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Janet Southorn

(b Rome, April 11, 1586; d Rome, April 21, 1652).

Italian nobleman, traveller, writer, composer and antiquary. He was a notable figure in the cultural life of 17th-century Rome. His fame rested chiefly on his travels in Asia, which earned him the nickname il Pellegrino. In June 1614 he sailed from Venice to Constantinople, then visited Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Persia and India, sending to his friend Mario Schipano in Naples letters containing detailed descriptions, which he later began to publish. He became known as an authority on the architecture of the Holy Land and Asia Minor (in Constantinople he admired the Süleymaniye Mosque, and suggested Italian architects might learn from mosque design) and for his interest in archaeology. He sent back the first Mesopotamian cuneiform writing tablets seen in Europe, and at Saqqara in Egypt he bought mummies, which were later displayed at his residence in Rome, which adjoined the palace (101 Corso Vittorio Emanuele) where Cardinal Andrea della Valle had organized his antiquities collection in the 16th century....

Article

Blanca García Vega

(b Málaga, Aug 15, 1821; d Madrid, Feb 19, 1882).

Spanish lithographer, illustrator and painter. In 1859 he enlisted for the African Campaign in Morocco, and the studies he did in Africa led to drawings for an atlas of the battles in Africa (Madrid, 1860), as well as those for Crónicas de la guerra de Africa (Madrid, 1859) by Emilio Castelar and for Diario (Madrid, 1859–60) by the novelist Pedro Antonio de Alarcón (1833–91). He promoted a section for lithography at the Escuela de Artes y Oficios in Madrid. An excellent portraitist, he also made numerous drawings and illustrations for newspapers, royal chronicles and for Iconografia española (Madrid, 1855–64) by Valentín Carderera y Solano, as well as lithographs of bullfights. He provided decorative works for various public buildings in Madrid and the provinces.

A. Canovas: Pintores malaqueños del siglo XIX (Málaga, 1908) A. Gallego: Historia del grabado en España (Madrid, 1979), p. 356 E. Paez Rios...

Article

Varamin  

Abbas Daneshvari

[Varāmān; Waramin]

Town in Iran 60 km south-east of Tehran. It was an agricultural satellite of Rayy until the 1220s, when Rayy was irreparably destroyed by the Mongols. When economic life began to revive under the Mongol Ilkhanid dynasty (reg 1256–1353), Varamin developed into a major urban centre. Between 1322 and 1326 Hasan al-Quhadhi, a vizier from the region, built a splendid congregational mosque in the town (see Islamic art, §II, 6(i)(a)). It is an almost perfect example of the classical Iranian mosque: four iwans are set around a central courtyard, one of which leads to a domed area in front of the mihrab. Other work done under the Ilkhanids includes a number of tombs—the Imamzada Yahya (1261–3; restored 1305–7), the mausoleum of ‛Ala al-Din (1289) and the Imamzada Shah Husayn (c. 1330)—and the portal of the Sharif Mosque (1307). Numerous fragments of lustre tiles of the 1260s and 1300s that once decorated the Imamzada Yahya are now in collections in London (V&A), St Petersburg (Hermitage) and elsewhere. At the turn of the 14th century Varamin was subjected to devastating attacks by the armies of Timur (Tamerlane), so that the Spanish traveller Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo (...

Article

Vardzia  

V. Beridze

Site on the north bank of the Kura River in the Aspindza district of the Republic of Georgia. A rock-cut complex, it consists of the village of Ananauri (10th–12th century) and a monastery (12th–13th century). An investigation into the site was first undertaken in the 1920s, revealing many layers of occupation. Ananauri lies on the west of the complex, with dwellings and terraces for orchards and vineyards. On the uppermost terrace is a single-nave church (10th century) with 16th-century wall paintings. The monastery (ded. 1185) is one of the most important and impressive monuments of Georgian medieval architecture. It was mostly built between 1156 and 1203 during the reigns of King Giorgy III (reg 1156–84) and his daughter Queen Tamar (reg 1184–1213). There are over 400 houses, comprising 120 residential complexes, several refectories, churches and administrative buildings, all carved into the rock and divided between 13 storeys with interconnecting passageways and staircases: a pipe (3.5 km long) supplied the monastery with water....

Article

Vedat  

S. J. Vernoit

[Vedat Bey; Vedat Tek]

(b Istanbul, 1873; d Istanbul, 1942).

Turkish architect and teacher. After completing his secondary education at the Ecole Nonge in Paris, he studied painting at the Académie Julian and civil engineering at the Ecole Centrale, and then trained as an architect at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, completing his studies in 1897. On returning to Istanbul in 1899, he was employed by the Municipality, becoming chairman of the Supervising Committee for Public Works and later the chief architect. In 1900 he also became the first Turk to teach architectural history at the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul. Like his contemporary, Kemalettin, he played an important role in the development of a revivalist Turkish idiom in architecture, known as the First National Architectural Style, and his works and his writings reveal the theoretical approach behind the movement.

