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Lawrence E. Butler

(b Bellefonte, PA, May 24, 1863; d New York, April 24, 1938).

American sculptor and collector. Son of a Presbyterian minister, Barnard grew up in the Midwest and began studying at the Chicago Academy of Design in 1880 under Douglas Volk (1856–1935) and David Richards (1829–97). Here he was first introduced to plaster casts of Michelangelo’s works and to the casts of Abraham Lincoln made by Leonard Volk (1828–95) in 1860, both clearly influential on his subsequent career. In 1883 he went to Paris, where he enrolled in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and worked with Pierre-Jules Cavelier. Barnard’s sculptures are noted for their spiritual, allegorical, and mystical themes and were done in the expressive modelling style of the period.

Alfred Clark, wealthy heir to the Singer fortune, became Barnard’s patron in 1886. Through Clark and his Norwegian companion Lorentz Severin Skougaard, Barnard was introduced to Nordic themes. Clark commissioned important marble pieces including Boy (1884...


Gordon Campbell

English family of furniture designers and artist-craftsmen. Ernest (1863–1926) and his brother Sidney (1865–1926) worked with Ernest Gimson in the design and construction of furniture in the tradition of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Sidney’s son Edward (1900–87) carried on the business at a shop established in Froxfield (Petersfield, Hants) in ...


Blanca García Vega

(b Minas de Ríotinto, Huelva, Jan 12, 1871; d Vera de Bidasoa, Navarra, 1953).

Spanish printmaker, painter and writer . He was self-taught. He belonged to the Generación del 98 and the modernist literary movement. He began engraving in 1901 and won second prize at the Exposición Nacional, Madrid (1906), going on to win first prize in 1908. He also began etching c. 1908, and it became his favourite technique, although he also made lithographs. Both his prints and paintings have a literary content and focus thematically on life’s human aspects in a way reminiscent of the work of Toulouse-Lautrec. He illustrated Rubén Darío’s Coloquio de los centauros. Despite their lack of fine detail, his prints are realistic, for example Bar Types (etching and aquatint, c. 1906–9; Madrid, Bib. N.) and Beggars (etching and aquatint, c. 1910; Madrid, Bib. N.). His impressionistic painting style of the 1920s became more roughly worked later, possibly due to the loss of an eye in 1931. In ...


Rosa Barovier Mentasti

Italian family of glassmakers. The family are recorded as working in Murano, Venice, as early as 1324, when Iacobello Barovier and his sons Antonio Barovier and Bartolomeo Barovier (b Murano, ?1315; d Murano, ?1380) were working there as glassmakers. The line of descent through Viviano Barovier (b Murano, ?1345; d Murano, 1399) to Iacobo Barovier (b Murano, ?1380; d Murano, 1457) led to the more noteworthy Barovier family members of the Renaissance. Iacobo was responsible for public commissions in Murano from 1425 to 1450. From as early as 1420 he was a kiln overseer, with a determining influence on the fortunes of the Barovier family.

During the 15th century Iacobo’s sons, notably Angelo Barovier (b Murano, ?1400; d Murano, 1460), and his sons Giovanni Barovier, Maria Barovier, and Marino Barovier (b Murano, before 1431; d Murano, 1485) were important glassmakers. From as early as ...


Barbara Lange

(b Hamburg, Dec 25, 1858; d Munich, Oct 5, 1913).

German painter . He trained until 1876 under the Hamburg marine painter Rudolf Hardorf (1816–1907), and from 1876 to 1879 with Adolf Schweitzer (1847–1914) in Düsseldorf. On his return to Hamburg in 1879 he became a pupil of Carl Oesterly (1839–1930). He was also able to amass a useful store of motifs on sketching trips to Italy, the German North Sea coast, the Baltic, England and the Netherlands. From 1885 Bartels lived in Munich, where in 1891 he was made Professor at the Akademie. From the early 1880s he turned increasingly to the use of watercolour, a medium he appreciated for the speed of work it allowed. The momentary impression of a coastal landscape or seascape typified his work until the end of the century. In Full Steam Ahead (1890; Munich, Neue Pin.) he combined watercolour with gouache (his frequent practice) in striving to combine illusionistic realism of detail with an attempt to intensify the pure colouristic effect. After ...


Margaret Rose Vendryes

(b Bay St Louis, MS, Jan 28, 1909; d Pasadena, CA, March 6, 1989).

