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Article

Malcolm Thurlby

English parish church in Hereford and Worcester dedicated to SS Mary and Paul. The architectural sculpture of Kilpeck is the best-preserved example of the ‘Herefordshire school’ of Romanesque carving; the south doorway, chancel arch, apse boss, west window and corbels are all richly carved. The church is of sandstone. It was probably built c. 1134, when it was given to St Peter’s Abbey, Gloucester (now the cathedral). The sculptors had probably worked at Shobdon Church after 1131 (and one was previously employed at Tewkesbury Abbey). The Kilpeck sculpture reflects many other influences; the positioning of figures carved in relief one above the other on the jamb-shafts of the chancel arch recalls a similar feature on the Puerta de las Platerías, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, which had been visited by Oliver de Merlimond, founder of Shobdon, c. 1131. Superimposed figures also occur on the doorway, although here they are intertwined in foliage, as at Shobdon, and have characteristic ‘Herefordshire school’ ribbed draperies and Phrygian caps. The basic form and geometric decoration of the doorway are similar to the work of the ‘Dymock school’, while from Hereford Cathedral come the foliate motifs and large egg-shaped heads and clinging draperies of the chancel arch figures. The beakheads and medallions of the doorway reflect Reading Abbey, perhaps through the lost cloister of its daughter-house, Leominster Priory. The radiating voussoirs and certain corbels betray western French sources (e.g. Aulnay-de-Saintonge), and the unusual form of the paired columns of the doorway is paralleled in the cloister of St Aubin at Angers, although the interlacing serpents on the outer shafts and crocodile-like heads projecting from the west wall are Scandinavian-inspired. One of its most famous sculptures is the celebrated Sheela-na-Gig corbel figure, a rare example of this motif outside of Ireland....

Article

Barbara Zeitler and Susan Pinto Madigan

[Komnenian dynasty; Comnenian dynasty]

Line of Byzantine emperors and art patrons (1057–1185). The Komneni were prolific builders and commissioned numerous works in a variety of media. Alexios I Komnenos (reg 1081–1118) and Manuel I (reg 1143–80) both made additions to the Great Palace (see Istanbul §III 12.) and to the Blachernai palace at Constantinople. Literary sources speak of their decoration as elaborate and influenced by Islamic art; one building in the Great Palace was entirely designed in Seljuk style. Wall paintings and mosaics celebrating imperial exploits and conquests became particularly popular in Manuel’s reign, and are known to have adorned the walls of his palaces. Manuel’s patronage also extended to the Holy Land, where he paid for parts of the decoration of the Holy Sepulchre and, together with King Amalric of Jerusalem, financed the mosaic decoration of the church of the Nativity in Bethlehem (1169).

Among the most important examples of Komnenian ecclesiastical architecture are the Monastery of Christ Pantokrator, founded by John II (...

Article

Mimi Hall Yiengpruksawan

[Kōya, Mt; Kōyasan; Kōyasanji; Kōyasan Kongōbuji]

Japanese Buddhist temple and shrine complex in Ito district, Wakayama Prefecture. Lying about 70 km south of Osaka on Mt Kōya (Kōyasan), a plateau on the eastern slope of the Takamine range, it was founded in the 9th century ad as the headquarters of the Shingon sect (see Buddhism §III 10.) and is one of the two main centres of Esoteric Buddhism (mikkyō) in Japan (see also Enryakuji). At Amano Jinja (Amano Shrine) on the north-western flank of the uplands, Niu Myōjin and Kōya Myōjin, the chief Shinto tutelary deities of the complex, are enshrined. The complex now occupies c. 12 sq. km of hilly terrain, encompassing some 125 structures and housing important art works.

Kongōbuji’s founder, Kōbō Daishi (see Kūkai), had spent the years 804–6 in China studying the system of tantric belief that was to be the basis of Shingon teachings and was seeking a suitable location to perform the religious exercises and Esoteric rituals required by these beliefs. In 816 he received from Emperor Saga (...

Article

Virginia Roehrig Kaufmann

Benedictine abbey church in Lower Saxony, 20 km east of Brunswick. The abbey was founded by Emperor Lothair III of Supplinburg (reg 1125–37) and Queen Richenza in 1135. Building began after Lothair’s visit to north Italy in 1132–3, and it has been presumed that there he saw the work of Nicholaus of Verona and arranged for him to construct the abbey church in Königslutter.