Vedat’s first major work, the Central Post Office (1909) in Sirkeci, Istanbul, employed such features of traditional Ottoman architecture as depressed or pointed arches and glazed tiles (...

Article

Vrej Nersessian

Armenian illuminated Gospel book (320×245 mm; Erevan, Matenadaran Inst. Anc. Armen. MSS, MS. 10780) written in uncials on parchment and comprising 269 folios in 33 gatherings of mostly 8 leaves. The principal colophon is missing, but the manuscript has several inscriptions that help to trace its history from the date of its first restoration in 1088 to 1978, when it was presented by Katholikos Vehap‘aṙ to the Matenadaran Library. From 1437 to 1466 it was in the library of Tat‘ev Monastery, and from 1481 to 1609 in the church of the village of K‘iwrlar, where it remained until 1720. Various other owners have added their inscriptions, dated 1729, 1765, 1766 and 1780.

The full-page illustrations include the elaborately decorated borders of the Letter of Eusebios to Karpianos (fol. 1r) and of the canon tables (fols 1v–4r), a Group Portrait of the Owners (fol. 5...

Article

Margaret Mullett, Elizabeth Bruening Lewis, Valerie Nunn, Robin Cormack, Hans Buchwald, W. Eugene Kleinbauer, Marlia Mundell Mango, Lyn Rodley, William Saunders, Robert Ousterhout, Archibald Dunn, Slobodan Ćurčić, Kara Hattersley-Smith, Charles Barber, Christine Kondoleon, Ruth E. Kolarik, Lucille A. Roussin, Henri Lavagne, Margaret A. Alexander, Melita Emmanuel, Alexander Grishin, J.-P. Sodini, T. Zollt, Lucy-Anne Hunt, John Lowden, Manolis Chatzidakis, Nano Chatzidakis, Judith Herrin, Cécile Morrisson, Hero Granger-Taylor, Karel C. Innemée, David Whitehouse, Anthony Cutler, Aimilia Yeroulanou and David Buckton

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Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

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Dominique Collon

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(b Nîmes, May 18, 1936).

French painter. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Montpellier from 1955 to 1959, and spent the following two years in national service in Algeria. Until 1960 he painted still-lifes, horses and portraits in a style reminiscent of that of Courbet. From 1962 to 1963 he studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, under the French painter Raymond-Jean Legueult (b 1898), and during this time he discovered the work of Rauschenberg, Morris Louis and Kenneth Noland. In 1964 he began teaching at the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Nice, where he remained for three years. By this time he had begun producing the repeated pattern works using mainly primary colours, which formed the basis of all his later works, such as Untitled (1968; Paris, Pompidou).

In 1966 Viallat had his first one-man show at the Galerie A in Nice, and in 1967 he moved to Limoges to take up a professorship at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts there. His first works using knotted rope, sometimes painted, were made in ...

Article

Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

In 

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Article

Margaret Mullett, Elizabeth Bruening Lewis, Valerie Nunn, Robin Cormack, Hans Buchwald, W. Eugene Kleinbauer, Marlia Mundell Mango, Lyn Rodley, William Saunders, Robert Ousterhout, Archibald Dunn, Slobodan Ćurčić, Kara Hattersley-Smith, Charles Barber, Christine Kondoleon, Ruth E. Kolarik, Lucille A. Roussin, Henri Lavagne, Margaret A. Alexander, Melita Emmanuel, Alexander Grishin, J.-P. Sodini, T. Zollt, Lucy-Anne Hunt, John Lowden, Manolis Chatzidakis, Nano Chatzidakis, Judith Herrin, Cécile Morrisson, Hero Granger-Taylor, Karel C. Innemée, David Whitehouse, Anthony Cutler, Aimilia Yeroulanou and David Buckton

In 

Article

Helen M. Strudwick, Claude Vandersleyen, Dimitris Plantzos, William A. Ward, William H. Peck, Dominic Montserrat, John Baines, Gay Robins, J. Ruffle, Lise Manniche, Rosemarie Klemm, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Joachim Śliwa, Gillian Vogelsang-Eastwood, Ann Bomann, R. G. Morkot, Peter Lacovara, Delia Pemberton, Rita E. Freed, Philip J. Watson, Robert S. Bianchi, Henry G. Fischer, Jaromir Malek, S. Curto, Nadine Cherpion, James F. Romano, Karol Mysliwiec, Richard A. Fazzini, Edna R. Russmann, Eleni Vassilika, updated by Dimitris Plantzos, Edda Bresciani, Claude Traunecker, T. G. H. James, W. J. Tait, J. H. Taylor, Dorothea Arnold, Jack Ogden, Jean Vercoutter, Carol Andrews, Donald P. Ryan, E. Finkenstaedt, Paul T. Nicholson, Rosemarie Drenkhahn, Willemina Z. Wendrich, Robert Anderson, Barbara G. Aston and Morris Bierbrier

In 

Article

Esmé Berman

(b Bergamo, May 31, 1915).

