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(fl c. 1537–57).

Italian writer. The only known work by this anonymous writer is a manuscript (Florence, Bib. N. Cent., MS. Magl. XVII, 17), including biographies of major artists active in Florence from the late 13th century to the 16th, which was discovered in 1755 in the Magliabechiano collection of manuscripts and first published in 1892 (Frey). Its provenance can be traced back to descendants of the Gaddi family of artists, hence its alternative title. The provenance and the accuracy of the accounts of Gaddo, Taddeo, and Agnolo Gaddi suggest that the family was known to the writer who was evidently a Florentine citizen, although probably not an artist. The manuscript begins with a list of artists of Classical antiquity and continues with biographies of artists in Florence from Cimabue to Michelangelo, but not in strict chronological order. There is also a brief section on Sienese artists. It ends with a list of artists’ names, including Raphael and Sebastiano del Piombo, so arranged as to suggest that the work was to be continued. Bound with the main text is an account of buildings and works of art in Rome, written ...


Charles R. Morscheck jr

(b Reggio di Emilia, Oct 23, 1867; d Reggio di Emilia, Sept 23, 1928).

Italian art historian. Between 1890 and 1903 he did extensive research in the archives of Modena, Bologna and Milan, collecting materials for numerous books and articles on the art of these cities and also of Reggio di Emilia. His publications typically include archival documentation and rich photographic illustrations, which make them useful and authoritative today: for example Giovanni Antonio Amadeo, scultore e architetto lombardo (1904) remains the most important monograph on any native Lombard sculptor; its copious illustration presents a visual cross-section of the whole of Lombard Renaissance sculpture. La corte di Ludovico il Moro (1913–23) complements his monograph on Amadeo by portraying other aspects of the Lombard Renaissance: private life, major and minor painters, applied arts, literature and music. His primary expertise was in the Renaissance painting and sculpture of the regions that he studied, but his range was vast, including architecture, drawing, illumination and the decorative arts. He was co-director of ...


Michael Curschmann

The medieval term mappa mundi (also forma mundi, historia/istoire) covers a broad array of maps of the world of which roughly 1100 survive. These have resisted systematic classification, but the clearly dominant type is one that aims at comprehensively symbolistic representation. Its early, schematic form is a disc composed of three continents surrounded and separated from one another by water (“T-O Map”) and associated with the three sons of Noah: Asia (Shem) occupies all of the upper half, Europe (Japhet) to the left and Africa (Ham) to the right share the lower half. Quadripartite cartographic schemes included the antipodes as a fourth continent, but the tripartite model was adopted by the large majority of the more developed world maps in use from the 11th century on and—with important variations—well into the Renaissance. While details were added as available space permitted, the Mediterranean continued to serve as the vertical axis and, with diminishing clarity, the rivers Don and Nile as the horizontal one. The map also continues to be ‘oriented’ towards Asia, where paradise sits at the very top. A circular ocean forms the perimeter and not infrequently the city of Jerusalem constitutes its centre....


(b Najaf, 1944).

Iraqi calligrapher, painter, printmaker and writer, active in Paris (see fig.). He studied painting and calligraphy in Baghdad from 1960 to 1969, and in 1969 exhibited his work at the Iraqi Artists’ Society exhibition and at the French Cultural Centre in Baghdad. The same year he went to Paris and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts until 1975. Thereafter he lived in Paris. Although influenced by traditional calligraphy, he developed his own calligraphic style, which incorporated painterly elements. In many of his works, for example Je suis le feu tapi dans la pierre. Si tu es de ceux qui font jailler l’étincelle alors frappe (1984; Paris, Inst. Monde Arab.), he employed proverbs and quotations from a range of sources. He also researched and wrote about Arabic calligraphy.


Esin Atil

[Naṣūḥ al-Silāḥī al-Matrāqī; Naṣūḥ ibn Qaragöz ibn ‛Abdallāh al-Būsnawī]

(b Visoko, Bosnia; fl 1517; d April 28, 1564).