The apse with the exterior hunting frieze, the transepts, including the north transept portal, the first bay of the nave and various sculptures, including telamons in the cloister (see Cloister §2) and the Lion portal at the entrance to the church, have all been attributed to Nicholaus and his workshop. The building of the church has also been associated with Nicholaus on the basis of the inseparability of the architecture and sculpture and the similarity of Königslutter and buildings attributed to Nicholaus in Italy. The attribution of sculpture has been made on the basis of stylistic comparisons with his work in Italy, especially Ferrara Cathedral. The Königslutter sculpture compares with the best of Nicholaus’ work, and probably dates from the 1130s, just after Ferrara Cathedral and before S Zeno, Verona. The classicizing acanthus capitals of the apse are thought to have introduced to Lower Saxony a decorative motif that was to be a common feature there....

Article

Byzantine monastery founded c. 1090 in the Kyrenia district of Cyprus, c. 7 km north-west of Kythrea. Its katholikon, which was demolished in 1891 except for its east and north walls, was originally an inscribed octagon and had a narthex with projecting absidioles. (This arrangement was also adopted for the monastery church of Panagia Apsinthiotissa, 3.5 km north-west of Koutsoventis.) The frescoes of the parekklesion (see Cyprus §III), which lies to the north and which is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, were restored by Hawkins in 1963. The plan of the parekklesion has been described as an ‘inscribed-cross in embryo, lacking both the corner compartments and the lateral arms of the cross, but carrying a cruciform superstructure’ (Megaw). This plan did not originate in Cyprus, but it found favour there, as demonstrated by 12th-century churches of Trikomo and Lagoudera (see Lagoudera, Panagia tou Arakou). Its largely brick construction, with arcading around the central dome, also suggests influences from outside....

Article

Hafez K. Chehab

[Crac de Montréal; Montréal; Mons Regalus; Shaubak; Shawbak]

Castle in Jordan, south of Amman. Built in 1115 by King Baldwin I of Jerusalem (reg 1100–18) to menace the pilgrimage road to Mecca, the castle of Monreal surrendered to the Ayyubid ruler Salah al-Din (Saladin) in 1189. It was given to his brother al-Malik al-Adil (reg 1196–1218), whose son al-Mu‛azzam (reg 1218–27) enlarged and restored the fortress in 1226. Under the Mamluks (reg 1250–1517) it was known as Shawbak and became the centre of a district of the province of Kerak. Remains include several round towers and a deep well with a stairway said to lead to a spring, as well as two fragmentary churches with pointed vaults. Most of the fortress was rebuilt by the Ayyubids and Mamluks, but by 1340 the site was described as abandoned.

E. Brünnow and A. von Domaszewski: Die Provincia Arabia, 1 (Strasbourg, 1904), pp. 113–19P. Deschamps: ‘Les Deux Cracs des croisés’, ...

Article

Alan Borg

[Arab. Ḥisṇ al-Akrād]

Crusader castle in Syria. It is generally considered to be the finest of all crusader castles, but this reputation is to some extent an accident of scholarship, for it remains the only such castle to have been thoroughly investigated and restored. This work was done by a French team, led by Paul Deschamps. Krak represents the ultimate development of crusader fortification, however, and the earlier phases are better studied at the equally impressive sites of Saone (Sahyun) and Margat (al-Marqab) in Syria and Kerak (al-Karak) in Jordan. It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2006.

The stone castle of Krak occupies a dominant hilltop, near two Roman roads and overlooking a fertile valley (see fig.). The site was apparently occupied by a fortress as early as the 13th century bc. It was mentioned in Arab texts in ad 1031, when a settlement of Kurds was established, with a small castle. These fell to a crusading force in ...

Article

Srdjan Djurić

Church on the west bank of Great Prespa Lake in the Republic of Macedonia, 2 km from Kurbinovo village. It was founded in 1191; except for the two large lateral windows added in the 19th century, all later alterations were removed during the 1960s when the church was restored to its original basilical form with a wooden roof. The north, south and west façades are articulated with doors surmounted by lunettes. The west façade bears wall paintings of imperial portraits and frescoes imitating fine stone and brick masonry, while painted scenes from the life and martyrdom of St George decorate the south façade.

