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Gilbert Herbert

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Article

Ann Bomann

[Yahoudeh; Yahûdîyeh; Yahoudiyé; Yehūdīyah], Tell el- [Arab.: ‘Mound of the Jews’; Egyp. Nay-ta-hut; Gr. Leontopolis]

Egyptian site 31 km north of Cairo near Shibin el-Qanatir in the Nile Delta. It was excavated by Heinrich Brugsch, Edouard Naville, F. Ll. Griffith and Flinders Petrie in the late 19th century and early 20th, and by Shehata Adam in the 1950s. Although occupation of the site may have commenced during the Early Dynastic Period (c. 2925–c. 2575 bc), the earliest evidence dates from the Middle Kingdom (c. 2008–c. 1630 bc) and the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1630–c. 1540 bc). Two cemeteries include graves dating from the 12th Dynasty (c. 1938–c. 1756 bc) to the Greco-Roman Period (332 bcad 395). The ‘Hyksos Camp’ is a rectangular earth enclosure with rounded ends measuring c. 515×490 m, with a gateway in the eastern face. This enclosure consists of an inner vertical mud-brick wall, faced on the exterior by an inclined bank, or glacis, of plastered sand with a ditch beyond; no wall surmounted the bank. One theory is that, because of its similarity to Syro-Palestinian fortifications of the period, it was built by Near Eastern immigrants for military purposes. However, a more accepted interpretation is that it had a religious function, owing to certain parallels with cultic earthworks at Heliopolis and Mendes. Inside the enclosure on the north-east, the existence of a temple of ...

Article

C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky

[Pers. Tappa-yi Yaḥyā]

Site in the province of Kirman in south-east Iran, which has provided a sequence for the archaeology of the area from the early 5th millennium bc to the Parthian or Sasanian period in the early centuries ad ( see Iran, ancient §I 2. ). The site is a mound 19.8 m high with an almost circular base 187 m in diameter. It was excavated by C. C. Lamberg-Karlovsky of the Peabody Museum, Harvard University, from 1967. The finds are in the Archaeological Museum in Tehran and at the Peabody Museum, Harvard University.

Neolithic (Period VII, c. 4900–c. 3900 bc) and Chalcolithic (Periods VI–V, c. 3800–c. 3300 bc) remains include numerous houses with spacious storage facilities, a large number of clay figurines of sheep or goats and some stone figurines; one female figurine of chlorite was found in a storage magazine, resting face down and associated with numerous stone and bone tools. Carved chlorite vessels (made from locally quarried stone), a miniature human head and a large alabaster ram are particularly fine examples of 5th-millennium ...

Article

V. Rakitin

( Bogdanovich )

(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], Jan 2, 1884; d Erevan, Dec 28, 1928).

Georgian stage designer and painter of Armenian origin, active in Russia . He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1901–3) but was expelled after a disagreement over the teaching methods. Posted to the Far East during military service, he became acquainted with Far Eastern decorative art, which inspired the works he exhibited with the Blue Rose group after his return to Moscow in 1907 (e.g. The Races, 1905; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.). His work of this time refers to traditional Chinese and medieval European art refracted through Art Nouveau, in an attempt to create a new decorative style in easel painting. In Moscow he often designed the décor for artistic soirées and balls, creating architecturally decorative compositions whose basic components were painted panels. In 1910 he travelled to Italy and in 1912–13 he worked in Paris, where he became acquainted with Sonia Delaunay and Robert Delaunay. In ...

Article

C. A. Burney

Site in north-western Iran, 32 km south-west of Tabriz. This settlement mound is 16.5 m high and extends over c. 8 ha. A long Chalcolithic (4th millennium bc) sequence and Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium bc) levels were excavated by Charles Burney between 1960 and 1962. Finds are in the Archaeological Museum in Tehran.

The Early Bronze Age sequence consisted of 14 Early Trans-Caucasian II levels with round houses (circles) of relatively flimsy mud-brick construction with wattle-and-daub roofing; these houses tended to become larger and more densely located in successive levels, and the bigger ones had a central post. There was often a high threshold, and the standard kitchen fittings—bin, working surface and hearth—were invariably immediately to the right of the door. Pottery with intricate incised decoration was found in enormous quantities in the circles and their surrounding courtyards. Each circle had its range of storage vessels, smaller jars, bowls and lamps. The decoration is predominantly geometric, with patterns derived from woodworking or textiles, perhaps kilims, consistent with a nomadic tradition. Animals and birds also occur in profusion but are too stylized to be readily recognizable. Parallels lie in Trans-Caucasia, and the pottery belongs to a sub-tradition of Early Trans-Caucasian culture within this zone. It may have been brought by an intrusive Indo-European element from the north. There followed five Early Trans-Caucasian III levels with rectangular buildings and undecorated pottery. The surface of the mound bore extensive traces of burning....