Ottoman soldier, writer, copyist and illustrator. He initiated the topographical style of painting that became characteristic of the illustrated histories produced at the Ottoman court in the 1550s (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(e)). As a youth he was recruited into the imperial service in a forced levy (devşirme) and was trained as a page in the household of Sultan Bayezid II (reg 1481–1512). He later served as an officer in the Ottoman army, where he was noted as a swordsman. He was also celebrated as the inventor of new forms of the game of matrak, played by throwing sticks or weapons as a form of military training.

Nasuh was a prolific writer on mathematics, swordsmanship and history. In 1520 he began the translation from Arabic into Turkish of al-Tabari’s Majura‛ al-tawārīkh (‘Compendium of histories’), to which he added a section covering the history of the Ottomans to ...


[Faust, Séverin]

(b Paris, Dec 29, 1872; d Paris, April 23, 1945).

French writer, theorist and critic. Writing under the pseudonym of Camille Mauclair, his first book was Eleusis (1894). Though a comparative latecomer to Symbolism, he here expounded his version of its aesthetic. He broadly defined the symbol as ‘tout ce qui paraît’ and emphasized the importance of the dream. Mostly the work is influenced by Stéphane Mallarmé, whom he greatly admired, and is, in its philosophical aspects, derived from Arthur Schopenhauer. He was sympathetic to the Pre-Raphaelites, Edward Burne-Jones and others in England, and saw the Symbolists as achieving similar results in France.

Throughout his life Mauclair remained dogmatically entrenched within a Symbolist perspective. He admired the Impressionists whilst hoping that their stylistic innovations could be turned to Symbolist effect. In 1892 he took over the Mercure de France from Albert Aurier and rapidly used his column to attack Post-Impressionists such as Gauguin, Cézanne and others. Later he saw himself as engaged in a crusade against modern art and as a defender of the French tradition, ...


(b Hamstead, nr Birmingham, July 12, 1812; d Melbourne, Oct 21, 1895).

English illustrator, draughtsman, writer and painter, active in Australia. She was educated at home and was taught by Thomas Lawrence to paint portrait miniatures on ivory. In 1832, at the age of 20, she earned the respect of Henry Parkes (later Premier of New South Wales, Australia) for her writings in support of the Chartist movement, begun in Birmingham in that year. In 1835 she published her first book, Poems: With Original Illustrations Drawn and Etched by the Authoress (London, 1835), and the following year wrote and illustrated The Romance of Nature or The Flower Seasons, containing 26 coloured plates engraved after her original drawings. She married her cousin Charles in 1839 and moved to Sydney, Australia, and then to Tasmania. Having attributed her botanical knowledge to a study of the works of the draughtsman and engraver James Sowerby (1757–1822), she described and illustrated the plant and animal life of Tasmania and painted landscapes and miniatures. Some of her writings are in the form of picturesque travel books accompanied by her illustrations, for example ...


Miles L. Chappell

(fl Florence, 1664–97).

Italian historian. He was from a distinguished Florentine family and was educated for an ecclesiastical career but became a historian whose archival research undertaken for his few publications and extensive unpublished manuscripts was of particular importance. Although sparsely documented, his role as a historian has been defined by E. L. Goldberg. He was the rival in Florence of Giovanni Cinelli (1625–1706) and Filippo Baldinucci. His published works are Senatori fiorentini (1665), which is a list, and the detailed guide Firenze città nobilissima illustrata (1684), in which his central theme is the celebration of Florence and its great achievements arising from the collective nobility of the Florentine soul.

Florence, Bib. N. Cent., MSS Magliabechi, ix 66 [MS. of G. Cinelli: Toscana Letterata (1670s and after)] Florence, Bib. N. Cent., MSS Magliabechi [extensive col. MSS of F. L. del Migliore, incl. Gabella dei contratti, xxvi 147 (1697)]...


