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J. F. Morris

Japanese city and capital of Kanagawa Prefecture, on the east coast of Tokyo Bay; it is the major port serving Tokyo. The earliest record of the name Yokohama dates from 1442; however, before a foreign treaty port was created at the site in 1859, Yokohama was an insubstantial fishing village with a population of c. 350. While Yokohama itself has virtually no history before the Meiji period (1868–1912), its proximity to the historical city of Kamakura has left it with the Buddhist temples Sōjiji and Shomyōji.

Modern Yokohama was created by the Tokugawa shogunate in response to pressure applied in 1853 by the US to open several Japanese ports to foreign trade. Yokohama was chosen because it was sufficiently removed from any existing ports and yet was close enough to the capital Edo (now Tokyo) to satisfy foreign demands. The original settlement was built on land that had earlier been reclaimed from swamps, and a new road and post station were built to link it to the main road leading to Edo. The foreign community formed an extra-territorial unit under non-Japanese control until ...



Barrie Dobson, Richard Green, Nicola Coldstream, Peter Gibson and Christopher Wilson

[Eboracum; Eoforwic; Jorvik]

English city, archiepiscopal see, and county town of North Yorkshire, situated on the River Ouse.

The first surviving account of the city, written by the scholar Alcuin (c. 732–804), records that ‘it was a Roman army built it first, to be a merchant-town of land and sea, and mighty stronghold for their governors’. York was founded by the Roman commander Q. Petillius Cerialis, who brought the Ninth Legion north from Lincoln in or shortly after ad 71. The garrison town of Eboracum remained throughout its many vicissitudes the military headquarters of imperial authority in a frontier region, retaining its ascendancy in the northern province of Roman Britain until the collapse of imperial rule around 400. Fundamental for the future of the city was the location of Eboracum in the Vale of York, within an easily defensible triangle between the River Ouse and its little tributary, the River Foss, where the former could be bridged....



Jacques Thiébaut

[Flem. Ieper]

Belgian city in the province of West Flanders, one of the most ancient cloth-working towns of the region. It became important in the 10th century owing to its strategic position on the trade route between Paris and Bruges. Up to the beginning of the 11th century it was part of a vast agricultural domain, probably belonging to the counts of Flanders, but it was already famous for its textile industry. In the 12th and 13th centuries Ypres was at the peak of its prosperity and expanding at a prodigious rate. A fortified wall was built in 1214. Many new parish churches were built in the 12th century: St Pierre, St Jacques, St Jean, and Ste Marle-en-Breileu. New churches continued to be erected in the 13th century, including St Nicolas, the collegiate church of St Martin (now the cathedral; see §1 below) and the Dominican monastery. Some fine 13th-century houses still stand (rest.). The great Cloth Hall, symbol of the town’s commercial importance and a prototype for the Brabantine Gothic town hall (...



[ Zabīd ; Zebid]

City in Yemen about 20 km from the Red Sea. Located in a fertile area of the Tihama Plain where the pilgrimage route from the south of Yemen to Mecca crosses the Wadi Zabid, the city was founded in ad 820 by Muhammad ibn Ziyad, emissary of the Abbasid caliph al-Ma‛mun (reg 813–33) and progenitor of the semi-independent Ziyadid dynasty (reg 819–1018). The Ziyadids were responsible for erecting Zabid’s congregational mosque, which has a hypostyle plan, and for the first city wall, erected in 1001 by Husayn ibn Salama. The congregational mosque was remodelled under the patronage of the Ayyubid dynasty (reg 1174–1229), under whom the building was given its present form and a brick minaret. Zabid became the winter capital of the Rasulid dynasty (reg 1229–1454) and flourished as an important centre of Islamic learning, particularly for the Shafi‛i school of law, which was dominant along the Yemeni coast. The multi-domed al-Iskandariya Mosque (later incorporated in the citadel) appears to have been built under the ...


Clara Bargellini

City in Mexico. Capital of the state of the same name in the central highlands of Mexico, it is c. 250 km north-east of Guadalajara and has a population of c. 150,000. The city was established in 1546 and became the most important silver-mining centre of colonial Mexico. The uneven terrain (it is situated in a ravine) and its initial quick growth resulted in an irregular but picturesque plan. Conservation efforts have preserved the city’s colonial scale and many colonial buildings in the local reddish limestone. A late 18th-century chapel dedicated to the Virgin crowns the Cerro de la Bufa, the hill that dominates the city. The cathedral was constructed as the parish church of La Asunción (begun 1612; completed 1752), integrating parts of the chapels of the Miraculous Crucified Christ and of the Virgin to produce a spacious three-aisled church; the architect was probably Miguel Sánchez Pacheco and, at the end, ...