South African sculptor of Italian birth. He was studying sculpture in Milan when he was conscripted into the army at the outbreak of World War II. In 1940 he was captured in North Africa and sent to a prisoner of war camp in South Africa. After the war, Villa made South Africa his home. From conventional heads and figures of the 1940s, he moved progressively through stylized figuration to structural abstraction. Yet even in his most abstract work, there are constant allusions to human themes, in terms of structure, posture, attitudes, relationships and circumstances. Villa’s style developed significantly in the 1950s, when the influence of the aggressive forms of the African environment led him to create his first constructed works, using abstract elements cut from sheets and rods of steel. His achievement was recognized by awards at the São Paulo Biennales of 1957 and 1959. Notable commissioned works include Africa...

Article

V. V. Vanslov

( Bagratovich )

(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], Jan 13, 1909; d 1989).

Georgian stage designer. He studied at the Tbilisi Academy of Arts under Iosif Sharleman’ (1880–1957), at the Higher Artistic and Technical Institute (Vkhutein, formerly Vkhutemas) under Isaak Rabinovich (1894–1961) and Nisson Shifrin (1892–1961) and at the Leningrad (now St Petersburg) Academy of Arts under Mikhail Bobyshov (1885–1964). He started working in the theatre in 1927, and from 1932 to 1936 he was the principal designer of the Paliashvili Theatre of Opera and Ballet in Tbilisi, for which he also designed productions in later years. His best works at this theatre were his stagings of the ballets Serdtse gor (‘Heart of the hills’; 1936) with music by Andrey Balanchivadze and Othello (1957) with music by Aleksey Machavariani. From 1937 Virsaladze worked for the Kirov Theatre of Opera and Ballet in Leningrad; from 1940 to 1941 and from 1945 to 1962...

Article

Pascale Linant de Bellefonds

(b Paris, Oct 18, 1829; d Paris, Nov 10, 1916).

French archaeologist and diplomat. He initially worked as a diplomat in Petrograd (now St Petersburg) in 1850, but he soon resigned and from 1853 to 1854 travelled around Greece, Turkey, Syria and Palestine, where he collected material for his work on Christian buildings. In 1861 he was sent to Cyprus by the historian Ernest Renan, with William Henry Waddington (1826–94), the epigrapher, and Edmond-Clément-Marie-Louise Duthoit, the architect, in order to explore the island systematically and organize large-scale excavations. Vogüé and Waddington continued their research in Syria and Jerusalem in 1862, enabling Vogüé to publish a detailed study of the Temple of Jerusalem two years later. Following Waddington’s departure in late 1862, Vogüé stayed a little longer in the East with Duthoit, exploring central Syria and Ḥawrān; this trip provided him with the material for the three-volume Syrie centrale. From 1868 Vogüé was a free member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, and he was involved in producing the ...

Article

F. B. Sear

[Arab. Walīla]

Roman site in Morocco, 20 km north of Meknès. The town was inhabited from the 3rd century bc by a Libyophoenician (mixed Berber and Carthaginian) population. It grew rapidly in the mid-1st century ad when it became a municipium (free town) of the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana. Abandoned by the Romans in ad 280–85, Volubilis was briefly the capital of the Islamic Idrisid dynasty at the end of the 8th century ad. A forum was built during the reign of Nero ( ad 54–68), and by the end of the 1st century ad several insulae (apartment blocks) had been laid out around it. In the later 2nd century ad the urban grid was extended to the north-east, and a 3–km circuit of walls was built ( ad 168–9) enclosing an area of around 40 ha. The forum was completely reconstructed at the time of Septimius Severus (...

Article

Hasan-Uddin Khan

(b Cairo, Aug 7, 1943).

Egyptian architect. He graduated from Ain-Shams University in Cairo in 1965. Between 1965 and 1970 he lectured at the university whilst studying and working with his mentor Hassan Fathy, the well-known proponent of indigenous architecture. In 1971 he went into private practice, eventually establishing offices in Cairo, Jiddah and Ashford, Kent. From 1993 he was based in Miami, Florida. He acted as an adviser to the Ministry of Tourism in Egypt (1972) and as consultant to UNESCO (1979–80). In 1980 he won the Aga Khan Award for Architecture for the Halawa house in Agamy, Egypt, completed in 1975. The two-storey house was built around a courtyard, and the articulation of space was handled with great sensitivity and simplicity. Openings in the white walls filter light to the interior through carved wooden screens (Arab. mashrabiyyas), and much of the courtyard remains in shadow, staying cool during the heat of the day. From this small vacation house El-Wakil went on to design larger houses such as the spectacular Al Sulaiman Palace in Jiddah, which uses the same principles but on a more lavish and larger scale. For a short time the architect toyed with other expressions of form but quickly returned to his exploration of tradition. El-Wakil’s most convincing designs have been those for mosques (for illustration ...