Peter Stansky

(b Walthamstow [now in London], March 24, 1834; d London, Oct 3, 1896).

English designer, writer and activist. His importance as both a designer and propagandist for the arts cannot easily be overestimated, and his influence has continued to be felt throughout the 20th century. He was a committed Socialist whose aim was that, as in the Middle Ages, art should be for the people and by the people, a view expressed in several of his writings. After abandoning his training as an architect, he studied painting among members of the Pre-Raphaelites. In 1861 he founded his own firm, Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co. (from 1875 Morris & Co.), which produced stained glass, furniture, wallpaper and fabrics (see §3 below). Morris’s interests constantly led him into new activities such as his last enterprise, the Kelmscott Press (see §5 below). In 1950 his home at Walthamstow became the William Morris Gallery. The William Morris Society was founded in 1956, and it publishes a biannual journal and quarterly newsletter....


Judith K. Golden

French illuminated manuscript (London, BL, Add. MS. 10546) made in Tours in the 9th century. After being appointed abbot of St Martin’s abbey in Tours in ad 796, Alcuin undertook the writing of a new edition of the Bible, beginning a tradition of large-format, single volume Bibles produced at Tours (see Tours §2, (i)). Among the earliest of the illuminated Bibles, the Moutier-Grandval Bible likely was produced during the abbacy of Adalhard (834–43) and is named for the abbey in the Jura that had possession of the Bible in the 9th century. Like the other Tours Bibles, it is a single volume, comprising 449 folios, with the text in two columns of 50–52 lines, on folios measuring 510×375mm, requiring over 200 sheepskins with 24 scribes writing in 3 different styles.

Written in Latin, Moutier-Grandval has four full-page miniatures with tituli: the Genesis frontispiece illustrating eight events from the life of Adam and Eve from the creation of Adam, to life after the Fall (fol. 5...


[Kristoffel; Stoffel]

(b Zurich, Feb 1558; d Winterthur, March 27, 1614).

Swiss glass painter, woodcut designer, etcher, book illustrator and writer. He was the son and pupil of the glass painter and councillor Jos Murer (1530–80), founder of a family of artists who lived in Zurich in the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1577 he collaborated with his father on a cycle of 13 pairs of panes representing Thirteen Historic Scenes of the Swiss Confederation for the Zisterzienkloster of Wettingen, Aargau. Christoph’s monograms (sm, stm) are on three panes. He probably followed this work with study travels. In 1579 he designed a cycle of panes in Basle for the well-known citizen Leonhard Thurneysser (1531–96), celebrating the adventurous life of this much-travelled goldsmith, alchemist, astrologer and personal physician to the Elector of Brandenburg. Of the original cycle, two paintings, including the Birth of Leonhard Thurneysser of Basle in 1531 (1579; Basle, Öff. Kstsamml.), and two design sketches (?...


Barbara Lange

(b Oberfiesbach, Oberbayern, Jan 6, 1801; d Munich, Jan 20, 1866).

German art historian and bookseller. Through his marriage to Johanna Ehrenreich, a widow from Munich, he became a dealer in secondhand books and joint owner of her business. In 1829 he graduated as a doctor of philosophy from the Universität Erlangen. He began to write regular articles on art for the Bayerische Nationalzeitung. The material he collected while researching in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek in Munich and which he obtained from the books in his shop formed the basis of his Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexikon (1835–52). From 1857 to 1878 he published the five-volume Die Monogrammisten und diejenigen bekannten und unbekannten Künstler aller Schulen …, which he envisaged as a supplement to his dictionary of artists. By modern standards Die Monogrammisten appears to be partly speculative, especially in the way in which the monograms are deciphered. However, it represents an initial attempt to approach art in a modern systematic way. It was prompted by the recent opening of collections to the public and the growing interest in art history in the academic world. Alongside his work on the dictionary and his business as a bookseller, Nagler lectured twice a week from ...