Almost all the interior fresco decoration has survived intact; it is divided into three zones, with prophets in the uppermost zone, and the festive cycle and single standing figures, including a procession of bishops, in the middle and lowest zones respectively. Among the scenes depicted are the ...

Article

Kathryn Morrison

French town in Nièvre, Burgundy, noted primarily for its former Cluniac priory church. The priory, dedicated to Notre-Dame-de-la-Charité, was one of the most powerful ‘daughter-houses’ of Cluny Abbey, served by nearly 200 monks at its peak and possessing numerous dependants in France and abroad. It was founded in 1059, and traces of a church excavated in the 1970s may represent a ruined church that stood on the site at the time. Under the first prior, Girardus (d 1087), a new church was soon under construction. It was sufficiently advanced to receive the burial of Bishop Goffridus of Auxerre in 1076 and was dedicated by Pope Paschal II in 1107. The design, frequently compared to the second abbey church at Cluny (see Cluniac Order §III 1.), comprised a chevet with seven staggered apses and a two-storey transept with a giant order.

The ten-bay nave, with a three-storey elevation and double aisles, represents a new departure. Although much of the elevation is lost, it was clearly erected in three campaigns, ...

Article

Byzantine church c. 40 km south-west of Nicosia, Cyprus. It is decorated with a nearly complete programme of outstanding frescoes, which were restored by Winfield between 1968 and 1973; an inscribed painting of the Holy Tile above the door bears the date December 1192. The church may have been built originally as a private chapel, for its distance from the village suggests that it did not serve as the community church. The monastery buildings that enclose it were added later at an unrecorded date and were still occupied when a Russian pilgrim, Basil Barsky, sketched the site in 1735.

Traces of earlier paintings indicate that the church was constructed some time before the decoration of 1192. Architecturally it belongs to a type popular in Cyprus, the inscribed cross in embryo (see Koutsoventis, St John Chrysostomos); it is a domed, single-aisle structure with three arched recesses in both the north and south walls and an eastern apse. The west wall was later demolished to make room for a vestibule. In the 18th century the whole building was covered by a protective, tiled roof extending to a latticed enclosure....

Article

Joan Duran-Porta

[ Raimundus Lambardus ; Raimon de Nargó ]

( fl Urgell, Catalonia, 1174–87 d before 1195).

Catalan master builder. The epithet Lambard has led to the assumption that he was an Italian master, whereas the use of this demonym for masons and builders is well established in the late Middle Ages in Catalonia. Raimon was hired in 1175 to complete the construction of the Romanesque Cathedral of S Maria at La Seu d’Urgell, which had been halted (or slowed down) for some time. His contract, preserved in a 13th-century copy, reveals an urgency to finish the upper parts of the church, which were an essential bulwark for the defence of the city in times of trouble between the bishop and neighbouring nobility. He was commissioned not only to direct the architectural works but also as the operarius or financial manager of the cathedral opera (the chapterhouse institution in charge of all the remodelling and building projects). It was quite exceptional for a layman to be in a role traditionally reserved for a canon, and even if the election of Raimon is related to the urgency of the works, it also proves that he was a reliable person in the eyes of the canons, one of whom was probably his relative (perhaps a brother), Pere de Nargó....

Article

Lia Di Giacomo

(fl 1099–1137).

Italian architect. He was probably born in Lombardy. Some scholars have attempted to identify him with a Comacine master, Lanfranco da Ligorno, who worked on the cloister of the Benedictine monastery of Voltorre, near Varese, but such a hypothesis is unfounded.

Lanfranco’s only definitely attributable work is Modena Cathedral, which he was commissioned to build in 1099. Sources for his involvement are an inscription built into the wall outside the main apse of the cathedral and the Relatio translationis corporis Sancti Geminiani, a contemporary account of the first phase of the building of the cathedral (1099–1106), kept in the Archivio Capitolare of Modena. The carving of the inscription was ordered at the beginning of the 13th century by Bozzalino, the administrator of the cathedral. It was probably copied from an earlier, lost inscription, or from a manuscript. It refers either to 1106, when the body of St Geminianus was removed from the old to the new cathedral, or to ...