Vladimir Peter Goss

[Lat. Iadera ; Gr. Diadora ; It. Zara]

Port city in Croatia. A Liburnian Bronze Age fortress on a well-protected peninsula, a major Roman city, and the capital of Byzantine Dalmatia, Zadar was hotly contested between Croatian rulers and Venice throughout the later Middle Ages. During the 15th century it became part of the Venetian Empire and was known as Zara.

The remains of the Cathedral of St Peter (rededicated to St Anastasia [Croat. Stošija] with the arrival of her relics in the early 9th century), its hexagonal baptistery (destr. 1943; rebuilt), the basilica of St Stephen (destr., St Simeon was then built on the same site), and the aisleless church of St Andrew all date from the 4th–5th centuries. Artistic activity continued throughout the Dark Ages (6th–7th centuries; fragments from the cathedral survive), to fully revive in the 8th century with the first phase of the rotunda of the Holy Trinity, which was rebuilt c. 800, under Carolingian influence, and in the 15th century was renamed St Donat after the bishop who had the church built....



Paul Tvrtković

Capital of Croatia. The city was formed by the fusion in 1529 of the royal city of Gradec and the cathedral city of Kaptol, both built on a hill. It is now a leading industrial city as well as an important cultural centre. The first cathedral (consecrated 1217) in Kaptol was destroyed during the Tatar-Mongol invasion of 1242; rebuilding began in 1263, incorporating St Stephen’s Chapel (13th century) with its 13th-century wall paintings associated with the Rimini school. The cathedral later acquired Renaissance and Baroque additions, but these were largely removed during restoration after the earthquake of 1880. Hermann Bollé restored the cathedral in Gothic Revival style (1880–1902) and was reponsible for the destruction of the original portal (1640; by Kozma Müller) and of the ribbed vaulting by Hans Alberthal. The Renaissance spire (1634–41; by Alberthal) was damaged in the earthquake, as was the Baroque Bakać Tower and part of the fortifications erected in ...



James D’Emilio

Capital of Zamora Province, León, Spain.

The Roman road from Mérida to Astorga probably crossed the River Duero at Zamora, but Roman remains are scant. From the 8th century to the 11th, possession of the city was contested by Muslims and Christians. King Ferdinand I of Castile and León (reg 1037–65) repopulated the city in the mid-11th century. The stronghold of Ferdinand’s daughter Urraca, the city was besieged by King Sancho II (reg 1065–72), whose assassination beneath its walls in 1082 was remembered in epic poems. The see, documented by the 10th century, was definitively restored in 1121, and several modest Romanesque churches (S Tomé, S Cebrián, S María la Nueva, S Claudio de Olivares, and Santiago el Viejo) attest to the building activity of the early 12th century and the development of a local school of sculptors inspired by work at Frómista, León, and Santiago de Compostela. In the second half of the 12th century and the early 13th, the multiple arches of the portals of several churches (La Magdalena, Santiago del Burgo, S María de la Orta, S Leonardo, S Juan, S Pedro, S Vicente) were richly decorated with motifs of Islamic origin, luxuriant foliage, and, at S Claudio de Olivares, a figure cycle. The new ornament can be linked to the cathedral (...


Jerzy Kowalczyk

Town in eastern Poland some 80 km south-east of Lublin. Founded in 1580 by Zamoyski family §(1) as his residence and the headquarters of his domains, and entailed from 1589, the town is a rare and fine example of surviving Polish Renaissance urban planning. It was designed for c. 3000 inhabitants, and its layout has affinities with the ideal cities described in the treatises of Francesco di Giorgio Martini and Pietro Cataneo. The principal buildings (palace, fortifications, arsenal, collegiate church, gates, town hall and burgher houses) were designed and built by Bernardo Morando within 20 years. The town and the palace (1578–86; altered in the 1820s) both lay within the 600×400 m area of the fortifications, but were originally divided by walls with a gateway and bastides on the town side. The gridded layout was dominated by the palace, with a tower and external staircase, from which the main street led eastwards through the town centre. The square between the palace and town was bounded on the south by a collegiate church (...



S. J. Vernoit

[Zavāra ; Zawareh]

Small town in central Iran. According to the geographer Yaqut (d 1229), Zavara existed in Sasanian times, and ancient fortifications and a fire temple could be seen there in the medieval period, but the town is now known for two mosques. The congregational mosque (1135–6) is the earliest extant example of the standard type of Iranian mosque, with four iwans grouped around a court and a dome behind the qibla iwan. It is rectangular in plan and has a side entrance, minaret and barrel-vaulted roof supported by piers. The elaborately carved stucco mihrab was redone in 1156–7, at the same time that the mosque in nearby Ardistan was revamped. The four-iwan plan links the congregational mosque at Zavara with others in a regional group centred in Isfahan ( see Islamic art, §II, 5(i)(b) ). The smaller Pa Minar Mosque (‘Mosque at the foot of the minaret’) is notable for its early minaret (...