African American sculptor and painter. Barthé was raised a devout Roman Catholic Creole. He was also the only African American artist of his generation to consistently portray the black male nude. Although closeted throughout his life, sensual figures such as Stevedore (1937; Hampton, VA, U. Mus.) expose his homosexuality. Barthé’s elementary education ended in 1914. As an adolescent, he skillfully copied magazine illustrations, especially figures. Barthé worked for the wealthy New Orleans Pond family, who summered on the Bay, and in 1917, he moved to New Orleans to become their live-in servant. Barthé had access to the Pond library and art collection, and while in their employment, he began to paint in oil. In 1924, his head of Jesus prompted the Rev. Harry F. Kane to fund the first of four years at the Art Institute of Chicago School, where Barthé studied painting with Charles Schroeder and sculpture with Albin Polasek (...


Thérèse Burollet

(b Thivernal, Seine-et-Oise, Aug 29, 1848; d Paris, 1928).

French sculptor and painter . He first studied law; when the Franco-Prussian war broke out in 1870 he enlisted as a volunteer in Gen. Charles Bourbaki’s army. After the battle of Sedan he fled to Switzerland. As a prisoner on parole, he attended Barthélemy Menn’s studio at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Geneva and decided to devote himself to painting. He worked alone, in a naturalistic manner heavily influenced by that of Jules Bastien-Lepage, with its insistence on working in the open air rather than in the studio. Bartholomé exhibited for eight years at the Salon des Artistes Français (e.g. Recreation, 1885; Paris, priv. col.), receiving encouragement from Joris-Karl Huysmans. His first wife’s death in 1887 plunged him into depression; his best friend, Edgar Degas, advised him to sculpt a tombstone for her (1888; Bouillant cemetery, Crépy-en-Valois, Oise).

Soon after, Bartholomé embarked on the chief work of his career: from ...


Pamela H. Simpson

(b New Haven, CT, Jan 24, 1867; d Paris, Sept 29, 1925).

American sculptor. Bartlett spent much of his life in France, but like the Beaux-Arts style in which he worked, his life and career represent the rich interchange between the two countries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. His father, Truman H. Bartlett (1835–1923) was a sculptor, art critic, and teacher, and the younger Bartlett began modeling in his father’s studio at an early age. Bartlett’s family divided their time between America and France and his early education and training took place in Paris, with his formal study beginning in 1880, at the age of 15, under Pierre-Jules Cavalier (1814–94) at the École des Beaux-Arts. He also worked with Emmanuel Fremiet at the Jardin des Plantes and was an assistant to the animalier sculptor Joseph-Antoine Gardet (1861–91). His early work often dealt with animal and ethnographic themes, but he eventually became well known for his monumental figurative and symbolic work, providing sculpture for several of the world’s fairs and some of the major buildings of the period. A highly respected leader in his profession, he served as the president of the National Sculpture Society and was a vocal critic of modernism....


William Hauptman

(b Lugano, March 15, 1834; d Lugano, Oct 29, 1922).

Swiss painter . He studied under Giuseppe Bertini at the Accademia di Belli Arti di Brera in Milan and then travelled extensively in Italy, especially in Florence and Venice, where he developed an appreciation of Renaissance and Baroque art. After 1860 he selected themes from Italian or English history for his paintings, as in Tasso Reading (1863; Basle, Kstmus.) and Jane Grey in Prison (1864; Lugano, Mus. Civ. B. A.), working in an academic style much appreciated in annual exhibitions in Italy and Switzerland. He later turned his attention to subjects from Swiss history, often using local rather than national figures, as in his portrayal of the hero of the canton of Grisons, Jürg Jenatsch (1879; St Gall, Kstmus.). He painted religious subjects, genre scenes, landscapes and portraits, of which Salomon Volkart (1882; Winterthur, Kstmus.) is generally considered to be one of his finest. He was also very much in demand as a decorator, helping to revive the use of large-scale fresco designs in public buildings and churches. His first important cycle was in ...


Anne van Loo

(b Brussels, Sept 15, 1863; d Antwerp, March 6, 1927).

Belgian architect . He began his studies at the Koninklijke Academie voor Schone Kunsten, Antwerp, studying monumental architecture in the evenings while working by day. His marriage to the daughter of the architect J.-B. Vereecken introduced him to wealthy bourgeois circles where he found most of his clients. Between 1894 and 1906 he took part in the construction of the Zurenborg district of Antwerp, begun at the instigation of Senator John Cogels, where he built 25 houses for the Société Anonyme pour la Construction du Quartier Est d’Anvers. This group of buildings constitutes one of the city’s architectural curiosities: it is dominated by historicism, particularly in the double residence Euterpia (1906) that is an example of neo-Greek bravura, but Bascourt also developed an original Art Nouveau style there, marked by echoes of Arabian architecture. His own house (1902; destr. 1986) in Antwerp was conceived in the spirit of the work of John Soane, designed around a central hall giving on to rooms that were each furnished and decorated in a different style. He built several mansions, office blocks and industrial buildings in Antwerp between ...