Article

P. Cornelius Claussen

Italian family of marble-workers, sculptors and architects. Four generations of the family are known from 22 signed inscriptions. Between 1162 and 1254 they ran the most prolific marble workshop in Rome; more than a quarter of all the surviving signed works by the medieval Roman marble workers known as the Cosmati were produced by the Laurentius family alone. The father often worked with his sons and signed his name with theirs, so that the genealogy of named members of the family is certain. Two members of the family, Jacobus Laurentii and his grandson Lucas Cosmati, held honorary posts at the papal court, which would suggest that they were held in high esteem by both citizens and curia. The principal surviving work by the family is Cività Castellana Cathedral, Lazio, in which the names of all four generations of the family are recorded in inscriptions. The portico dated 1210 and signed by Jacobus Laurentii and his son ...

Article

David L. Simon

Fortress in Huesca province, Aragon, Spain. It commands a magnificent situation in the foothills of the Pyrenees overlooking the vast plains of Sotonera south to Huesca and beyond. The complex was built largely during the 11th and 12th centuries, when its position on the frontier between Christian and Muslim lands gave it its strategic importance. The first of the two major building programmes began c. 1020, when Sancho el Mayor (reg 1063–94) reconquered the surrounding lands from the Muslims. At least three towers, two of which survive, the Torre del Homenaje and the Torre de la Reina, as well as a chapel dedicated to S María de Valverde and connecting walls are attributed to this campaign. The Torre del Homenaje was built in an isolated position in front of the fortifications, to which it was connected by a wooden bridge. It contained a basement and five floors. The Torre de la Reina, comprising a basement and three floors, is particularly noteworthy for three sets of twin-arched windows, with columns of exaggerated entasis and trapezoidal capitals that have been related to both Lombard and Mozarabic architectural forms. The chapel is composed of a single-cell nave with an eastern apse covered by a semicircular vault. The original timber roof of the nave was replaced by a vault at the end of the 11th century....

Article

Byzantine church on the Karpas peninsula of Cyprus c. 85 km north-east of Nicosia. The original basilica church was probably constructed in the late 5th century and restored after the Arab raids of the mid-7th. A second major restoration, perhaps after an earthquake c. 1160, is attributed to the late 12th century, when the church received a narthex, a dome and three barrel-vaulted aisles.

This building is known principally for a fragmentary mosaic (probably c. ad 526–30; untraced), formerly preserved in the irregularly shaped conch of the apse until it was stolen between 1974 and 1979. It originally occupied the entire conch and was composed of a central mandorla showing the Virgin seated on a lyre-back throne with the Child on her lap. The combination of these iconographical elements has been interpreted as a relatively early depiction of the Incarnation, a theme apparently originating from Constantinople (Megaw and Hawkins). The presence of the mandorla may also have signified an assertion of Chalcedonian doctrine (Sacopoulo). An archangel and a palm-tree were depicted on either side of the mandorla; 12 medallion busts of the Apostles and one of St Paul were on the fore-edge of the conch. Ten of these portraits were completely or partly preserved and identified by inscription. The mosaic combines both formalizing and classicizing stylistic elements....

Article

Malcolm Thurlby

Former Benedictine abbey in Wiltshire, England, founded in the 7th century, dedicated to SS Peter and Paul. Of the church built from c. 1115 only the nave (c. 1160) survives. This has pointed main arcades on columnar piers, rib-vaulted aisles, an elaborate round-headed gallery, and a clerestory with wall passage, the windows of which were rebuilt in the 14th century, when the Romanesque wood roof was replaced by the present lierne vault. Little remains of the west doorway. The south porch preserves one of the richest programmes in English Romanesque sculpture.

The south doorway has three continuous orders with symmetrical foliage and a tympanum with Christ in Majesty in a mandorla held by two angels. The porch has two side tympana, each with six Apostles in high relief with a flying angel above inspired by Anglo-Saxon iconography. The entrance arch has eight continuous orders, the third, fifth, and seventh with Old and New Testament scenes and ...