Article

David Stronach

[Pers. Yārīm Tappa]

Site in the fertile Gurgan plain of north-eastern Iran, 125 km east of the Caspian Sea. The mound is 20 m high, but it is now reduced to little more than half its original size (diam. 180 m) by river erosion and is distinguished by its tall cliff-like southern face. It was this exposed section that indicated that Yarim Tepe could well expand what was known of the long history of settlement in north-eastern Iran, from the 6th millennium bc to the early centuries ad (see Iran, ancient §I 2., (i) ). The site was excavated by Stronach in 1960 and 1962, and most of the finds are in the Archaeological Museum in Tehran.

The sequence begins with the establishment of an Early Chalcolithic settlement (Yarim I) in the late 6th millennium bc. The pottery is straw-tempered, slipped and painted. After a gap of almost 1500 years (during which there is just enough evidence from the vicinity to indicate a local use of finely painted, grit-tempered ...

Article

R. M. Munchaev and N. Ya. Merpert

Group of six mounds containing remains of settlements dating from the 6th to the 1st millennium bc, situated near the town of Tall ‛Afar in northern Iraq. Three of these, Yarim Tepe I, II and III, were investigated by a Soviet expedition led by R. M. Munchaev from 1969 to 1980. Finds have been distributed between the Iraq Museums in Baghdad, the Mosul Museum and the Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, Moscow.

Yarim Tepe I, which belongs to the Hassuna culture of northern Mesopotamia (6th millennium bc), covers an area of approximately 2 ha on the banks of a stream. The mound rises 5 m above the level of the plain, and the archaeological deposits are 6.5 m deep, within which 12 levels have been identified. Architectural remains have been recorded from the earliest levels upwards. The houses are rectangles composed of a series of rooms used as living-quarters or workshops. In the larger houses there are up to 15 rooms. The walls of the houses are made up of clay slabs, and the floors were coated with clay or gypsum. Within the rooms there were round, oval and rectangular ovens as well as granaries and areas for drying grain. Kilns for firing pottery, the remains of workshops where tools were produced and round constructions possibly used as shrines were also discovered. Child burials were found under the floors of some houses....

Article

Gilbert Herbert

(b Kishinev, Bessarabia [now Russian Moldova], April 14, 1927).

Israeli architect of Russian birth. His family settled in Palestine in 1935 and he studied architecture at the Technion, Haifa, graduating in 1951 after the establishment of Independence (1948). After a period of three years in the office of Arieh Sharon (1900–84) and Benjamin Idelson (b 1911), he set up his own practice in 1954, at first in partnership (1954–7) with S. Powsner (b 1919), then with A. Alexandroni (1957–65); thereafter he practised as Yasky and Partners. He had a distinguished public and professional career, serving as Chairman and President of the Israel Association of Engineers and Architects, and, for five years as a Tel Aviv city councillor. In addition to numerous prizes in architectural competitions and other awards, he received the Rechter Prize for Harzfeld Hospital (1968), Gadera, and the Rokach Prize for Bet Halohem Rehabilitation Centre (...

Article

Yazd  

[ Yezd ]

City in central Iran on the western edge of the central desert. Dependent on a system of underground aqueducts (Pers. qanāt), Yazd was an agricultural centre that flourished in the Middle Ages as an entrepôt on the trade route between Central Asia and the Gulf. The city, which was originally called Katha, dates at least from Sasanian times ( ad 226–645) when it was an important centre of Zoroastrianism. In the 7th century ad it was captured by Muslim forces. Although never a capital, it had a long and important tradition of architectural patronage in the Islamic period, which is extensively reported in local chronicles. In the 10th century it had a fortified citadel and houses built of unbaked brick. The tomb known as Duvazdah Imam (‘Twelve imams’; 1037–8) is notable for its early use of the trilobed squinch, a device that became a hallmark of architecture in Iran in the 11th and 12th centuries (...

Article

J. D. Hawkins

[Turk.: ‘inscribed rock face’]

Great open-air sanctuary (c. 1500–1200 bc) of the Hittite capital city Hattusa ( see Boğazköy ), c. 1.5 km north-east of the ruins of the city in central Turkey. Yazılıkaya is a rocky outcrop forming two chambers (A and B) open to the sky. These were closed off by a gradually developing series of buildings that evolved from a simple wall to more elaborate structures designed to provide the natural sanctuary with the gatehouse and entrance courtyard of the typical Hittite temple. Excavation has revealed more than one remodelling.

The main chamber A was entered through the gatehouse and courtyard with a left turn, which would have disclosed the natural gallery, its rock walls sculptured with two files of figures (on the left male figures advancing right, on the right female figures advancing left). The processions converge in a central scene at the back of the gallery, where two sets of main figures, three on the left and four on the right, confront each other. The figures of both files have been numbered consecutively from the left: the left file has 42 figures, the right 21....