Liliana Mavrodinova

[formerly Belovo]

Town approximately 70 km south-west of Sofia, Bulgaria, on the River Struma. It is famous for the monastery of St John the Evangelist, of which only the domed cruciform church (8.7×9.2 m) dating from the 11th century survives. Four square piers support the dome’s drum; barrel vaults cover the rest of the church. The walls are built of ashlar blocks. The north, south and west sides each have three blind-arched niches corresponding to the interior arrangements of the vaults and spaces; the east side ends in three high semi-cylindrical apses. During the period of Ottoman rule (1393–1878) the monastery was abandoned and the residential buildings destroyed. Not until the 19th century was the church renovated and new monks’ cells erected.

The church’s most remarkable features are its two layers of wall paintings. Those of the first layer are best preserved in the two chapels flanking the central apse and may be as early as the second half of the 11th century; they show figures of saints and scenes from the Gospels. The wall paintings of the second layer survive throughout the church; those in the sanctuary and nave are generally thought to be contemporary with the donor inscription, which mentions ...



A. A. Ivanov

[formerly Talas, Taraz, Yangi, Awliya Ata, Mirzoyam, Dzhambul]

City in the Talas River valley of southern Kazakhstan and capital city of the region of the same name. Excavations have established that the area, conveniently located along the trade route from Central Asia to China, was inhabited from the 1st and 2nd centuries ad, and ancient Turkish inscriptions have been found in the region. The town, known as Taraz or Talas, was first mentioned in the account of the Byzantine ambassador Zemarkhos in 568, and the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang (c. 630) described Ta-la-sz’ as significant. In the 7th century the town had a citadel surrounded by a wall with towers and a small town precinct; it became the capital of the Karluk Turks in the 8th and 9th centuries. In 751 Muslim armies defeated Chinese troops at the Talas River, but Islam did not gain strength in the region until the late 9th century, following the campaign of the ...


Mary S. Lawton

[Cheng-chou ; Chengchow]

Capital of Henan Province, China. Archaeological excavations since 1950 in the drainage basin of the south bank of the Yellow River have produced evidence that this was a centre of Shang culture (c. 1600–1050 bc ).

The area has been identified by some archaeologists with the second Shang capital, Ao, which according to the ancient annals (e.g. Liu Xin’s San Tong li pu (a calendar) and the Zhushu jinian (Bamboo Annals)) was founded by the Shang ruler Zhongding (reg c. 1568– c.1558 bc), but on the basis of archaeological evidence is generally dated to the 15th century bc. Around 1300 bc it seems the capital was transferred to Yin, near modern Anyang (see 1968 exh. cat.). Findings support the hypothesis that for some time Zhengzhou and Anyang may have been occupied contemporaneously. During the Zhou period (c. 1050–256 bc ) the area was first called Guyang and then known as Dantu. While serving as the capital of the state of Wu during the Three Kingdoms period (...



Martin Albers, Sigmund Widmer and H. Bobbink-de Wilde

[Ger. Zürich ]

Swiss city and cantonal capital in the hills on the River Limmat where it flows out of Lake Zurich. It is the largest town in German-speaking Switzerland, with a population (1992) of 363,000.

Martin Albers

The area has been settled at least intermittently since the late 5th millennium bc. The river crossing was a natural intersection for trade routes, protected by the steep hill on the west bank of the Limmat. By 15 bc at the latest a Roman military camp was established as a stronghold near the frontier on top of the hill on the site of the present Lindenhof. Later there was a customs post for the Province of Gaul, and the Limmat was bridged. The small settlement of Turicum grew up around the bridge, centred on a small harbour, which, although filled in during the Middle Ages, survives as the Weinplatz.

In the 5th to 7th centuries ...


D. O. Shvidkovsky

Russian town 53 km west of Moscow, on the left bank of the River Moskva. It was founded by Prince Yury Dolgoruky (reg 1149–57) and was the centre of the independent Zvenigorod principality in the 13th and 14th centuries; it became part of the Muscovite state in 1432. The 12th-century kremlin (the Gorodok or ‘Little Town’) has tall, earthen ramparts. The cathedral of the Dormition was built on the Gorodok by the ruling Prince Yury (d 1434). It represents a link between the late 12th-century architecture of the Vladimir–Suzdal’ kingdom (e.g. Vladimir, cathedral of St Demetrius) and the new Muscovite style of the late 14th century and the early 15th. It is square in plan with three apses, three entrances on axis and a single, helmet-shaped dome, which may originally have been surrounded by a complex system of zakomary. Other decorative details include a corbel-table over the apse, a frieze at middle height, ogee arches over the portals and west windows, and engaged columns on the façades and doorways. The last two elements indicate some familiarity with Gothic architecture. The interior of the cathedral was painted by ...