Article

Former collegiate church in Yvelines, France. Both Louis VII (reg 1137–80) and Philip II Augustus (reg 1180–1223) were titular abbots. No documentation for the building survives but stylistic evidence dates it to c.. 1170–c. 1220. Details of both design and ornament recall Notre-Dame, Paris. The apsidal chapels and the chapel of Navarre on the south of the choir are additions of the 14th century. The gallery was spanned by decidedly curious transverse barrel vaults, which were replaced throughout most of the nave in the 14th century. In 1794 the pavement and portal jambs were destroyed. In 1851–4 Alphonse Durand (1813–82) replaced the north tower with a replica of its southern counterpart and linked the two with a gallery.

Two 12th-century sculpted portals survive on the west front. The earlier portal (c. 1170) on the left depicts the Three Marys at the Tomb on the lintel with the enthroned, resurrected Christ on the tympanum. The arrangement and figure style of the standing prophets in the archivolt is very close to the north transept Porte des Valois at Saint-Denis Abbey. The central doorway is slightly later. Its programme, the ...

Article

Mateo  

S. Moralejo

(fl 1168–?1217).

Spanish architect and possible sculptor. He was Master of the Works of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, and he was granted a life pension in connection with this work by Ferdinand II of León in 1168. His name also appears in the inscription on the lintels of the Pórtico de la Gloria, installed on 1 April 1188, attributing to him the direction of building work. Other possible references to him occur in documents from 1189 to 1217.

Although Mateo is known in the art-historical literature primarily as a sculptor, the inscription refers to him in the capacity of an architect. This activity was not restricted to the portal and the façade of which it is a part, however, but may also have included the completion of the cathedral itself. As a whole, except for those details where the design conforms to what had already been built, the architecture of this campaign reveals the influence of Burgundian buildings. The sculptural decoration, however, is less unified: initially it shows links with Burgundian work (La Charité-sur-Loire, Avallon) but then a second, more varied style appears, which has been attributed to Mateo himself. It would be more accurate, however, to attribute the architecture to him, because it is more homogeneous than the sculpture, and Mateo was the master responsible for the work from its inception. Mateo’s intervention in the sculptural programme should not be excluded, however, and he may even have contributed designs. The distinction of being included in the dedicatory inscription of a royal endowment, without mentioning the names of the patrons, would be unusual at this period for a supposedly manual worker. To his work as an architect, Mateo probably also added that of ...

Article

Günther Binding

Former Cistercian monastery in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. The abbey, founded by Ritter Walter von Lomersheim in 1138, was relocated at Maulbronn, in the narrow Salzach Valley on the southern slope of the Stromberg, and approved by Pope Eugenius III (reg 1145–53) on 29 March 1148. The abbey achieved great renown, with up to 100 monks in the late Middle Ages. In 1556 it was dissolved and became a Protestant theological school; it is now a Protestant boarding school. The precinct (3.8 ha) is still surrounded by a wall (l. 850 m) with five towers and moats dating from the first half of the 13th century and renovated in 1361–7 by Abbot Johann von Rottweil.

Dedicated to St Mary and consecrated in 1178, the abbey church is a basilica with strong characteristics of mid-12th-century Cistercian churches: it has a straight-ended choir and a series of narrow transept chapels 3.6 m wide, but no towers, crypt, or galleries. The vaulted eastern part was started ...

Article

Roger Stalley

Former Cistercian abbey in Co. Louth, Ireland. It was the first Cistercian foundation in Ireland and was colonized from Clairvaux in 1142. Its buildings exerted a profound impact on the course of Irish architecture, helping to introduce to the country European concepts of planning and design. The abbey was founded on the initiative of Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, following visits to Clairvaux in 1139 and 1140, and the chief benefactor was the local king of Uriel, Donough O’Carroll. The founding community included a group of French monks, among them a certain Robert, one of whose tasks was to advise on building operations. The monastery achieved success very rapidly, and by 1148 six daughter houses had been established, the start of an affiliation that eventually numbered twenty-one. As the head of a group of monasteries, Mellifont occupied an influential position, helping to disseminate architectural methods from abroad. It also became one of the richest houses in the country. At the Reformation its property was valued at £352 3s. 10d. When the community was dissolved in ...