Article

[Arab. Al-Jumhūriyya al-Yamaniyya; formerly Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen; Yemen) and People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen)

Independent republic in south-western Arabia, including Socotra and other islands, with San‛a as the political capital and an estimated area of c. 636,000 sq. km. Yemen’s location at the crossroads between Arabia, the Indian Ocean and Africa, and particularly on the Red Sea route, has had an impact on its cultural heritage and turbulent political history. Along the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden stretch arid plains rising to mountains and cultivated highlands, which descend in the east to desert and the distinct region of Hadramawt. The Arab population (c. 22,000,000; 2007 estimate), some of African origin, is mostly Sunni and Shi‛a Muslim, with small communities of Jews and Christians. The traditional tribal structure is strong, particularly in the north.

In the lst millennium bc until the first centuries ad South Arabia was the home of highly cultured city states, which owed their prosperity partly to the trade in frankincense and myrrh, native to the region. To the Greco-Roman world the land was known as ‘Fortunate Arabia’ (Gr. ...

Article

Lucy Der Manuelian and Armen Zarian

[Ererouk ; Ereruk ; Ereruyk

Ruins of an Early Christian basilica dating from the 5th century ad to the early 6th, near the village of Ani-Pemza, Armenia, south-east of the border with Turkey and c. 10 km south of Ani. An Armenian inscription (probably 7th century) on the north wall of the apse identifies the church as the martyrium of the Forerunner (Karapet). A Greek inscription (6th–7th centuries) and several others in Armenian (c. 6th–10th centuries; 1038; and 1201–12) refer to restoration works.

The church was excavated by N. Marr in 1908; by then the vaulted roof was missing, and only the outer walls survived. Restoration work was undertaken in 1928, followed by renewed excavations in 1987. Some features resemble those of 5th-century Armenian churches, but other architectural details, such as the twin-towered west façade, gabled portals, porticos and some sculptural decorations, are similar to contemporary Syrian churches (e.g. Turmanin and Ruwayha) and indicate an early 6th-century date. Accordingly it has been suggested that the original 5th-century structure may have had additions and changes during the 6th century....

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Mehmed Esad Yesari; Yesari; As‛ad Yasārī]

(d Istanbul, 1798).

Ottoman calligrapher. Born paralysed on the right side of his body and palsied on the left, he was given the nickname ‘Yesari’ (left-handed). He learnt the art of calligraphy from Mehmed Dedezade, gaining his diploma (Turk. icazet) in 1753–4. Appointed calligrapher at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul by Mustafa III (reg 1757–74), Esad Yesari achieved fame for his mastery of nasta‛līq script (e.g. a calligraphic specimen, Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., G.Y. 325/4488), and his inscriptions adorn mosques, tombs, fountains and hospices in Istanbul. He was buried in the vicinity of the Fatih Mosque, Istanbul. Among his many pupils was his son Mustafa Izzet Yesarizade (d 1849), who received his diploma from his father. Mustafa Izzet wrote a beautiful nasta‛līq script and his inscriptions also adorn buildings in Istanbul.

See also: Islamic art, §III, 2(v): Calligraphy, after c 1800

Ş. Rado: Türk hattatları [Turkish calligraphers] (Istanbul, n.d.), pp. 182–4, 209...

Article

Yortan  

Donald F. Easton

Site near Gelembe, north-west Turkey, which flourished in the Early Bronze Age, c. 2700–2400 bc. Yortan was excavated in 1900–01 by Paul Gaudin, who concentrated on the extramural cemetery where he uncovered 107 burial jars each containing at least one contracted burial and associated grave goods. The finds are in the British Museum in London, the Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire in Brussels and the Louvre in Paris.

The pottery from Yortan has an outstanding range of shapes, including globular jars with flaring collar-neck, globular jugs with rising spout (sometimes cut away above the handle), bird-shaped jugs ( see fig. ), ‘teapots’, carinated bowls and triple jars with one over-arching basket handle. Many vessels, especially smaller ones, have three small feet. Kâmil distinguished three successive classes, of which only Class C was wheel-made. Class A, the most numerous, has a well-burnished but crumbly fabric, which is generally black or grey but sometimes red or brown. It often has incised, incised-and-white-filled, or white-painted decoration. Common designs include chevrons and horizontal bands containing zigzags, wavy lines, dashes or lozenges, while plastic ornament comprises warts, crescents, parallel bars and fluting. The fabric of Class B is harder and finer, but less burnished. The fine, hard-fired ware of Class C is light grey or light red, with no burnish and little decoration; the clay may have come from a different source....

Article

Article

[Mir Muḥammad Yūsuf al-Ḥusaynī Muṣavvir]

(fl Isfahan, 1636–66).