Jeffrey Chipps Smith

(b ?Nuremberg, 1497; d ?Nuremberg, 1563).

German writer, calligrapher and mathematician. He was renowned as a strict teacher of arithmetic and geometry. His calligraphic talents were recognized early. Albrecht Dürer, who lived on the same street until 1509, probably used his designs for the scripts in his woodcuts of the Map of the Eastern Hemisphere (1515) and of the portrait of Ulrich Varnbüler (1522), his painting of the Four Apostles (1526; Munich, Alte Pin.) and possibly in the woodcuts of the Triumphal Arch of Emperor Maximilian I (1515) and those illustrating his Etliche Underricht, zu Befestigung der Stett, Schloss und Flecken (Nuremberg, 1527). In 1519 Neudörfer published his Fundament … seinen Schulern zu einer Unterweysung gemacht (Nuremberg), the first writing manual printed in Germany, and in 1538 he completed his finest treatise, Eine gute Ordnung, a catalogue of styles of script, ways of holding a pen and the correct manner of forming letters. He published two other treatises on writing in Nuremberg in ...


Howard Caygill

(b Berlin, March 18, 1733; d Berlin, Jan 8, 1811).

German writer and publisher. As an apprentice bookseller in Frankfurt an der Oder in the late 1740s, he attended Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s lectures on aesthetics. His first and only important critical work, Briefe über den jetzigen Zustand der schönen Wissenschaften in Deutschland (Berlin, 1755), earned him the friendship of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and Moses Mendelssohn for its irenic posture in the controversy over aesthetics between Joachim Christoph Gottsched and the Zurich School. However, Nicolai is significant less for his own writings than for publishing some of the most influential critical journals of the German Enlightenment. The Bibliothek der schönen Wissenschaften und freien Künste (1757–62), Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffdend (1759–65) and Allgemeine deutsche Bibliothek (1765–1806) printed the aesthetic and critical writings of Lessing and Mendelssohn, among other leading philosophers and critics. Nicolai’s own chief contributions to art history are his pioneering texts on art and artists in Berlin. The ...


David Rodgers

(b Cambridge, 1580s; d London, 1650).

English calligrapher and miniature painter. He lost his father, Robert Norgate (d 1587), Master of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, when he was young; but his early promise as an artist persuaded his stepfather, Nicholas Felton (1556–1626), Bishop of Ely, to allow him to train in London, and there is evidence to suggest that he was acquainted with the studio of Nicholas Hilliard. In 1611 Norgate was granted the post of royal organ tuner; there is no record of his musical experience, but this post was probably not a sinecure, for he was an ingenious man, whose skill in a variety of arts is recorded by Robert Herrick (1591–1674) in his poem Hesperides (1648). In the following year Norgate was sent to the French court in Paris with letters from James I that were probably in Norgate’s own hand, for he already had a reputation as a limner and calligrapher....


Clare Robertson

(b Rome, Dec 11, 1529; d Rome, May 18, 1600).

Italian antiquarian and collector. He was an illegitimate son of the Orsini family. He devoted himself early to the study of manuscripts under the guidance of Gentile Delfini, Cardinal Ranuccio Farnese’s Vicario at S Giovanni in Laterano, Rome. In 1554 he became a canon of the same church, and on Delfini’s death in 1559 entered Farnese service, in which he remained for the rest of his career.

Orsini was secretary and librarian to Ranuccio Farnese until the latter’s death in 1565. He was then ‘inherited’ by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (see Farnese family §(3)) as librarian and as keeper of the antiques and works of art in the Palazzo Farnese. Orsini fulfilled his duties with care, acquiring many new works for the Farnese collection and advising his patron on the choice of artists for several commissions. He also composed inscriptions for the Cardinal’s frescoes and devised iconographic programmes, including that for the Sala d’Ercole in the Villa Farnese at Caprarola....


