg 641–61), at the site where according to tradition St Grigor the Illuminator was met by the pagan Armenian king Trdat III (reg c. ad 280–c. 330). By the time of the cathedral’s destruction in the 10th century, it was also said to house the relics of St Grigor.

Although the cathedral was excavated in 1901–7, only its foundations, parts of the walls and vaulting, bases and sections of piers and columns, some eagle capitals and other fragments of relief sculpture were found. On the basis of these remains, the load-bearing capability of the massive pillars and comparisons with a later Armenian copy, St Grigor at ...