Persian painter. A prolific artist during the reigns of the Safavid shahs Safi (reg 1629–42) and ‛Abbas II (reg 1642–66), Muhammad Yusuf worked in a variety of styles. His earliest works, including the eight illustrations in a copy (1636; London, BL, Add. MS. 7922) of Baqi’s Dīvān (collected poetry) and single-page drawings and paintings (e.g. Youth Holding a Cane; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A., 14.637), exhibit fine draughtsmanship and a bright palette. In the 1640s he adopted a bolder calligraphic style for tinted drawings, such as the ones illustrating a copy of Hafiz’s Dīvān (1640; Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H. 1010) and several single-page compositions (e.g. Paris, Bib. N., MS. arabe 6074, fols 3r, 4v and 5r). This change from the artistic ideals of the early 17th century to a new linear style may have resulted from exposure to the work of his contemporary ...

Article

J. H. Taylor

Small, undecorated tomb of an Egyptian noble and his wife. It was discovered in the Valley of Kings (KV 46) at Thebes in 1905. The tomb had suffered superficial plundering but most of the contents were recovered intact (Cairo, Egyp. Mus., and New York, Met.). The collection is important for the light it throws on the funerary equipment of the nobility at the height of the New Kingdom (c. 1540–c. 1075 bc) and the styles of furniture and decorative art current at that time.

Yuya and Tuya were the parents of Queen Tiye, the wife of Amenophis III (reg c. 1390–c. 1353 bc). Yuya, perhaps of Asiatic extraction, came from Akhmim in Upper Egypt, where he held important religious offices. He was also God’s Father (i.e. father-in-law of the pharaoh), Master of the Horse and King’s Lieutenant of Chariotry. His wife Tuya was in charge of the female personnel of the temples of Amun and Min....

Article

Zabid  

[ Zabīd ; Zebid]

City in Yemen about 20 km from the Red Sea. Located in a fertile area of the Tihama Plain where the pilgrimage route from the south of Yemen to Mecca crosses the Wadi Zabid, the city was founded in ad 820 by Muhammad ibn Ziyad, emissary of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma‛mun (reg 813–33) and progenitor of the semi-independent Ziyadid dynasty (reg 819–1018). The Ziyadids were responsible for erecting Zabid’s congregational mosque, which has a hypostyle plan, and for the first city wall, erected in 1001 by Husayn ibn Salama. The congregational mosque was remodelled under the patronage of the Ayyubid dynasty (reg 1174–1229), under whom the building was given its present form and a brick minaret. Zabid became the winter capital of the Rasulid dynasty (reg 1229–1454) and flourished as an important centre of Islamic learning, particularly for the Shafi‛i school of law, which was dominant along the Yemeni coast. The multi-domed al-Iskandariya Mosque (later incorporated in the citadel) appears to have been built under the ...

Article

(b Istanbul, Aug 5, 1906; d Ankara, 1974).

Turkish painter and printmaker . He studied at the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul and worked as a teacher in Konya for a short period before graduating in 1930. The visit to Konya was his first to Anatolia, and it gave him the opportunity to observe the peasant and nomadic life. As a result Anatolian themes entered his work, although he used the techniques of Western painting. He was also inspired by East Asian art and by the Turkish miniature painting tradition. Upon graduation he went to Paris to continue his studies but stayed only a few weeks and returned to Turkey to teach in Sivas, where he rekindled his interest in Anatolian life. His works were exhibited in Istanbul by the D Group (founded 1933), which he later joined. In 1939 he participated in the tours to the provinces organized for artists by the Turkish government, returning from the town of Kayseri with a series of paintings. His individual style for depicting local scenes, which used well-defined forms in bright colours, became popular in Turkey, and the narrative element of his paintings related them to themes in Turkish folklore. Zaim’s aim was to develop a contemporary pictorial language to express life in Anatolia. He also produced etchings in the 1930s and linoleum prints in the early 1960s. His daughter ...

Article

Eleanor Sims

[Muḥammad Zamān ibn Ḥājjī Yūsuf Qumī]

(fl 1649–1704; d before 1720–21/ah 1133).

Persian painter. He was the foremost practitioner of stylistic eclecticism in 17th-century Safavid painting (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(a)). In 20th-century writing on Persian painting he was confused with a Persian Christian called Muhammad-Paolo Zaman, who is mentioned in the Storia do Mogor, a history of Mughal India by the Venetian adventurer Niccolas Manucci (?1639–after 1712). According to Martin, for instance, Muhammad Zaman was sent by Shah ‛Abbas II to study painting in Rome in the 1640s; he returned a convert to Christianity and had to take refuge at the court of the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, who gave him an official post in Kashmir. This theory would account for the distinctive features in his painting, such as figures in European dress, an interest in atmosphere, night scenes and cast shadows, and an elusive but pervasive flavour of Mughal India. In 1962, however, this account was discredited by the publication of the ...