Olimpia Theodoli

[Leone Marsicano; Leone Ostiense; Leone di Montecassino]

(b ?1046; d ?1115).

Italian illuminator and chronicler. Born into the noble family of de’ Marsi, he joined the abbey of Montecassino (see Montecassino, §2, (i)) at the age of 14 and gained the trust and protection of the abbot Desiderius (later Pope Victor III). Montecassino excelled under Desiderius, who promoted artistic, religious and political splendour. Leo is one of the earliest recorded illuminators in Italy as well as one of the most accomplished. Among his works is the Lives of SS Benedict, Maurus, and Scholastica (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. Vat. lat. 1202); its opening page shows Desiderius donating buildings and books to St Benedict. A book of Homilies (Montecassino Abbey, Lib., MS. 99), signed and dated 1072, shows Leo kneeling in front of St Benedict with the abbots Giovanni (914–43) and Desiderius standing on the bishop’s right. Abbot Oderisius (1087–1105) commissioned him to write the life of Desiderius, which was enlarged into the ...


Enrique Valdivièso

(b Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Cádiz, 1564; d Seville, 1644).

Spanish painter and writer. He is not considered to be a great painter, but he is remembered for his theoretical work Arte de la pintura. The book is the most important contribution to Spanish artistic theory in the 17th century.

From his earliest years he lived in Seville in the care of his uncle, also Francisco Pacheco, who was a canon of Seville Cathedral. Having served his apprenticeship with Luis Fernández (fl 1542–81) around 1580, by 1585 Pacheco was already working as a master painter and was becoming known for his interest in humanist studies, especially literature, and poetry in particular. From his youth he was familiar with the clerics and the intelligentsia of Seville, and it was through these connections that he received commissions for paintings. As a result of his intimacy with the clergy he enthusiastically defended iconographic orthodoxy, and this led to a strict and unvarying formula for his compositions and a certain coldness of expression. His visit to Castile in ...


Elizabeth Sears

(b Vienna, Sept 7, 1902; d Vienna, April 17, 1988).

Austrian art historian, active also in England. Pächt’s methodological trajectory was set by training he received in Vienna in the early 1920s, where he studied with Max Dvořák and Julius von Schlosser. In 1933 he completed his Habilitationsschrift at Heidelberg, but Nazi racial laws prevented him from taking up a position as Privatdozent, and he was soon compelled to emigrate from Nazi-occupied Europe. Pächt spent his middle years, 1938 to 1963, in England. Choosing, unusually, to repatriate, he left a position as Reader in Art History at Oxford University and, from 1963 to 1972, occupied the chair at the University of Vienna that had been occupied by his own teachers. Devoted students in Vienna published many of Pächt’s university lectures, thus preserving his mature reflections on topics that had long engaged his interest, including medieval manuscript illumination and early Netherlandish painting, as well as art historical method..

Pächt, a member of the ‘New Vienna School’ of art historians, belonged to a generation intent on bringing critical rigour to disciplinary practice. With his colleague ...


Suzanne Lewis

(b c. 1200; d 1259).

English chronicler and manuscript illuminator. In 1217 he became a Benedictine monk at St Albans and in 1236 succeeded Roger of Wendover as the abbey’s chronicler. Although his surname, which he usually wrote Parisiensis, could suggest French origins, he was most probably an Englishman characteristically trained in both Latin and Anglo-Norman. References in his works to the University of Paris, however, raise the possibility that he had studied at one of the schools in Paris. Paris maintained a wide range of contacts with the outside world through the steady flow of documents to St Albans and through the abbey’s many visitors, including Henry III and his brother, Richard of Cornwall. He attended many important royal celebrations at Westminster, Canterbury, Winchester, and York, and in 1248 he was sent to Norway to reform the monastery of St Benet Holm.

According to the monk and historian Thomas Walsingham (d ?1422), Paris was celebrated as ‘a magnificent historian and chronicler’ and ‘an artist since unequalled in the Latin world’ (...