Nadine Pouillon

(b Château-Renault, Indre-et-Loire, April 24, 1873; d Montoire-sur-le-Loir, nr Vendôme, Aug 12, 1958).

French painter. Like many naive artists, he discovered his vocation for drawing and painting late in life. His work as a gardener in Touraine awakened his love of nature, and he educated himself by reading history and mythology and by travelling in central and western France. He was mobilized in World War I and was sent to Greece to take part in the Dardanelles campaign; on his return to France his drawing skills were recognized by the Army and he was put in charge of charting and rangefinding. It was this experience that encouraged him to become a painter in 1919.

Bauchant exhibited his work for the first time at the Salon d’Automne in 1921. His flower pictures were soon succeeded by subjects from history, such as Louis XI Having Mulberry Bushes Planted near Tours (1943; Paris, Pompidou), from mythology, as in Cleopatra, on her Way to Anthony (...


Mark Jones

(b Tours, March 24, 1878; d 1963).

French medallist. He studied first at the school of art in Tours and then at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He was an able and prolific follower of such medallists as Frédéric de Vernon and Oscar Roty: his decorative and sentimental plaquettes, among them Wedding (1902), First Step...


(b Sarrebourg [now Saarburg, Germany], Oct 14, 1834; d Paris, Feb 28, 1915).

French architect, restorer, teacher and writer. His architectural training began in 1854 in the studio of Henri Labrouste and then, when it was disbanded in 1856, in that of Viollet-le-Duc, which had been opened largely at Baudot’s request. His academic training was limited to a brief period (1856–7) at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. From 1856 until the death of Viollet-le-Duc in 1879 Baudot’s life was that of a disciple, first as a student and later as a collaborator on restoration work (especially at Notre-Dame in Paris and the cathedral of Clermont-Ferrand). This patronage, while provoking strong antagonism from certain quarters, made it easy for him to enter professional life. Between 1869 and 1872 Baudot, possibly supported by Viollet-le-Duc who sat on the panel of judges, won first prize in three competitions for new churches: at Rambouillet (built in 1869), Levallois (1870; unexecuted) and Grenoble (...


Kristin E. Larsen

(b Elizabeth, NJ, May 11, 1905; d Seadrift, CA, Nov 21, 1964).

American writer and educator. She was an advocate for modern housing design and early federal housing programs. Born into an affluent family, Bauer briefly sought college training in architecture but attained the majority of her architecture and housing policy skills in the field. During a trip to Europe in 1926, Bauer discovered a passion for modern architecture. Writing an article that gained the attention of urban critic Lewis Mumford, she embarked on a subsequent visit in 1930 with letters of introduction to some of the most renowned European architects of the day, including Ernst May and Walter Gropius. She not only learned about housing design to maximize light and air and to utilize the site to advantage, but also investigated the benefits of large-scale development techniques and government support for housing. As a key contributor to the Museum of Modern Art’s 1933 exhibit on International Design, Bauer argued for greater recognition of housing as a centerpiece of the new modern aesthetic. In her groundbreaking book ...


Nicholas Bullock

(b Krnov, Moravia [now in Czech Republic], 1872; d Vienna, 1938).

Austrian architect and writer of Moravian birth. He studied with Carl Hasenauer (1893), and with Otto Wagner at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna (1894–6). He was one of the most successful of Wagner’s pupils. Along with Josef Hoffmann and Joseph Maria Olbrich he was a founder-member of the Siebenerklub and one of the first members of the Secession (see Secession, §3). During 1902 he was one of the editors of Ver Sacrum and between 1900 and 1905 he was responsible for the design of the decoration and fitting out of a number of rooms at the annual exhibitions of the Secession.

Bauer’s early commissions were mainly suburban and country houses, first in Bohemia but later in Silesia and Vienna. With his international success in the competition for ‘Ein Haus eines Kunstfreundes’, organized by Alexander Koch in 1900, he acquired the reputation of being an adventurous and sympathetic interpreter of the new domestic style. His early designs show how the vernacular forms inspired by the Arts and Crafts Movement could be simplified and reworked in a stark geometrical fashion, while the planning of such early houses as Villa Larisch (...


Anne van Loo

(b Liège, March 18, 1896; d 1995).

Belgian painter, designer and writer. He was a pupil of the Symbolist painter Jean Delville but started using geometric forms after discovering the work of František Kupka. In 1923 he began to collaborate on the avant-garde journal 7 Arts together with Pierre-Louis Flouquet (1900–67) and Karel Maes (1900–74). Also in 1923 he married the dancer Akarova (b 1904) who inspired his ‘Kaloprosopies’ (1925), an album of nine woodcuts, and for whom he designed costumes and stage sets. At the same time he embarked on the design of functional furniture, first in traditional materials and then in metal tubing (1930) and polychrome, cellulose-based lacquer. He opened his own decorating business in Brussels (1930–70) and showed his ‘Standax’ furniture, which could be assembled and dismantled, at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (1937) in Paris. Baugniet was a promoter of the ...


Michael Bollé

(b Hamburg, March 19, 1833; d Karlsruhe, Dec 11, 1917).

German architect and urban planner. He attended the Polytechnische Schule in Hannover (1849–51) and then the Polytechnikum at Karlsruhe, where he passed the state examination in engineering in 1853. An important influence was his teacher (and later father-in-law), Friedrich Eisenlohr, who at that time received several commissions for railway construction in south-west Germany, and no doubt did much to encourage Baumeister in this field. Lines created under the latter’s direction were the Murgtalbahn from Rastatt to Weisenbach (1868), the line from Freiburg to Breisach (1870–71), and the Renchtalbahn from Appenweier to Oppenau (1876). As an urban planner, Baumeister laid out the Ringstrasse in Wiesbaden (1871). However, he turned more and more to theory, and his only notable later building is the Krankenhaus der Diakonissenanstalt (1888–90) in Karlsruhe. In 1862 he became a professor at the Karlsruhe Polytechnikum, where he lectured on bridge and tunnel construction and problems of city cleansing. In ...


Ferenc Vadas

(b Dunaföldvár, Jan 24, 1864; d Budapest, May 31, 1928).

Hungarian architect. He graduated from Budapest Technical University in 1888 and worked for some years alongside such primarily Historicist architects as Alajos Hauszmann, Imre Steindl and Antal Weber. He later specialized in designing schools and colleges in association with a government architect, Zsigmond Herczeg (1848–1914). Together they designed over 300 buildings, including the main building (1897–1900) of Budapest University (now Loránd Eötvös University), the principal achievement of their Historicist phase. Its design fulfils both aesthetically convincing and practical functions, despite an unfavourable site between two existing buildings. Stylistically it conforms to the neighbouring 18th-century Baroque church and, with its characteristic cupola mounted over the central projection, is also reminiscent of the neo-Baroque work of Hauszmann. There is a ceremonial hall and a sweeping staircase, as well as several lecture-rooms. From c. 1899 Baumgarten’s work is closely linked to that of the most important Hungarian architect of the time, the Secessionist ...


Philip Attwood

(b London, April 4, 1872; d London, July 10, 1953).

English sculptor and medallist. He was the son of the painter and etcher Alfred Walter Bayes (1832–1909) and brother of the painters Walter Bayes (1869–1956) and Jessie Bayes (1878–1971). He studied at the City and Guilds Technical College and the Royal Academy School in London. His early work consists of reliefs and decorative objects, and bronze statuettes, some partly enamelled, which show the influence of Alfred Gilbert and the New Sculpture. After World War I his work became more stylized. He executed a number of large-scale reliefs including History of Pottery through the Ages (polychrome stoneware, 1938; London, V&A) for the headquarters of Doulton’s, the ceramics manufacturers, on Albert Embankment, London, and History of Drama through the Ages (artificial stone) for the Saville Theatre (now the MGM Cinema), Shaftesbury Avenue, also in London, works which exemplify the artist’s eagerness to experiment with new materials. He worked closely with ...


Pieter Singelenberg

(b Den Helder, Feb 14, 1869; d Amsterdam, Nov 28, 1923).

Dutch architect and decorative artist. He studied at the Akademie voor Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague from 1882 to 1888. After a year in the office of J. J. van Nieukerken, a local architect, in 1889 he joined the studio of P. J. H. Cuypers, which was in the new Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. Beginning as a draughtsman, he quickly took on more responsible work; in 1890 he supervised the building of the St Vituskerk in Emmastraat, Hilversum, but in the same year he suffered one of the long periods of illness that hindered his career. In 1892 he returned to a supervisory position with Cuypers where he remained until 1895; while there he received a thorough exposure to the principle of the Gesamtkunstwerk, and he became friends with J. L. M. Lauweriks. In 1893 they travelled to London where they studied and drew Egyptian and Assyrian antiquities in the British Museum. In ...